Episode: Show 60 - The Celtic Holocaust


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Show 60 - The Celtic Holocaust
Julius Caesar is our travel guide as he takes us through his murderous subjugation of the native Celtic tribal peoples of ancient Gaul. It sounds vaguely like other, recent European colonial conquests...until the natives nearly win.

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Automated Transcript (Why is this transcription so bad?)
whoa shh shh shh hard-working stylish if i asked you to give piece of paper and something bright with and to make any numerical list of all the things which you would be willing to die for how long are you sure list what's on it and this is kevin exercising you run into the strings elsewhere i'm sure so the clarify your life and priorities exercises another long i've heard is go richer on obituary now the need to see how that might to get a sense of all jesus would like to be something in here so far i am from that now on to help you figure out how you doin' so what would you be willing to die for question is a priority question help shoo shoo in to figure out what the most important things to me and if you think about the list like that i mean i think we probably all how pretty similar things at least to the top of that was would lead me would loved ones beyond that was right near the top i would be willing to die for my wife and children are barons you have to believe that the common in any error in history an likely something on that list near the top of the possessions of one kind or another land comes to mind right off the top of my head that is farms been a mushroom infantry generation would give my life for it the number of conflicts and the word land ownership based since time immemorial is on accountable is not pretty common on the count of possession you might think it is like money how long down on your list though does ago before you get to things your little harder to get your hands on tangibly i mean we're something like freedom on your list and it's funny because you go and look at all for human history there are slogans like new hampshire state motto which is live free or die you do when you look at like revolutionary france and in all these other movements throughout history and some form of give me liberty or give me death live free or die is on the list when people willing to give their own lives based on the idea that a ban on free life isn't worth living so willing to die for concept of the concept it means everything we talk about you didn't get life and we should point out that freedom is always meant different things to different people and as many different things in different areas the two big definitions running to use the obvious won freedom is my right to partial control autonomy in sovereignty the other one that was a political sword of freedom that says as long as no outside people or power or state or entities controlling my people then we're free when we live in a dictatorship and it's our dictatorship but the fun two of three bindles freedom from outside control the only change the 'em parameters earlier question here for a minute what if instead of giving your own life and in what you would be willing to die for new list is well we should be willing to lose everything for from everything i certainly me your life that's a given but the lives of all your loved ones will or another either through our brain death or having sold into life of slavery little kid sold in july for slavery and all your possessions taken in all your stuff stolen a new community devastating your culture mortally wounded that's pretty much everything isn't it what's worth that some of the greatest human tragedies both on a personal and i'm a society wide level throughout history i have happened when some of the things on the list that should be willing to die for come the cost of preserving the other things on your list to be willing to die for nice use all the time in twenty sentry look at how many people in order to protect their societies freedom some girlish old enough to die in war so this is part of the human condition but english you've lived through near genocidal conditions most of us haven't had to deal with the kind of threat that people to rock history have had to deal with to everything the general colin new hampshire state motto live free or die those revolutionary war general for example he wrote that phrase decades after the war and in total freedom and safety now i've no doubt he would be willing to give his life in the service of all was a brand new country during the revolutionary war but he could also take some comfort nehemiah dia he wasn't going to have to give much more than that i mean the british we're not going to come into the country and after they hanged him up execute juice teenage sons and rape is wife and his children and send them off to slavery bring down his house destroy his town and stamp on his church they want to do that that's a different kind of risky steadfast genocide and people still do with that even as i'm speaking right now some warn the world now obviously genocides coming many different shades in collars and variations in circumstances mean take the jews and gypsies in the second world war during the holocaust that's an example where the people were being victimized had absolutely no choice in no options no one said to them either do this or more to kill you all the choice was never offered sometimes lowell it's twist a. is you do this choice b. is we committed genocide during your genocide or an absolute crime against humanity by modern day standards against you i mean for most of human history that's the choice that studies have one enemy armies job outside their walls surrender before the siege weapons start being used can you can maybe go free maybe carry some of your first book possessions with you maybe not but the deal is good as soon as the siege starts most of these cases they could do whatever they want to sometimes they might still have to go sometimes they might have a negotiation three weeks from now on sale could be washed up an owl make a deal but oftentimes the deal was implicit in history has been we says that this is a business standard understanding ron most of creegan our history even into gunpowder their history that if you'll surrender when called upon in the city goes under siege but you could have an absolute genocide at least on the citywide level afterwards and everyone wander standard that's just how it goes they were doing that to civilization old equals much by the eighteenth century which of course that the british were considered the column issue five minutes ago within the subjects of the same thing as the british but when you were dealing for example with savages were barbarians those are obviously slower turns all bets were off in the history the laws of war the sitter and for that latin term balmoral mom which basically means war the way the romans did it are all wore the legal definition i got from one place said about omar oman is all out war without restraint as the romans practice to begin screech they trusted you to be barbarians let's understand it the british crown in seventeen seventy five we're dealing with native americans my been a very different situation all the sudden you can treat them the way of rome treated barbarians oftentimes what we would call today genocide bought often times with choices unlike the jews and gypsies in the secular wars holocaust oftentimes the choice was so render any except subjugate shun without rebellion and live or to any of those other things nancy everyone either killed or sold into slavery passes for studying your culture destroyed and maybe your culture itself taken apart piece by piece there's something very strange maybe about me but i see you sir no romance do men sort of romance the same so thing you see with the native american sometimes we watch the story that is a calamity in good times the behavior of the human beings in it make it your world on your cheek and in touch something deep in your soul those were willing to say yes we know the churchill wall boss or destroy our civilization if we don't subjugate ourselves to you we're going to take the chance here and try to live free or die nah not the only one that sees the obvious entertainment value or the compelling nature of the extreme situation the choice like that helpless human beings into because it's a hollywood cliche isn't it the storytelling troop they would certainly be in academic circles recurring theme in many would be very easy to tell the story and turned into braveheart we will try very hard not to do that but it's an old theme in it's easy to become so if he nor into it to overtime so the gnome the other problem is the situations that we're talking about the reality of them is actually so intense and so extreme that any portrayal of discussion of them can help but somehow minimize your trivialize were high that in a different way for entertainment value to people were actually going through our strutting to myself imagine if that list that we've mentioned a minute ago the genocide less imaginable in one of those things is going to happen to me in my cushy life here where i'm in no danger say having my culture wiped out to even imagine what that would mean big blue jeans illegal no more i phones and the star destroying the christian religion i mean i'm not quite sure in the modern sense in the united states riley of how about you and i think you can you determine to rot maybe in some weird emotionally voyeuristic why that's what makes a kind of intriguing as always said you watch people deal with something you can imagine dealing with yourself the story that i would like to use to highlight that has a very familiar ring because reaching this movie historically speaking before over over again broadly speaking it's the story of a european power using its technological and civilization with damages we dominate take over and colonized the land of a tribal people less sophisticated politically speaking tribal people and to destroy a broad elements of their culture is part of doing so obviously lost five hundred or so years we've seen this movie play out in the americas a european colonization in conquest we saw a play on africa to the same thing the difference here is that the people the tribal people on the receiving end of european conquest and colonization are themselves european and this didn't happen a couple hundred years ago septa more than two thousand years ago the reason i want to talk about the story supposed inured theaters with similar themes just because this is one of the times were you look at the odds when you serve as a halfway decent chance here all the people on the receiving end of the european colonization to fight back and we end the native americans for example never had a chance never chance ever if for no other reason and there's a lot of other ones just the disease along if you're about to have it a hemispheric civilization old conflict you know between the new world in the old world we don't wanna lose maybe in the ice on estimate that said ninety eight percent i think that's got to be high but let's just say eighty five percent of the entire population of the hemisphere to disease right off the bat there are bludgeoned expert juve and trying to explain what the situation must've been like in these tribes in the center of the americas yoda were still untouched by european contact the disease is managed to find them and we're just like shell shocked traumatized remnants by the time europeans got to the interior the americans does the strives to basically been wiped out by disease like an adjective and imagine the bubonic plague in your robot wars from the middle ages i've seen numbers that say that in me and say eighteen hundred there are estimating what the a tribal population of north america was now not to north america that constituted the united states in that area back then because i was just a sliver compared to today but but the native population throughout your from the pacific to the atlantic in what's now the united states some estimates are as low six hundred thousand people that's a free and fair fight right there isn't it not just that as we all know that's not six hundred thousand people all small stuttgart estate like next to the thirteen colonies when onstage to come to stay friends are like the u. s. has to deal with six hundred thousand natives next door there spread out in small groups in the width and breadth of the territory able to be picked off divided in conquered one by one overtime which is what happened i mean is still blows my mind to realize inhouse small the number of native american warriors there are fighting against the encroachments of manifest destiny at any time and now will the deed based on how small it were me do you know if you get fifteen hundred north american native american warriors in one place a one-time that's a sizable force the highest estimates i've ever seen in trouble largess native american force of warriors ever assembled is between four and five thousand people the little big horn what people think that the biggest battle with the large numbers are version of just under five thousand five thousand when the spanish think he's two doors down the aztec empire the aztecs could raise tens of thousands maybe hundreds of thousands of warriors now obviously the there are different state organizational system which plays into the story the same time it's also first contact basically in the disease had not had time to take hold and fast-forward couple hundred years ago was and you go from hundreds of thousands of warriors maybe to fifteen hundred being a sizable force and look how long it took us to deal with that and to be fair it wasn't like united states have a hundred thousand people against fifteen hundred meters the forces of the european how worst fighting in the new world very small also in fifteen hundred the u. s. forces fighting his native american tribes half of which might be local militia that was not uncommon either even in the wars like the american revolution the numbers are smaller than you would think me began twenty five thousand would be upon in the american revolution so you wonder how the west or before the british and french explorers would've figured if they were exploring the interior salem north america and they came upon samba the bullet had not been impacted by the disease any one of the aztec empire instead of being in the middle of mexico was on the opposite side of the mississippi to be running to buy the europeans at some point or better yet let's make it an interesting combat let's put ancient gall on the western side of the mississippi you look all is right dollars what the romans called only worry about the size of texas in the ancient world the comprised almost at northwestern europe modern de france lot of belgium was trish trip to germany some of switzerland in turn on board this period on northern italy even estimates of the ancient population range from three to seven million people the kind of armies that they can put in the field alicia said i'd imagine they're pretty close to the kind of numbers that the aztecs probably could put the field an army of forty or fifty thousand all it peoples five or ten thousand of which might be mounted was not unusual imagine that imagine those armies better use to brushing aside fifteen hundred natives may be a really bad day twenty five hundred meters having to cheer with for your fifty thousand of them instead now i have no doubt given the technological damages and more poor portly beat the state organization and damages a place like the early united states war before the british and french i've no doubt that they would conquer this i heard a version called some point but i wonder if they could congress quickly you see sir did and the real thing that two thousand years before and if they couldn't or as essay or rather then attributed to annie failings your shortcomings of the european or american forces in north america maybe it's just how incredibly awesome julius caesar was but awesome doesn't mean good and up until relatively recently what he did in gaul was celebrated in fact going back a hundred two hundred years in the air or where the great powers especially the great powers of europe are celebrating the idea of doing exactly what julius caesar in the romans were doing to the tribal peoples north of them in their welfare rap they tended to see caesar as the good guy mr brill wanna talk about today he's narrated by julius caesar it's a little like hearing the star wars saga has told by darth vader and it is designed have the audience cheer wendy plucky little more public sir crushed and a hundred years ago what people did the beginning to my recent translation of caesar's war commentaries from his commanding gall carolyn hammond translation feels the need at the beginning of the work to explain why yet another translation of seizures account of his when one purpose ridge school dvds who called it a celtic holocaust why a new translation is needed and hammond point out because the views of the audience are different than they used to be she writes quote a new translation of the gaul the court does call for some explanation not least because a number of versions are already available yet each generation needs its own translation of amy classic taxed the cultural mores of the translator sometime are bound to leave their mark besides the subject matter of de gaulle lake war is potentially distasteful even immoral for the modern reader the drive to increase territorial holdings by civilian as well as military casualties in the predominance of economic motives for organized aggression all these belong to an accepted norm of international activity in the ancient world enhanced need careful introduction explanation as well as of today translation end quote of course which he's basically saying is that once upon a time this was written for an audience was expected to chew your was going on nowadays with a cuttings were differently in can help but notice that in the process of achieving these glorious and almost impossible military victories julius caesar is killing reportedly a million of the inhabitants of gaul translating another million as celtic expert archaeologist barry conlon says if you take the low numbers of the entire population of gaul that means caesar killed a third of the population enslaved another third is that genocide in the americas the disease did most of the damage in terms of the overall death rate in gaul in the fifties b. c. caesar did even as i say that i can hear sullivan the back of my head the screening objections of the ancient roman lawyers from the grave the way that i'm framing this whole thing up comparing roman efforts against the celtic people's north of them to the holocaust in the second world war would be an insult to roman on er although there were some who complained about the kato i think nonetheless they would say that to suggest they're doing what caesar indeed to de gaulle says the same as what happened to the jews and gypsies and jehovah's witnesses and they gave token all the other people persecuted in the holocaust roman catholic priests polish jokes those are like lambs innocent lead to the slaughter but caesar did he did to people that were like elias dangerous lions line is they did attack before i might do so again if you were forced as a state or people or what have you to commit genocide in order to protect yourself the sword again on jail free card in any sort of genocidal court situation earning audience in a judgment call would you say wallace onion alma had to do what anybody would commit at the same time of course caesar was suggesting a mortar to that and then it was that they needed a preemptive work as these lines can attack at any time so he gets murky quickly but there's no denying that he's celtic people's all over europe were dangerous they are vikings a thousand years before there are vikings and i don't mean in the in the higher rates like sense i mean the european barbarian stereotypes and so and the vikings are like version three point four something because that the celts are the alpha version of the european northern european barbarian type the exhibit all the typical traits they get crazy in battle supposedly in a fight with enormous amount of like ferocity the geographer stray boasted that they are warm and the ancient sources also point out that the celts or headhunters which is always a little bit unnerving ancient peoples are always more comfortable we had shopping and we are in the modern world but in the more settled societies which was donny was sort of yet it was the beginning joy at the dean revel in it they didn't take pride in it it was as something you showed off to visitors but in the celtic world according to the ancient sources that were not celtic this was something that was done on the pulse of l. u. says he's visiting celtic homes in the water bring out the heads of slain enemies in that they've kept in a chest you know soaked in cedar oil so everything's to use my son christina mucus to recognize the features and they have found by the way the archaeology at or has shown that there are these for example pillars of think they find with little copy holes with skulls still in some of them by the way in little hangers to to affix the skill to the back of these things i mean this may be your religious thing but to the somali people kind hands off people keeping them in an adoring your temples and whatnot with heads and that's just freaky and was even then by the way possible uses you get used to it after while but never quite got comfortable with people treating human heads the way some people treat yet the antlers of that dear they shot last fall put up on the wall mounted with a name tag a journey to talk to us sometimes always give the great story about you kill this dude i should also point out the beside the religious significance of the heads caesar says that the the galls believed in it he really loved reincarnation sort of maybe the colony was somewhat to what the major philosophical gripping greece always go believe that the goals credibly that when you die in this world you just born into the other one that we need the idea that one you just born back into this one i think at stuttgart directly caesar's is that this is part of a reason why they're so fearless in battle because they're being worried about having your existence not god you just you know in oblivion it is to be born in the next world just to avoid confusion by the way because it can be very confusing the turner's gaul and helped i used by the ancient sources in the way we're it's impossible not to get everything confused archaeologist john call us as a whole rundown of the various ways you can interpret this the most common way is where we're gonna do it we're going to assume that we seek help lean mean celtic people across the width and breadth of the areas that have celtic language and culture if we say galls we specifically mean the calgene no ancient all modern day francis such receptor they are like all these north western european barbarian types white they are strong they are hauled especially to all the people training in the mediterranean they always look told him i'd only been like six feet if we could go back in a time machine it but that's five or six inches taller than your average mediterranean type it still like fighting giants in battle isn't it and that's what may fighting these celtic people's you're scary to it's not just their enormous numbers according to the ancient authors but listen if you're in the twenty first century army and i tell you was recovered about rough on another twenty first century army in all by the way everyone in the army six inches taller than all of us you might teach yourself dang that this isn't so good at what the senate that at the same time you know we realized seven foot tall people or whatever they are going down from bullets and shell fire bombs just like short people to know so it's not that big a deal the ancient world when you say you get a foreign army people is on the average five inches taller and proportionately strong that all the rest of us when you doing that in hand and sense he can make a huge difference to tell the people were scary then i'd scare rome before and all the modern historians point out that this was somehow he scar that ran through the romans psyche so that even after the celts really warn that dangers to the romans anymore he still felt the memory of lion attacks a long time ago and never quite got over them enough you look a roman history there are couple famous states one of them is portend a director famous fall of rome to the germanic barbarians what people like to make that the exclamation point to the end of the western roman empire always debatable of course but the region in such a big deal is basically rome would be only huge winning streak to joe dimaggio hitting streak of the ancient bronze in the sense that rome hadn't been sacked by foreign conquering almost a thousand years right supreme big deal the ancient world oblast handle that they were sacked it was the scalp the people that did it the romans never forgot it was a famous phrase that sort of sums up the whole period and i'm always want you to change and author writing when the roman empire was ran to get everybody's but didn't have a sly reason for putting it in their pointing out that the details can say that back then we can live by those same rules the line was five victims or why we yes the translation usually use use woe to the vanquished because that's what happened to the romans famously as a day for rubber raft remembered as an inauspicious danny in rome july eighteenth the first celtic army that the romans had ever encountered supposedly in their history bordello on the city itself and we're coming at speed to rome completely are prepared to meet them you're a bunch of different engine historian to earn an account of what happened here i live the use of course the most famous most romantic and goes into the most detail about this interesting battle where i love ancient battles in the new try to recreate what happened it's kind of impossible and the people do their best but the physics of the whole thing i'm just not understood and and ideas and concepts go in and out of fashion as to what really happened but there are elements a clone humanity on an individual level things like the year or an intimidation and very hard to quantify sides of of human beings good crop harder when you take those things collectively right what is the year do we magnify it in the whole group of people suppose one individual this is the party human history didn't make history hard to turning to any kind of hard scientists have you quantify things like that and you stayed there were one side in the battle was more scared than another sign the battle and that's what made the difference or the one side was tougher and that's what made the difference 'cause clearly the ancient writers and let's be honest historians writing even on fifty a hundred years ago had no prob saying this but when you need evidence to prove it there are certain parts of humanity infused into history teacher just can't quantify i mean the most logical way if you want for although sources anyway especially live the to view this battle that's about to happen when the romans and the celtic army's first clash supposedly is to say that the romans were terrified and that twenty three hundred flush years later it actually seeps through the looking imagined that the duke and walk up to one of 'em that there's a listeners offering an issue or you'll be out of the record and people thousands of u. chanel are scary jew or of the city lean people coming down from the north alien sea key word to use you that that that these are obviously big people but the entire look and feel of them as an alien quality to just he's scary and understand barbarians are always scary to settle societies that is scary sometimes a little sexy you see styles the catch on with in rome mostar wearing those tight german hands of the barbarians where mean this is a certain element of the mix a little clint eastwood the times on the guiana to think it is a barbarian scale one to ten one being most barbaric ten being one step away from being a roman with a mustache in all calm and so dependent were you our the really cool barbarians walk around roman leather jackets you know that they're more like a nine or ten on the scale of the gig drawn to get hurt somebody but otherwise do pretty well behaved you take one or two and put 'em in and there can be likeable want a china shop and that in three ninety or three eighty seven we see is what the romans face in on the opposite side of the battlefield them by the time they get their according to levy the battlefields are swarming with these people say you're even have time to get your lines all straightened her reading all figured out opulent brace yourselves you are essentially having an encounter bout with the with the celtic army heading down toward rome at about eleven miles away from the city in all fairness this is not the roman empire reason that the romans of the julius caesar error that we normally think of those terrible bad asses that are absolutely frightful disease any militia army and at this battle it's also about half of it is just the citizens of citizens who live raising sea of your militia former should do or you're fighting for you anyway during m. townsfolk and other people but it's an emergency and it happened so quickly that was no time to be raised as army hastily rome it is time is merely a city immediately probably the predominant city but they just huh long conflict with an arch enemy etruscan see the aisle that they had just recently defeated and was only like in a ten miles from the city of rome suited to the small scale they're operating on in this era but this really roman army of a militia and so the citizen contingent as well meet this army of a huge talk extremely scary barbarians we're told it takes a little time before they are fleeing in abject terror levy seems to say pretty openly that he thinks the commander the romans at this battle was incompetent he makes the celtic commander out to be pretty darn good no one knows only people died but this bottle will be called the bottle delia or the battle of the earlier river i know what goes on a feeble fought there either under all kinds of different estimates the law wounds are probably right though because in this time period i know it's hard to imagine is but rome is it true city state probably only controls him maybe thirty miles around the city so we're in that area means of this is really small scale very early version of rome it probably didn't have to be soldiers to defend them the problem is regardless of how many of those soldiers there were he warned there anymore after that battle which means rome is totally on defended a panic sets in the city were told people streamed out of it and the religious artifacts are evacuated in these terrible choices we're told are made in this remind you of the list of which you would be prepared to die for we're told by a residence in the city where the fighting man you're going to be separated from the useless mouse including women and young people of all people you know to be one to defend the center citadel of the city and it says it's the story of the impending doom my favorite piece livia maybe in its entirety though is what happens when the calls the celtic people the army the first army that the romans supposedly had encountered of these aliens or other shows up outside the gates of rome and there were open the city seems both deserted and simply left on locked and guarded and leave the paints a picture on the scene in this like something out of the twilight zone you have these maybe superstitious navy is like this and it often portrayed very similarly to how you see now the native americans are african tribesmen somehow extremely superstitions and both savage and speedy action unpredictable and childlike and it's easy interesting stereotypes but here's the story that leave the painted it involves the great old man of rome from another time the ancient ones were still around with with long beards is he says after the fashion of the day they're neither useless malo those nor able to fight in the citadel so they decide levy says that they're going to set an example by simply sacrificing the lives in the hopes that somehow maybe helps things with the gods or whatnot he says the these generals from the past two celebrated triumphs along time ago and the senators and august people who were now the elders in society pour on their most elaborate to decorate the robes of higher office went to their homes in the posh section of rome and sat in their shares of high office their ivory cheers and waited like silent statues for death to find them usually the describes the celts coming into the city of rome it's like a ghost town with the gates open and we don't know what to do in a freak out a little bit an incident happens it's wild the touches off the forest fire of gaul we can pay chuan city despite away up from the aubry disown court translation usually the writes quote a night having passed without action the goal spell mayor lost for fighting much abated at no time that they met with any serious resistance there was no need now to take the city by assault when therefore they entered on the following day it was cool even calmly enough colleen gate was open and they made their way to the forum looking with curiosity of the temples in at the citadel the only place to give an impression of the city war they left a reasonably strong guardian case of attack from the fortified heights and then dispersed in search of wonder are finding the streets empty crowds of them broke into the first houses they came to others went farther afield presuming supposedly the building is more remote from the form would offer richer prizes but they're the very silence in solitude made the money easy separated as they were from their companions and suggested the possibility of a trap so they soon returned keeping close together to the neighborhood of the forum to a tomahawk more houses locked and barred but the mansions of the nobility open the former they were ready to break into this long time before they could bring themselves to enter the latter something akin to all album back at what mr gates those figures seated in the open courtyards the robes and decorations august beyond reckoning the majesty expressed in those grave calm on eyes like the majesty of gods they might've been statues in some holy place that for a while the garlic warrior stood entranced then on an impulse lot of them touch the beard of a certain markets but curious it was long as was the fashion of those days the romans struck him on my head with his ivory staff that was the beginning the barbieri inflamed and angering killed him than the others were butchered were they sacked from that moment no mercy was shown houses were ransacked the empty shells set on fire and equal whether or not that happened that's a pretty cool an interesting seen any romantic in super roman patriot likely be probably saw that way too nonetheless who knows what sources he was working from has the story goes on basically the galls sakura home set fire to a bunch of and start to see each 'cause they can't take the fortified citadel in the middle the two sources differ on what happens next book but that the famous story is that the siege develops that both sides now policy job they come to an agreement a thousand pounds of gold ready to roll and i thousand pounds of gold the goals will leave and then as they're weighing the gold out one of the romans famously complains that the way to the doctor with anna galls or falsifying the weeks to their advantage and the king of this tribe walks up to the scale takes his big any sort of roses on the gaul side of the scale and says woe to the vanquished meaning what he did do it the weights are loaded our favor lost pay up the r's reading a fantastic book on early rome call warned society really rome by jeremy armstrong when he yeltsin idea that lollapalooza floated to the idea that basically to this conquering and sacking of the city of rome you a thousand years almost before the next time that they will do it that will create the role we all know was that line from the batman series for the joker sistine you made me it's the same thing he said with this wall to the vanquish line that when the trojan right it's almost like the romans hundreds of years later sing and you set the rules so we planned by the more the vanquish this isn't genocide what we're doing in celtic land with julius caesar conquers all these tribes this is lying by the rules that you set up when you first conquered i see you made me in our strong points out that the actual sacking overall may not have been too terrible because the archaeological evidence doesn't seem to support psalm in a terrible carthage any in solution type burning to the ground during the thing but for the romans that probably wasn't the problem it was probably a lot more what a lot of the writers write about the romans quite a bit point out that they have this inability to accept defeat and humiliation and we're as most people probably would write something often move along with their lives the romans festering focus on things and remember old slights and wounds and the psychological scenes for that if not planted may have been heavily watered as result of roman experience after losing to supposedly this first celtic army they ever fought the battle of the leah and then seniors to be sacked by them by the way i should point out because i think it's cool that the old idea that this is a tribe of celtic people that have shown up to sack rome is challenged by a lot of historians and there's no people on both sides to suggest that the evidence shows that this may have been a group of high your mercenaries instead it'd been hired by the ruler or on the modern day island of sicily to fight with him and at rome was just on the way what the heck also had to pick up a couple extra bucks be in on the way in awhile redoing it so this idea that we have here is a tribe maybe we're all ended its kind in board because ms caesar's conquered gaul hundreds of years later to be talking about emma travel over there those are the ones that no such our country three hundred and forty years ago hang on lamas have long memories unfortunately not just for the child but for everyone and it's worth pointing out to two million three ninety win this battle happens to the celtic peoples of europe are very powerful they're all over the place and who they are his agreed question once upon a time that was easy to classify these things in ways that sounded easy to understand it now seemed totally ridiculous they were a race celts were race like anglo saxons were race right and all the you divide the world into the different racial groups and each of the yellow people bodies of a black people and usable wiping out in a hundred years ago you open up a history book and that's how they do it as the complexities mounted and that whole way of looking at things one of fashion fifty years ago four years ago the celts are ethnic group are people that's allegra freaking out there and my co grant you like everyone else so this really most of the time that he's counting people were probably all related by blood those people that sacked rome in three ninety b. c. you are the ancestors of the people in ireland in five hundred years later or today nowadays that's a pretty tough argument to make him the way he'd seen amongst most of the experts i don't mean to speak for them because they're coming discount the steady stuff is fascinating really debatable and the passion with which the experts go added to spawn to watch from the sidelines but i'm jeff to be really careful and thorough water people up there or very passionate about their view of cool at helping used and who is not the celts i love the way barry thomas we mentioned earlier that puts it because he gets me out more control the senate the way he said he said it cal does a person who believes him or herself to be celtic i thought of the t. shirt that we should mark it i'm gonna make a green of course and the senate celtic which our nationality its way of life but the point is the same them aren't you i'm awful lot of the experts on this uninterrupted archaeologist linguist historian in y'all can look at this and differ is that we're looking at here is a culture shared culture and similar language maybe like a blue jeans in a rock and roll and beer drinking i mean it's something that spring and so the pre history to bon je different peoples the foundation of which might have been in place since the last ice age if you think about it and then over time sixteen waves of people in immigration in marion all adds lear's bye to the original but when they do a dna test today it's hard to not find lots of people who've been there since what the dna strings been there for very long time much earlier than the celtic there are in history fact maybe you could look at the entire celtic period ancient history in europe as a fashion iraq rides the error of bell bottoms in europe i mean this is an error where eastern culture dominated if you go three thousand years before it's not there and after caesar it's mortally wounded but truthfully finish caesar is the one you can say mortally wooster celtic culture the romans had been like kryptonite to this culture for a couple hundred years before caesar if you look at a map of where are the celtic culture predominated the time that story happen we just told you the sack of rome in three nine bbc ye where it is after seizure does with seizure does it's some kind of terrible ethnic cleansing in munich the celtic culture stretch all the way from portugal on one side want to say to them to the balkans but truthfully there was a buck tribe rory group of tribes that that when all the way in the modern day turkey they were called the gully shoes in your their famous because a couple hundred years after they settle down and go for main water ricci who on the damn car when tribal scale iraq to nine or ten in saint paul will be writing his famous letter to the deletions they have found celtic culture or remains op as far north as like poland all around the hungarian planes southern germany mater austria all the way into northern italy which is a real celtic country for law and of course all moron de france and whether or not the british isles entirely should fall into this anybody's guess lot of people argue that to member before you send me an angry letter that health is a person who believes him or herself to be celtic right with me get out of jail free card i love the way and she adores though theodore sticky list to scratch the celts and by the way most of these accounts come from the same guy supposedly the eyewitness accounts i'm the person was an expert in many different subject for the great figures of the ancient world whose writings have not come down to was a guy named possible yes but we'll have his exact work we have is whatever he wrote down according to the local wipers everybody else used to weekend he is eyewitness accounts as told to a bunch of other different people for example theodore circulars hooch says all these celtic people's describing an ancient cultures and the national geographic today would certainly be catalogued in orbit time see that to caution he says he's the russian geographic explorer of his day and for all the door circulars we hear of supposedly what posavina saw when he visited celts the doors writes quote the calls are taller body with rippling muscles and whiter skin and their hair is belonged in not only naturally so but they also make it their practice by artificial means to increase the distinguishing color which nature is given it for their always washing their herring lie more than a bullet back from the forehead to the top of the head and back to the neighbor the neck with the result of their appearances like that of saviors and payments to the tree but their hair makes it so heavy in course the diversion no respect from the main of horses some of them shave your beard but others let it grow a little in the noble shaded their cheeks that they let the mustache grow into which covers the mouth and co if you haven't looked at the wonderful art the pertamina hard to conclusions disfigured called the dying call go take a look at it does it's beautiful but it describes sort of maybe a stereotype but maybe not the classic look at these people the warriors anyway is just described by the doors they look like punk rockers first of all with the haircut didn't have to imagine the bleach blonde hair that he just described their does that for one more would dilute bleach does like bleach blonde hair if you've ever had like i have before the bleach blonde hair gets all horse main like after water or sold this figure in the or is sitting there with but one incident sign remembered statue stone ecology have no college but you can see the blood dripping down he's holding his wings and a broken a ticket to broken sword by aside how he's also got a mustache the fabric punk and talent but upon care kept a moustache and the builders interesting because that's the difference between the modern weightlifting muscles today and the life natural muscles but he's muscular but also sort of senior we in the wall on and there was actually on the engine sources say this but at least in the period we're talking about the commodities celtic tribes had rules and they would find warriors if your belly are droop over your belt line so there were course would be in shape supposedly this guy is heroically newt is it's called that's hard to figure out is the romas like portraying barbarians as heroically knew that they sometimes like a train themselves were ugly newt the charred figure out what convention much real ones may have had religious overtones rotten things going on on the last some historical evidence to back up to heroically new concept but there are multiple incidents that talk about celtic warriors especially select groups of celtic warrior stripping off all their clothes and fighting absolutely mute except for gold pork around the neck which is just like a giant our letter retain quitter something i knew she would describe as we get no clothes on a spit upon care can get the mustache it looks about six foot five bachelor boughs of roma soul and you know naked with the talk around his neck i'm sorry visually it's striking in cold and if not naked then you get those wonderful celtic fashions right supposedly the striped clothing to check the clothing we recall today the plaid clothing they are wonderfully colorful interesting cool people add to that the women c. and the celtic within once again we get absolutely shafted by the fact that these celts didn't leave a historical written record that we could get their views on things and then history tapas crap and try to find any little piece that might help us to understand her personality better in their own words as opposed to hearing from people who are often despised and certainly bill little bump but i mean they thought for example in the mediterranean the celtic women were beautiful but i guess you could say maybe the way did you described in today's gratitude for that they were also papa dee and somewhat ferocious a maverick i'd think sometimes in the descriptions reminds me of the old stereotype and it's an old one now the housewife in the pan pac has been in the house which was kind of burly in our role in pain in her hand would smack the husband upside the head sometimes with it bomb come on some of the people out there that are sort of that the people that don't think of the countess of the new each kind of thing under some of you out there that women are equal to men in the societies and very calm look among others said that that thing misperception because there are only more for even women in the mediterranean are for example greek and roman women by comparison so maybe a bit uppity by greek and roman standards but as conduct point out the husband still has the power of life and death overs wife the law in most of these places allows the wife to be tortured to find out how husband died sold night actually equal rights but maybe a bit uppity by mediterranean standards i will say that the engines sources talk about these women as every bit as tall and strong an athletic is the man they talk about society when there's more sexual freedom in these women have more freedom to be what the greeks and romans who considered beeper muskie was certainly there are famous celtic women warriors maybe the most famous ever on the warrior queen blood acuff from the british tribes i remember how these stories may not be true but they're playing to an audience and their stereotypes so if i told you the story about a particular celtic woman and you heard it and you said something like yep that sounds like what these celtic women are like be careful to marry a kilt and there you go rina to stereotype one wonders how much of that is true but that's the image and by the way you think of a fire read the irish redhead today in the stereotypes anymore niagara this is more reno hair right in the quiet man discoverable one arrow an x. ray may be rolling pin and stay out of our way she could probably keep telling you one of my favorite stories about celtic women he is the one about she omar or keo morris probably closer to the right way to pronounce it she was a noble woman on the query to the noble woman of ugly she tried and when her try was conquered by the roman she became a prisoner and here's the way do you doors tells the story of key o'meara and her husband or time gone and i'm will mean the end message is clear right first of all the audience would listen to the single yep that's also the celtic woman made the second one is calm there not to be trifle was obviously the doors rights by the way the c. h. old father translation quote the omar ottawa item for thai aragon was captured along with the other girl asian women when the romans on again is mainly as conquered the asiatic elation that the century in responsible for her took advantage of his old really power and raped her smale was in the rig beast who loved both pleasure and money but any ended his love of money one out with a large ransom having been agreed upon the lead her to was certain river across from page in several people the glaciers crossed over and gave him the money but after they did so tomorrow signal them to strike down a century in the soup is making a friendly farewell one of our countrymen obeyed the car off his head she took the head wrapped it in her cloak and went home when she returned to work has been she threw their head down in his speech or tag on was amazed and said my wife is important to deal honorably yes she said but it is more important than only one man who was slept with me should remain alive and co dang those killed a woman or figures the sack of rome by the celtic people's history hundred more than three hundred years before the time period the stories about to take place in a lot has changed many of the celtic groups in other parts of europe had been pacified might be the way caesar would put it brought under roman control their ability to break out and cause destruction of a nearby communities curtailed because if you look at the history of the celts right after that bottle of the u. we're we're we're all miss act as sort of their debut on historical stage like the way each g. wells but he says that the northern people came down into the light of history for the first time but the celts peter beresford ellis but it does resist account for the first european people nor to the alps to merge into recorded history okay but that emergency comes at the head of armies and those armies broke into various parts of europe and called wide scale problems for centuries in two seventy five the way down there smashed in decreasing cause all kinds of problems the romans report them over and over and over again in various places winning most losing psalm they would be a big battle of the crash celtic power or a whole region called the battle of tele morning to twenty five b. c. and that one the famous accounts into the problem for the celts was that they got trapped between two roman army is coming from different directions the highlight of the battle if you like these sorts of things is the celtic army supposedly if you believe the ancient sources turning back to back to the good things both armies attacking them at the same time ferocious we falling basically it almost wiped out then when hannah bowl and his cart beginnings happen all these great wars for survival in the ancient persia one war two breaks out those of course being the world famous puny quarters of which there were three the celtic peoples for the most part but not exclusively a better anywhere near by side with cannibal a look at it there's a good way to get back at those romans just makes them seem more danger strictures on reliable to the romans after hannah bulls invasion of italy is beaten back you get a hundred years of roman conflict with various celtic peoples they will play the lead role but not necessarily the only one in eliminating goal asian freedom up in asia minor and that here in the balkans also all of the collisions had made a lot of enemies and the romans had plenty of help most famously for more of the king's fighting the elation sure he invited the entire coalition leadership supposedly anyway this is the story and by ticklish leadership to dinner in the massacres them all the reading that's a good way to unlock devastate the commanding control of your enemy is the celtic peoples of northern italy are defeated the nose or by the romans and that area will become so roman so quickly it'll start calling that togo whirring ball the romans will be forced to basically that's how they look at the conqueror a nice chunk of the south of france from the celtic people's there because it controls access road access to spain and they have to get to spain now because after the second unit war there left they are will lot of relief ferocious tribes on several different cultures bother why summer celtic but somewhat some are supposedly a mixed and we get when you cross a kilt with a liberian patel to bury him raquel to be renewed nonetheless the romans ruled in bold toward the year that one might compare chewy chewy hundred your long vietnam war guerrilla fighting it atrocity is wholesale massacres and the disillusionment to some in rome do this on going commitment that they have signed up for that which is draining them about you won fifteen b. c. which is about fifteen years before julia seizures birth some tribes up here from the north seemingly out of nowhere their origins are not understood even today by the war in but the numbers are reportedly how we justly or coach once again we could filter out all of the exaggerations of happened at the time and sense and still come to what we must suspect is a larger than normal number some tips one of the main things it's pointed out continually argument persist on whether or not these people should be called germanic or celtic or a mix of that too because a lot of times where different early european culture is come together just like a cultural history really between them with a mix-up we read talk about cal to bury encircled to be arenas you could have killed two germans killed alterations barry condolences for most people it keeps trying to point out two things about talking about helping people wanted their different all over the place celtic people's existing in what's now in a modern day area around the adriatic are not necessarily going to be very much like the ones we're modern day portugal except to draw o'connor celtic with local variations and also the time is a lapse in this idea the barbarians so called barbarians are stuck in neutral in terms of civilization or political organisation all development is wrong to they're all in different spots on the scale and all evolving and changing a different speeds some of that based on how kosher war two more sophisticated civilizations in this case these people to come down about one fifteen p. c. r. or we sort of portrayed as a one on the damn carmen tribal scale me and the most barbarian of the barbarian types and there's hundreds of thousands of them that if you think about this as a national security from the romans is interesting because even today if you could somehow sneak it's just play with two hundred thousand is round number two hundred thousand hostile people right on the bull run the united states of that when we wake up one morning there they are whether they're in a very short period time that would still be a major crisis today if that's how many people were talking about in this earlier era i'm a highly fed them but she does certainly see how you would have a situation on your hands with the first thing you saw that is when these people come from the second thing you thought of as what we can do about them that they're getting it on that is how to prevent this from happening again if we don't know what's to the north of basra which we conquered everything next to last but we had a buffer zone that in these people from the north to begin even know about coming and smash weicker or buffer zone and threaten rome itself between the years one fifteen and about one hundred b. c. yuppies two tons and chimerine unrelated tribes as they're called destroy roman army after roman army i think the final grand total something like four roman army is they scare the heck out of everybody they march around seemingly going with you want to go and do and what to what you reading here in their hinder roman church rehire roman territory go to spain for a couple years have gone back to italy finally in desperation the romans to put his guiding come into it just finish mopping up guerrilla warfare problems in what's now north africa famous person in the entire roman story named kashmir yes dies mario's marius by the way is the whole goal by marriage of julius caesar the same major player in the final stages of the death throes of the roman republic to begin to accelerate the pick up speed with his appearance on the scene that more of the things that marius famously does before he finds these people that every destroyed for roman army is is change the roman army what the benchmark two roman military history something called a marine reforms not to be fair i've seen some linings of barrows i'm thinking that i'm the guy gets way too much credit for this for what he did because what he did these people would send aid was simply codified and family institutionalize practices the romans had been doing on and hoc basis improvisational lee for decades filling needs as they came up any way they could an m. r. is basically sign on your postings were doing that to fill those needs let's just make out how we do it nonetheless i say most people still give guys marisa tomei credit for taking the romans late roman republican army and let's be honest in color would it's turning into the roman the first roman imperial army because it has imperial problems and trying to deal with imperial problems with the republican army has been chilling and now for some time and damaging society to lean spin off waiters maris opens up to lead to stay everybody it's no longer based on how much land jewel in form your wealth anything like that and these people don't go home care professionals it's a permanent or me now what this does is completely change the institutional memory of the forces this is something most people don't think about but mean the thing you lose the most when you send it be citizen army back home 'cause the war's over is so much of what you learned in the cohesion and you gained from training together in how much math they sure can't forget over the school summer right magnify that and a thousand anemic by keeping an army together all the time building experience as units drilling continually not stopping your building capability an institution and rescinded five years from now on your court is going to be that much better these roman armies are huge leap forward in terms of effectiveness what they could do on the field and how much they how cost the competition he then took this new model army out and proceeded to butcher over the course of a couple years both those tribes and their subsidiary friends that they brought with them the butcher reed is supposed to be intense after all if you had these massive numbers of people which made these people so particularly dangerous to begin with what happened all of them up young to long the album romano riot war the way the romans david higgins people they consider to be barbarian there are one story that said but do some of the survivors aboard these battles were more than a hundred thousand were supposed to be left out on the battlefield they ran to a nearby celtic tribe for sanctuary in the romans pursued in celtic else to turn 'em over when the kallstrom over the butcher them on the spot after what he's bal supposedly the peace terms for some of the people that were left over were the three hundred other married wives had to be sold the romans is slavery and the famous story that was reportedly strangled each other or to avoid their fate not the time the customary says destroying these germanic work celtic or calico germanic tribes people caesar's being born that's the time frame here to the by the time caesar is an adult mature man trying to argue about what to do about this problem we have with barbarians north of us he's able as are many other generals and politicians to make use of this deep seated to your that the romans have about a potential invasion from the north one that goes all the way back to the sack of rome in three ninety here's the way history nick fields explains what the memory of the cambrian that you don't invasion a generation before meant to somebody trying to exploit the years in the rome of the fifties b. c. e. he raped court the vivid memory of the near disaster remained however has served as a frightening reminder to roam the menu northern barbarian threat could suddenly emerge at any time barbarian migrations were the stuff of roman nightmares and caesar made good use of it by playing up the quote unquote germanic menace in his writings more to the point he writes he also had the week to revive the years of the galls the data from the sack of rome country ninety b. c. and advertise them as a race without civilization who were not above burning alive they're prisoners of war and quo so in effect the near disaster against these tribes peoples the worst plan on the romans unexpectedly was too deep and wide and and we open a scar that maybe you could say had been a piece of the roman psychological reality since at least three ninety b. c. and inno as early roman writers kind of sense there's a belief that rome sort of conquered in empire in self defense but he was living who are racially through her version of a line out to conquering the world in self defense but is over history to put on a red one of the great line he pointed out that look at rome is looking for secure bores security and the problem is that every time they conquering new unstable region and pacify it thinking that okay now we're stuck over there they inadvertently create a new ferrante or whatever the kingdom they just conquered it wherever their neighbor was is now rome's neighbor in it's another unstable front usually keep getting soft for other way from the center as they continually try to make sure that they're safe thatcherite by that as a whole lot of wealth and mani in all kinds of other things involved here i'm did explain things at least as well as the idea that we're just trying to be safe the firing super roman patriot likely be re that's how i would defend the conquest of the world myself we just try to be safe anybody do it but truthfully the biggest threat to rome in the fifties when caesar's mature man calling his role in the decline and fall of the roman republic the biggest danger rome is no outside force it's inside it's tearing itself apart reaching the boiling point in the story that is well mona in the impacts the story only on blakely but if you believe caesar by the waiters and confirmation from cicero some other places i'm shocked the only place reaching the political boiling point with instability aluminium a fairly calls in terrible shape that way as well in sixty three sixty two or sixty one and b. c. remember want more powerful influential galler tribe to tribe which by the way is a friend of the roman people but it's their diplomatic designation to the kind like allies as shows up to inform the roman senate about something that's been going on deeply in the heartland of his territory because the romans always know they know what's going on in your buy gold but sometimes you get to the barbarian heartland may find out when people tell 'em and that's what this guy is there to do his name he has two pictures then he is we are told about the closest thing i'm ever going to find a historical situation to king arthur is merlin we're told the two big issues is the true way it did and that he can see the future now a little side note here the druids or one of the wonderfully famous a very compelling sides of the whole celtic culture it's connected to the religious side and they have been called all sorts of things generally thought to be the priests of the celtic religion but so many other titles and physicians are mentioned it on the good side the admirable side the so why side you'll hear them call teachers supposedly you were not allowed to break down truly become knowledge and so was twenty years of study for an acolyte to become a druid your little like our philosophers to one has a minor part cicero i think he calls him a philosopher philosophy that was something is often a tribute to the news is celtic philosophy they are also called judges month for example for murder trial or something or non you'll take it to a druid for education most of the modern archaeologists and people like that that i've read seemed to think it's a pretty good bet that the druids our shores the intellectual class and go all if you will the study things like astronomy firmed lore they made the t. v. oral tradition or some historians of their people i've heard them called natural scientists before and the magic that they're supposed to use if it if indeed magic is is sort of nature magic if you will they are like gandalf or or dumbledore but it's all nature magic seizure in cicero the people to mention druids seemed to have quite a lot of respect for them there is of course also be a lot more law read bomb site of edward's more attuned to sha min in medicine men and maybe even witch doctors when you get to that stage they are supposedly the kind of people that if not conducting ever supposed to be there for legal reasons human sacrifices to the counter suppose to purchase a pigeon or at least once a day and unclear whether or not by caesar's time they still do much about all those caesar's the wand that mentions the wicker man himself and for that one haven't you were the build the giant hollow see through weaker figure but the madge to twenty feet three feet tall we cover with holes in the cdc inside the need to live with people caesar says that for criminals and convict him up to keep the route of those then maybe throw in some other live animals to pay another compatible sunlight holden on fire i suppose withdrew its have to be around witness that the other thing you hear blamed on the druids or the class right below them is up a certain former divination were you stab somebody and then you look into convulsions is they're dying in that explains what's going on the funny thing about the ancient world is that the romans considering scott for these barbarians superstitions and all back and stuff and as the so called superior culture looking down on the childlike superstitions natives but then at the same time make sure you point out that listen if you ever needed a flock of birds analyzed for what are the movements of the flock of birds means and and how that foretell the future the celts about the business about another we're showing you the one person superstitions another person magic and vice versa our member getting a great piece of advice for my purposes won't analyses ancient world differently as we were talking most of the king's civil war but the impact of magic and it was long pauses my brain try to figure out the proper into the abyss adult there's no such thing as magic any says i know that in you know that but the people in the story didn't know that and they believed otherwise and because they believe these things to be real and true it impacts reality to the act upon those beliefs the key been called the tinker bell a factor something but the idea was similar to because you believe in this as a reality you base your moves intend and how you behave on that in the back change real history nonetheless the sky to fictitious was there to explain to the romans had a terrible battle had the courage and the deep dark barbarian country there must've been thousands upon thousands of these battles throughout history don't you think he's once that happened there were great deeds were performed an amazing things occur but they happen in the deep darkness of pre history somewhere between tribal people you normally be about a little somehow they come to light lose this battle that you can look up now that exist it's real all the battle of may get over it out but you know about it because this guy history which showed up to explain the romans that his people lost a battle it was against what their traditional celtic enemies and again we think a native american tribes with the richest tribes that we're longstanding enemies of each other right longstanding claro and lakotas a perfect example apache and comanche really didn't matter what you did a little while outside power to go against them rather than in the light with a historic enemies in this case it may have been a war that was over trade rights michael could charge tolls on the syrian for river is something really been all like that but in this battle which healthy tribe fighting the druid who showed up in rome's people brought in outside help that solicitude the assistance on some germans were told certainly some of these tribes that caesar calls german loeb let's be honest the roman catholic on her first little bit sloppy and sometimes they do several helps the rock else to miguel what the sandals barbarians unless this is the story right there germans may come in the tip the scales in favor of this other tribe but leading to do the dishes just tried getting decimated on the battlefield and if you believe him the nobility massacred to you lose basically your entire aristocratic class in the stroke of a sword or bush of sorts destroy basically is is pleading for help from his allies the romans i'm pointing out that the entire aries de stabilize because these german jew came in to help this celtic tribes decided that they wanna leave they like it in gaul begin this dead end that's causing a domino effect as they become the neighbors of all the celtic people around them all of sudden all seems extremely destabilization and that could prove to be very dangerous situation in rome he can also proved to be extremely profitable attention opportunity in fact as a way of looking at the story of all the people do that this is julius caesar's account of what's going on in gaul and making it seem like a de stabilize national security threat is something that works out in his favor if he's trying to build a case for why he should go in and that's all and as far as theories about why it's broken in the first place why are they having all this destabilization old caesar has a theory and even though it's impossible to prove it's one of those lenses that you can look at this whole thing through the trial the rangers to the brings up a question is i'd like to point out that the only reason i'm qualified to discuss this is because i don't have a reputation as a historian to protect every now and then of being a historian works out in my favour does ned in this case it allows me to examine these are used to be valid theories once upon a time until the required things like now supporting evidence proctor balladur's once upon a time mr reagan said listen caesar said this happened and without something that makes me think he's a liar unwinnable even if you do that here is what you can explain the instability in gaul but remember this guy has a vested interest in convincing you that call needs his help but the way the story is told by caesar and earlier historians is that the reason the celts are having some problems and that the whole area of gaul most of which is still outside of roaming control was having problems is because slowly but surely due to the infusion of in roman and greek in mediterranean luxuries and cultural whatever these counts are getting it for lack of a better word soft seizure by the way want to want it more than one says the leading softening agent involved here and actually says that some tribes prohibit the importation of italian wine for just that reason that is known to take the edge off the celts were settled with the same reputation as drunkards to you often see associated with other tribal peoples native americans for example had to live without stereotype forever our friend he adores tequila said this about them despite away d. c. h. old father translation of the work quote the calls are crazy for wine and consumer on a watered amazing amount imported by merchants iran or strange consumption often leads them to fall into a drunken stupor or sink into morose depression there for many italian merchants see gaul is the land of opportunity for quick reaches these traders bring the wine by boat on the rivers and by wagons through the planes in return they make an amazing profit for they receive the slave in return for each jar of juanita liver end quote when i was growing up there was a widespread belief among native american groups themselves that the importation of alcohol had done damage to the traditional culture it would not be surprising at all without happened monks to calls as well and in the case of wine specifically it's designed to take the edge off people drinking for that reason here's the problem was that edge is required to survive in the world the news basically doggy dog and geo political terms if only the strong to survive the war if you have your people being impacted by your proximity to weigh luxury filled culture in your body was weakening you in the way they will eventually caught zhou to lose everything somebody or if you're taking the edge off and the ferocious tribes next to you aren't in this case those tribes were called by the romans the deer mani often translate it to germans today about whether or not they're related to modern day germans is just discontent just a discussion is whether or not counts are related to modern day peoples in the regions where they use to be him but the germans are portrayed as is like hyenas ready to pounce on any week in animals on the geopolitical heard it they're portrayed as roffe tough they're nasty and they're interfering in the celtic world away at that threatens if you believe caesar's account of course is war commentaries are told from the point of view of darth vader and this is his excuse for getting involved in this whole thing is it germans are de stabilizing the whole region and this is what is true it comes to rome to say nice asking for help but in a couple of years caesar comes down and you wanna have that star wars music star plying the ominous kind because caesar is going to stop the warfare in the region but he's going to do in the way the target easily made the case should be called the celtic holocaust now the idea of any society getting soft is impossible to quantify it falls under the category we discussed earlier but he's human qualities that histories have to steer clear of 'cause you can't make any sort of cases no data a hundred years ago the wonderful professorial military historian hand still broke had no problem laying it out you know why that he treated is no scientific good news cedras today but it sets up this we're following the elmo trotter is the full of history a hundred years ago actually back in nineteen awaken think it was deliberate wrote about this question of civilization versus barbarism in terms of the military protocol and she said quote when modern peoples means the people it is an error ninety no way to come into conflict with barbarians the outcome is determined from the start by the differences in weapons technology in antiquity this relationship was not so simple here we may wander he writes in what manner of the roman military system was really superior to that of the barbarians he said the civilized people barbarians have the advantage of having at their disposal the warlike how war of unbridled animal instincts of basic toughness civilization refines the human being he writes making him more sensitive and doing so it decreases his military were not only his bodily strength but also his physical courage these natural shortcomings must be offset in some artificial way john horst he rides was perhaps the first one to state that the main service of the standing army consisted of making civilized people through discipline capable of holding their rome against the less civilized if they give any group of romans normally living as citizens are cousins had been put up against a group of barbarians of the same number of the hammer would undoubtedly have been defeated in fact they probably would've taken flight without fighting was only the formation of the close knit tactical body of the cohorts that equalize the situation and co it's an old idea right the civilization that the law issue to compensate for which you lose when you give up the whole warrior society thing now remember the military trade off for losing this barbarian age is supposed to be in the ability to control troops with officers and instill drill an organization in the logistical ability to concentrate enough food and supplies and he bore meese in the field all those wonderful benefits the water if you get hit you know when you've lost the barbarian edge part but you haven't quite gained the benefits of civilization your wife you get it when you're in transition at the vulnerable point between the two kinds of approaches mean for example the giver her would deem seizes readership is being too to see it means a ship is getting hit broadside with the way it so that's really dangerous thing that happened to monitor your nose pointed or your stern pointed out but you don't wanna be's sideways on to be voyage but if you have to trouble while and in the seat that we get danger point one per cent picture signed on to the waves i wonder if one could make the case but some of these celtic tribes in gaul had been contacted by the romans enough to be semi civilized which dulled their barbarian edge against their last symbolize neighbors without yet providing the benefits that the more centralized to organize state like systems half with the celts got caught in the beam c. and to be fair this is not really my idea my ideas and knock off of the very ones seizures proposing here too he's talking about the beam see idea in different terms the problem is is if you trying to defend us from a historical viewpoint how'd you do what and there's no doubt at all it historians are a thousand percent like when they say that these are classic are recurring themes in ancient literature that the audience expected but absolutely correct does that mean you can automatically rule out all of them is what seizure says here so implausible okay so does caesar no wait is he deliberately trying to lie to us or she just misconstruing things because of his own biases from his own era in any case debussy idea may not be quite regionally mine i'm just academically safe enough to settle have any credentials all to be able to suggest that maybe there's more to it that is often the knowledge these days caesar image war commentaries explains several times that certain tribes used to be more feared and more to offer now warrant in other words implying repairs movement on the softness versus toughness scale moore ede doesn't really tell us because maybe it's common knowledge is how advanced to some of these galling tribes were including the one that this druid to fictitious came from this is the way history aging goals were the exclaims with the system in gaul which is hard to describe because it has so many different tribes and all these tribes are in different states a development in fact in most advanced of them maybe should be called tribes of all that is gold with each dealings with you calm states or tribes neither one of those words he's a good translation for the latin and seizure uses visibly goldsworthy puts the situation after explains the call is essentially organized in tribes divided into clans because of the state's quote the basic political unit was the klan and several of these usually made up a tribe he gives the latin word for both of them by the way nieces but neither english word is entirely appropriate and some scholars would prefer state to try but but no one has really come up with anything better dances called the importance of the tribe seems to be increased markedly in the century before caesar for rival in gaul has some scholars would like to see them is comparatively recent inventions more probably the changing political and economic climate in gaul and simply given new importance to loose ties of kinship and ritual that we're very long established even so he writes the degree of unity between the clans of one tribe very considerably and there were numbered cases during the garlic wars one individual clans acted independently kings of hearing some tribes and perhaps also with the client level but not in others and the majority meaning the majority these groups seem to have been governed by counsel for senate's with day to day running of affairs being placed in the hands of elected magistrates world's oldest allied be duly which is where this druid was trauma the supreme magistrate called the vertebrate who held office for single year or no man could be elected twice to this post nor could any member of his family hold the office during his lifetime thus preventing any individual or group for monopolizing power the similarity of this ideal to the roman republic system is breaking in many ways the tribes of gaul resemble the city state of the mediterranean world but perhaps a bit earlier stage of development and the court that's really good concise way to explain that situation and there are books were written about seizures block and more on this the second is that organ following get into that describes his rationale for arguing about why we have to have this conflict against the goals now why has to be preemptive as opposed to wading into will attack us barry says it's because seizures making the argument that some of these tribes are becoming more like us we have to get 'em before they do 'cause they're going to then combined you know they warlike irrationality that they have now in their spirit with greater capability which by the way is busy reason that some historians geared for why the germanic peoples in all fast forward to the fall of rome will eventually be able to defeat the roman legions they want are now fighting the romans over time and develop an awful mistake like system that they could truly be dangerous andrew riggs being his book caesar recall in rome or in warren's point out that caesar's argument in his book is it would have to get the galls now before they do precisely that he says that in seizures work and as part of a propaganda people he calls calls new people he calls german served different purposes riggs be right court in the same way the two in northern groups are dangerous for complimentary reasons in the case of the germans the problem is they're fluidity the people who do not recognize boundaries so sure geographic cannot be trusted to stay in their own territory into not make war on the romans with the galls the problem is not randomness but i'm more specific tendency to wage war they are prone to fighting both individually and collectively the temerity makes them unable to check violent impulses even when that would be the prudent course of action whatever the source of danger the romans will respond preemptively as chapter six discusses he writes this is an important source of justification for military actions furthermore the semi civilized galls provide a special kind of threat there similarity to the romans grows over the course of the work they are not conquered now the threat will only increase hence the preemptive strike is required narrow the characterization of boat people see why it's legitimizes their conquest the specific nature of the calls makes the budget really attractive candidates and co why would caesar want to conquer them ah yes that gets us to some of the problems that motivate the story to push it along the ad the booster rockets to the whole thing because you must be honest what's the likelihood that is rome becomes more powerful it doesn't absorb these tribal areas to the north that's like saying that you could expect somehow the treaty is in good faith and everything else the thirteen us colonies to just stayed over were they were on the eastern seaboard and never advance into the native territory that's what if you can hardly even plausibly play with us right to me what's the likelihood what's the likelihood that the romans don't absorb these tried to the north and conquer that territory because the money that is available in the land and let's not forget this 'cause it's huge slaves so tempting and seizures need is so great at this time but it's impossible to imagine that the giant pot of gold that is gold wouldn't be taken by somebody in the attitude that these romans hatton it's part of something we discussed another program this insane in yet wonderfully mary based system we'll call lawyer way to the top like it's a mafia crime family and only the strong survive it created by this time in roman history a three headed monster that to the romans call that we know what is the trippers triumvirate today essentially what news is a conspiracy what the great conspiracies oral history is caesar and the other two most powerful man in rome and there are now why is essentially against the rest of the roman government they are so powerful may control so many people become one of these guys in history had monsters the richest man in romany spread money every word that makes a huge difference that right this time period as long as the east wing man's caesar hobby and grasses agree on something it's gonna happen but all three men want something so all three men support each man getting what they want what caesar wants is a chance to conquer something he is the least grand at this time during those three people he doesn't have a whole lot of military conquest to his record or his name yet the owes so much money they want what we're told he's not even allowed to leave rome the creditors basically grab him and as a either you're paying upper you're not going anywhere in crisis one of the members of the three headed monster the rich guy comes in and pays off the debts of seizure can go and do we need to do just find a way to get the money to pay off the debts and also to spread it around in rome make more friends because these politicians and that's what's he's raised a deadly politicians the politician generals but spreading money around rome drawing games all kinds of other things i needed to name out there in a sig mortgage for the reason why seizures in such great that banished two ways of looking at the gali situation at the time wanting us to set up all there's all that landed all us why is there for the taking the gaul see him vulnerable and the germans are coming in and doing it in the attitude being somebody's gonna get but it's been a big-ass the other way of looking at is is that this whole idea the german threat is part of a manufactured plot the reason that provide caesar with an excuse to go in there and scoop up all that wealth himself and to do so right to the glory in defense of rome this brings us to the actual war commentaries because we're going to have to rely on these and yet i mean it i'm not sure you could find if he had to be stock with one main source of that she could find a better one it is one of the great works of literature waldheim any military history there's very few things like it this historian michael grant says about and croak it was the best account of warfare ed ever been written by roman they retain the supremacy bird least another for centuries end quote he also wrote that because of the seizures and seizure was one of the great writers of all time and so much of that up officer other qualities are overshadowed by his military reputation but the concise so approach that used in everything made his work a staple of no first your latin courses alter rob the western civilized educational world and everybody knew seizures work once upon a time michael grant also said court caesar's formidable intellect and lou citrus ice latin transformed these ostensibly modest works into masterpieces is unique inside knowledge carries extraordinary authority and co it's very rare to have essentially the war dispatches of what the great commanders of all time i mean you have nothing like this from alexander the great for example or most of the other people in waging his columns one of the ones that you can have fun reading today for example is if you go read the second world war series has pained by winston churchill you get a similar sort of feel because instead of having some retelling the story they're basically telling the story from within the story in the salon of ice said and then he said to me in and me it's a completely different way to his dream you know it's completely by the church weaving said i know history shall treat me kindly 'cause i should be writing that history let's have seizures doing to you i'm on the part that will screw up the most of you never read a book for the refers to himself ninety nine percent the time in the third person seizure good as you do that it's a little strange but if you understand and an cannot read several books just on that book and it's fascinating to weed eater reporting and look at all the angles 'cause she's just trying three dimensional chess here with his work he's writing it for contemporary audience and for the future the little intricacies the u. would have to actually not just be glad about archaic latin never really good idea context these experts will point out that would just based on the way he sees years using the latin language she may have been writing him a bitter political purpose to it 'cause instead of writing a beach but the aristocracy of roman the power brokers in the senate seizure was a popular r. a. he was one of these people the major's political aim supposedly appealing to the needs of the people was supposed to be a wealthy people in rome so he may have written this maybe not even to the red maybe the read aloud to the crowds in rome in a language of the straightforward that they would understand and holding themes in ways of approaching story out for example praising the average roman soldier corner bit has something to curry favor with the crowd this is a political document to doctor made a personal aggrandizement is a piece of propaganda it is also the best source of military on doctor jordan get to the byzantine who's maybe the best worship in again in the entire ancient world for me and as my coburn says whose authority is absolutely unmatched in this mean who would you rather if you could only have one account draw their habit from an arm biased observer would be nice but when caesar tells you about the intricacies of this war he's telling it to you nor is the man who decided on things to ease biases hell but he's an absolutely unbelievable source to be able to hear from the first person cents caesar get the command he wants from the three headed monster he was looking at a place called day she overheard the adriatic is maybe a place that to unfold themselves what's a good place work in a cocker some people makes an engine oak suture rome's wars but trouble brewing over in gaul instead and that flared up in an indirect way she believed the sources because of this new german situation a tribe that was locators to return a call the tribes with some least places were really pro staters pay to look to understand tribes is a bad word that the schools with each as we can start with it but this tribe located in what's now modern day switzerland cesar chavez decided they were gonna move they like being neighbors of the germans and i fell to constrained in this land hemmed by mountains anonymous church where should they were gonna move and you're gonna move it away were they were gonna cross roman territory the southern france area that the romans had to take and take a course to protect us rota spain they called it the province province to their income caesar just always called the problems and his group of galls from modern day switzerland numbering the ancient sources said in excess of three hundred fifty thousand people in a migration latino men women children the whole thing bring your possessions burn your towns three years in the making sinhalese three hundred and fifty plus thousand people on across roman territory and caesar romero and basically say no not now this is worse caesar's nary a begins with you start explaining how the gall of course the first thing he does is for paragraph or two he lays out the land for your average woman consumer of his media we would say to to because one caesar get away from the clothes parts go alright togo were in gaul the next short haired called one shoe had only into long hair gall you were continually moving into less and less well known territory before the hugo seizure becomes a bit like a lois and clark expedition at some point in this endeavor a very heavily armed won it must be said buddy so it has to lay out initially the label and for the people in rome recharge bought three big cultural groups that inhabit this whole area and the differences between them and what more famous passages in all ancient literature napoleon all the greats read that caesar an doesn't matter which translation you just get suitably call inspiring in my opinion in all of them what is occurring on him and translation for this but arm and here he is lying napoleon for you and by the way notice how he's also kind of getting the transition idea be softening idea that a moral model luxury soften these people by the way on one said bell gary it's a bell guys some people say belge it there's an old saying that this right way they're wrong way to mispronounce lad and so hopeful enormous pronouncing that right wingers program most of the charm caesar says as a nation of intricacies rights yes seizures ratings and it preceded me caesar right court the whole gaul is divided into three parts one of which the belle de inhabit the aqua tommy another and the third the people in their own language or call celts been ours galls they all differ among themselves in respect to language way of life and laws the river garage divides the galls from the airport on the and the martins seine river is separate them from the bell gay but these to read the bill gator the bravest for their farthest away from the civilization and culture of the province mean the roman province merchants rarely traveled to them up or imports such goods as make minister reach week and loman ish they live moreover in close proximity to the germans who inhabit the land across the rhine and they are continually war with them this reason they held the also week see the other galls and bravery because they are embroiled in almost daily battles with the germans even when they're warning them off from their own frontier is when they themselves take the fight in enemy territory and crew historian andrew am grigsby goes to great lengths to point out that caesar is actually establishing his own boundaries for his own purposes here and the peace may not a big boundaries they were recognized in other he says necessarily mean caesar is creating boundaries so that he can come to natural extensions of them and stop again it's all very interesting that the ponies is the tape of seizures as with the green assault so what is he's basically telling you the way of the landing gorman right after he does that to start talking about a conspiracy a conspiracy it will legitimize actions in gaul beyond stopping the migration of this tribe but according to caesar gets behind the migration to help you should these three hundred fifty thousand people or more the seizures as burned their four hundred villages and twelve pounds maybe some of which may be proceedings before setting off so that they would know we're not going home right same old thing on the captain of the ship in the shepherd british ships or you don't think of normal remembering these villages in the wee no going back and but napoleon referred to the support of caesar's being simply incomprehensible hans tell brooke scoffed that there could be all these tribal peoples on the march like this he was not talking about logistical disaster will be a couple modern day histories and the shooting we're looking at a kind of comparing it to the way you have compared to people who showed up for the woodstock rock concert in the sixties right small groups of people saw the migrating a time during most of what they needed on the back or with a single wagon and having the migration take a longer pure enough time to say that having like one or any moving around you have groups of people migrating in and the way seizure tells the story it sounds more like that now these are issue before now probably heavily armed migraine so let's not make abortion lions out to be a little lambs right but caesar claims that the migration is all part of a plan and the leader of this tribe of hell the shuns is trying to become a keen that but the tribe doesn't have a king's anymore they have magistrates and elected officials and summer so that their rush to chronic oligarchy extended of the sword ended a punishment for trying to turn the society back to waking she appears to be burned alive caesar set us gosh opponent to dis information is delivered to us by caesar on like the very beginning of his commentator he's right after he lays out the way that all is divided into different groups began explains the story the story involves three goalie nobleman powerful goddess in three different powerful galler tribes even describes a scenario that a couple of historians i'm going down it's obvious ironic anderson code of psychological thing may be going on with seizure but he describes the three had the gall lake first triumvirate chief you will in other words it explained that these gaul and nobleman are working together to help each other get what they want in terms of more power the situation is seizures involved in back in rome with those two other guys that make up the first triumvirate right annie's alot more critical of their triumvirate the use of his own he makes it out to be sinister he says city street colleague nobleman are plotting to take over all of gaul which you know again for the king live from the point of view of the calls isn't that what you didn't want them to be doing and by the way they are even die my other knowledge crime to other areas that the romans already taken over and spain but which common the national hero of portugal that gave it to you consolidated tribes the locals and for perot much for long time happen in packaging glacier two happened in the balkans to so it's sort of standard come and all it would review these three guys much of the national heroes like winston churchill types and roman shortcomings rums are coming quickly we have to combine into national security question it seizure plays off to the raw grab for power by these three guys i'm one of them is to help the shin ruler and reese nice moving is people is much more sinister than just the need more territory to pour the plot peter roman diplomacy with tribes on people find out that he's involved in this plot outpatient about what the trial and bring this guy me shows up with like ten thousand of his best friends in his retainer somewhat not to the court incorporated has to go up let him go in and seizures as the civil war is about to start in mysteriously did you die is his name was or get rakes but the tribe still gonna move because it was in the plan and so that starts his chain of events that will eventually lead to celtic culture which now french being mortally wounded so what's the cause of all this to be real war crimes trial measuring how did this ethnic cleansing one ever come to be well it'll start with the rationale and here's how seizure lays it out in mind s. k. hanford translation coat but for most men among them vichy ally in rank and wealth was or getter rakes in the consul shep of marcus was solid been marked as p. so he was induced by the hope of obtaining royal power to organize a conspiracy of nobleman who persuaded his countrymen to emigrate en masse telling them that they would the best fighters in gaul they could very easily comparable whole country and co it explains that the storm dederick sort of leads the entire movement to get together to burn the homes eventually ended in my brain mass and then as part of the process of negotiating with nearby tribe unit that they would have passed to restrict make it a couple of important friends piece of the tribes they decide to work together the seizures as quote or get a race convince them that these other two aristocrats that the schemes were quite easy of achievement by telling them that he intended to usurp the sovereignty of his own state which is it was beyond question the most powerful in gaul and many would use his well the military strength to secure them the possession of their throat is arguments proved effective the freemen's warned all with the mutual loyalty hoping that once they had made themselves kings the great power of the war like people they ruled it will enable them to get control of all gall and quote if you're looking at this from april ghali perspective though that might be a good idea caesar portrayed as otherwise but remembering the story it's darth vader sir count that we get to have celtic expert barry can live it offers an idea or we'd look it is where the people off go all were on usually threatening during this time period immediate crisis situation if you will in which case the migration of the helvey sheehan's might have been much more likely cherokee trail of tears if you wanna compare it to something from the native american terminology he says that caesar's oft quoted rationalization the gaul would have to be taken over by the romans if it were not to become germanic he says quote may have been an unbiased interpretation of the evidence he had before him in court congress also points out that evinced quite a distance from here could be having a fax whipple facts for example he talks about the two nations which are barbarian people that may or may not be germanic also having a huge offensive against another county people in the hungarian plane which has a domino effect or accordion effect that the nazis range of dealing with the end result of him as the salvation start to move 'cause tribes to the east of the helm the shooter being displaced so the celtic peoples of europe and all specifically are threatened from multiple directions and different peoples this tribe elevations would've been on like the bleeding the edge of what may be was starting to look like the sick man of europe for this time period and they were having pieces of their territory beaten off from every direction the germans from the east edition from the southeast and now the romans from the south darn right you be talking about consolidating your power to try resistance if you could seizures great period in his history begins when he confronts this three hundred and fifty thousand personally column over humanity if you believe either the numbers the way they showed up but roman doors over river with the bridge the seas register stroh aid basically this group of people the front end of this tribe is reach caesar and that again after asking for permission to come into the province seated in the sunny think about it over their camp out while i think about it meanwhile are they doing that he's no organizing the reason of armies far why it is get the truth with dylan magi in sixteen mile or something along fortification with guard towers at regular intervals no doubt was in roman ball for hours in them when the tribe goes back further answers after they've been how are they eating you know they mean you could have lots of people dying on this little bataan death march from the swiss alps to wish caesar was missing a picture we cross no seizure now with this giant fortification behind him more true for them says no i'm just curious if you wore it in his gall lake mass of people thing you've been camping out eating up maybe what love your food is laughed and you waiting for roman decision and more people are showing up is the trail of amassing and he keeps arriving at your waiting in your waning in the roman to billings fortifications and you shall be civil to increase cross now and then they say now would you do caesar says that small groups of people in the night in the daytime try to cross over themselves over the river to get on the other side doesn't sound like a big armed mass of humanity it's hours ago by two people desperately in like small family groups and what not trying to cross over overwhelm the defense's or sneaked by on any given point in the romans concentrate missile fire they say in your chill all these people on the water and drive them back here's a historian heaving goldsworthy describes the situation he says quote when they only she yeah return for seizures decision he bluntly informed them that he's going seizure now according to the cost the president of the roman people he could not permit anyone to journey through the province and he would stop them if they tried to force their way through goldsworthy and says the new fortifications were there to demonstrate the men forty said however it was difficult for such a great mass of people suddenly be changed direction and purpose the purina waiting by the river have also probably been very frustrating and many of the hubby she iowa german to keep going especially after the years of preparation and willing destruction of their old homes small groups began to cross the roan either using the fords or rigging up for hours to carry themselves their animals and vehicles is possible that these were deliberate perot is sent by the chief does to test the strength the seizures defense is the more likely they reflected the loose central authority in individually independence it seemed to be characteristic of many of the tribes of gaul they were certainly not full fledged assaults on the lines of fortifications most of the crossings to buy some of the cover of darkness but if you parties were bold enough to risk the attending daylight non succeeded for sieges man you're able to concentrate in each group in turn overwhelming many of them with missiles as they struggled across and co it seems to be the goals were the two that may be leaving open the possibility that this is more humanitarian situation and seizure let on eventually the celtic tribe will move away they have a plan b. which the triangle boy does it's a much tougher rutan and to get the permission of bon je different tribes but the start heading away and sees you decides maybe he can't let them migrate to the other location that they want to even the at the pastor of the territory could be brought in any way up then he says that one of these conspirator joie de gaulle like triumvirate the three teddy kollek monster is working with the allegations to negotiate in you know pass over all these differences between he's trying to raise smoothing it out maybe so they can work together more than a organized a situation with allegations promise we will do anything will be very nice we cross the turret reward to anything bad and they go through the territory of these tribes that are allies of roman an easter break in staff this deal and stopped and devastated territory and so these ghali tried other allied to rolls a disease or or so caesar salad is okaz how can you let this happen to your allies right when you have an army right here are the seizures as men like him what happened my allies he justifies a double that when he goes after the how the ships see you will go raise more army through quickly to catch up to the elevations as they're migrating across another tribes territory caesar will come upon the tribal wall there in the process of crossing the river resist recourse is trying to re cross de souza to twenty days shows you how long this massive humanity's taking to move whatever the real numbers were talking about here might be to seizures must be inflated but a lot of people might be other and hard to feed and caesar comes upon me says this tribe were three corps the tribe across the one course will the other side waiting that was the size caesar was onto so he attacked them killed a bunch this is women children wagons warriors the budget and ran into the forest now the trial comes to seizure basically says you know we want from us seizure says this that may have a thing reparation somalia but hostages now this simone we should discusses for certain 'cause it's wild also this practice of hostages for good behavior this is very common in the ancient world but i always into my support this happened today or that's how we sure do baby today what about your having problems with saddam hussein and yet the first goal for at the end of the studies empowerment or to stop fighting you demand a couple his son's i'm as hostages would be interesting way to handle modern diplomacy wounded that has seizures as you watch a mistrial or hostages narrowly can be like the sons and daughters of the nobility so the people he's negotiating with the ones that give the sons and daughters they say hey hey don't get cocky discuss u. b. s. the situation we were in refugees over river were basically still undefeated and we'd be you'll couple generations ago were in the practice of taking hostages not giving them and so the meeting broke up that'll be shoes would not provide hostages go back along i'm mary when a continuing their migration of the romans go back to tailing them and seizure now was looking for ways to strike at them because they haven't accepted his terms before he can manage to do with though he begins to have severe supply problems more on that any minute it forces him to he says to break off the pursuit and go and opposite direction towards a friendly galling cd we can get supplies and caesar says when they change course away from the migrants the migrants turn around and come after them to see shops he puts his entire force on a hill worked covering the hill with legionnaire reason the traditional three line formation he's preparing for the battle seizure says in a very grandiose move for the folks back home but one that has real world to evidence to be paid caesar will get off his horse and send it to the rear and take his place in front line with the soldiers sharing their fate encouraging them and remember this stage in his career she should not agree general that we now as julius caesar you seen a lot of fighting but this is really his first true command and this is where he's making his name and part of making his name is showing that he something special ops napoleon to botch things like this a saloon alexander to typical general move but it can work wonders over the long haul seizure schering the trust of his army he says that these call it troops peace ferocious soldiers come charging up to look the romans to your recent disaster right is not a good move but the goals are not known for tactical brilliance in fact it almost seems like the inevitable trade off in the prey shoe pay for being these out of control it had she was warriors that losure mind in battle lost is that your inevitably less tactically cohesive and less concerned about things like making sure you save enough energy to be able to fight for awhile up the traditional book the playbook the opposition handbook on fighting goals as that the initial charge of these people to use ferocious why don't and hard to hold if you can stay strong and hold the initial charge they began to get tired and then they began to get disheartened and anti chuah city fades and then the lack of the armor that they normally have that that they totally lost cohesion after block all the stuff begins to tell us if you can sit through and whether the initial storm you can't be okay charging upheld a pleasure romans throwing heavy javelin stout hale not ago start seizure says that the roman key labatt's stock in the shields of the goals of course as the golden her week neck deliberately designed to bend it to all the sudden it's dragging down ratios of these gaul seizures as the shaker archer want 'em and throw their shields down to take people already not heavily armored and take away the shields and then the romans charge down it with swords and it begins to be no a typical roman battle against calls with a gun to get shot the pretty good you say she never see their back the oran but bacon got the fighting with trawler to a nearby hill in the romans pursued them their kid in the flanked by two other tribes were nearby that we should point out caesar has every interest to exaggerate how dangerous this enemy is and how the difficult conditions she faced were because obviously he prevails and wayans well it's that much clearer for victory to cite two folks back home nonetheless and seizures in the flight he says the people that he was pursuing charges him from the front again so he surrounded us like you see that this is a greek army into the roman army it's don for the sport because the romans could do with the romans could do tactical flexibility that was pretty much unique in the ancient world seizures able to take one of the three lines of the roman army wants not yet fighting and shift its facing said it's now facing the enemy the visit to rome and snowflake now they're facing roman from the front come on hard fought battle now seizures to get the upper hand the or yours will retreat to a wagon for trish they've taken all the wagons that there are migrating within the book and the giant circle at defended by all the noncombatants and whatnot and the romans attack it that's the last end of the bottle and by the time the whole thing is over the romans may have killed two hundred thousand of these people by hand if you believe those numbers historian michael sage says this about the numbers quote in the aftermath of the battle cedar claims that tablets were found in the hell the shin camp written in greek character's containing enlisted men of military age women boys and the elderly who would joined in the migration there were also counts of the other tribe to accompany the help patients for a grand total of three hundred and sixty eight thousand people of rome ninety two thousand were capable of bearing arms seizure the records a sense is taken when the goals returned home which totaled a hundred and ten thousand it is difficult to assess the accuracy of these figures in this is the only case in the garlic war were caesar refers to such lists the gaul did right celtic in greek letters numerous inscriptions in celtic written in greek character to be preserved that figure ninety two thousand warriors is plausible of the total of three hundred and sixty eight thousand is accepted imprimatur populations about one quarter or the population consisted of males of military age the total number for all those migrating is also in the realm of possibility hundred and ten thousand survivors representing a third of those who set out is more a problem loss of more than two thirds is possible but it must've had a number of causes the migration from beginning to end probably consumed about three months with the final battle in late may early june many especially the sick in the infirmary may have perished along the way another simply stumbled along the route of migration was the battle casualties are included which seizure does not give the figure for losses still seems to ha there's no other evidence at least it's in the realm of possibility and call by the way sages book enjoyed immensely on us buddy's point is well taken with our nominee people really were there any don't know how many people really came back i might've been more of the trail of tears type situation of bataan death march as we said to a situation we're lot of people die along the way rather than have caesar snuff out their lives but you can be sure that says to help the shoes were one of the great tribes and although we're talking about a lot of people here you not just talking about combatants of all be in stages of this battle with seizure of the roman legion reese assaulting a the wagon us brought up into a great fortification with all the stuff that these people long in the middle of them the galls and the germans on abortion occasion has some portion buying into sources to have the women steinbeck by the wagons yelling encourage me to their men you're riding the behaviors cowards providing first aid in medicine help to those who staggered back from the battle line wounded so when the romans in a drive back the fleeing routers after they just decimated their formations and most people run back to the wagons pursued by the roman army we need to roman army doesn't begin to the wagons we kill everybody they tried to one of the main things that actually protects lives on the battlefield like this is the prospect of selling the people that you can capture the one thing the person on battlefield facing the battle lost of other people as in their favor in the ability make it work is i'm i'm worth more alive than dead and no doubt that lots of slaves were sold out to the spot when you get your your mind a cash register the dean everytime homeless people soul because while the reason seizures there are fewer policy as these horrible deaths at home a lot of ways for agree roman to pay off these dances with the successful profitable campaign i'm the main thing to profit off of this to people you sell afterwards nonetheless we use is seizure came to this entire area to begin with as just been dealt with after the battle of the shoe is essentially what slough to become the seizures and you know we're your power will do what everyone he sent him home we sent him back to where they came from any feeds him away rangers for food everything double caesar all take your view but the unresolved issues hundreds of thousands of people to return things to the status quo so why does the seizure go home now while he's noticed something he says in his works it's been brewing for while he's been doing some investigations and he's uncovered a bunch of well stuff that the people in rome should know about stop thinking in overlooked for example he was already noticed in the weird stuff was happening with de gaulle it troops the friendly ghali troop she was using his army to rome is reasonable don't produce cavalry mean we're during history they produce legionnaire his heavy infantry men armed with a heavy throwing javelin at devastatingly nasty sword the cavalry is raised from the local friendly peoples in this case a lot celtic people's with tribes alija world but there are lynchings in the battlefield and make caesar suspicions that may be just maybe they're not altogether loyal amino one thing the sting the seizure talks about he has thousands of these ghali counter renege or begins to few hundred of the enemy's in all the sudden fleeing in terror yeah very suspicious then started doing some inquiries then while he's pursuing the healthy sheehan columns that only she calms begin moving away from reverses stuff we're seizure can get supplies should matter because all these friendly tribes that ass caesar that oprah's sabers from these people they're stealing and to spoil your land they were supposed to provide food but the food's not coming to get kidneys excuses are shipping here all were still raising alex on the way watching get them back and stuff so you start investigating that to call in some of these nobles and is offices in with the help of them but the law here can all comes to an after this battle with the help the shoes because he says that all the other with few exceptions the garlic leaders come up to his location to congratulate him on his victory i'm always consist of an amazing him can we see you in the back room privately tickles and the back or privately in the instantly all fall there phoebe the besieging into using their eyes may give him he says this sob story about please please please you have to save us from this german king was taking over gall we told you but this guy right he was the guy who was brought in when these two tribes of gaul that were historic enemies were looking for a hedge the sub one tribe thought let's invite these germans over an ally give us the edge when the battle which they did in the year destroyed the nobility of the other side but then the germans to leave as we said in fact according to this group of people that comes to caesar he's taken all the children hostage is in any time they move the wrong way he tortures him does bad things too warm seizures now speaking to roman audience and basically sinking you believe that his drinking is doing to these poor balls were allies and friends of the roman people can see sir stand for that of course you turkey asked him for that what's more these kelton been telling seizure stories that they've got people in their own tribes who were disloyal right you know the tribes their enemies of rome or disloyal but these are people in tribes that are nominally friends of world but they have huge numbers of fifth columnists that won't work for the gaul would cause instead now again and seizures portraying this as sinister and back at the two roman audience hard not to cease troublemakers the seizure talks about though is anything other than galling patriots if you're looking at it from their proud of you i mean the people that are here besieging caesar for helping to elect acquittal aims are there any traitors of the galling cars but just like the native american tribes just like the tribes in africa these people have historic enemies amongst their own kind when disputes and memories are of tit for tat for the english cycle killings to go back for ever and these were able to be exploited in africa in the new world by european powers in gaul by the romans exclusively i mean it is the romans who invented the phrase that we use today to divide and conquer all that's what they're doing in gone c. shooting some tribes against the others are these tribal leadership telling him we just want to know we have large factions in our own tribes that are working against you they're the ones that kept the food from coming to you they were the ones leading your cavalry when the thousands of your caliber returning fled in terror for a few hundred of the enemy in other words seizures got them all around him and this becomes an excuse to stay what's more when caesar says this german king is oppressing all these people he basically said his soul the galls want us to state i have to stay to defend them any enemy has to shift it from gaul it people to win new people now are let's understand whether or not these new people really were in new people is open for debate caesar makes them a new people in his writing because it serves the purposes of this writing it's an outside power she's going to use it to defend now these people that are closer to home these people he just killed a hundred thousand or more people all of these now the savior of the galls any stay now i should point out that there's no consensus at all overseas years decision-making at this point everyone seems to agree that at some point siege a decisive going to take all of golf or and most seem to think that that was not his initial plan once he originally set out to change the course of the healthy should migration but there's a lot a disagreement over at what point caesar crystallize this idea that hector them taken over many historians should have spoken about this our work and riggs beaver for example this tendency in seizures rating sometimes to give a hint of the idea gaul is may be counted doomed anyway and that it's like a vulnerable an animal in the geopolitical heard in somebody is going to get it and better robson the germans it's the germans had formed this new counterpoint in the story when they pure and the scene because up until now caesar hasn't really had an antagonist when you're stopping a migration of a tribal people who's the bad guy in that right even though seizure had some bad guys involved in the conspiracy initially by the chinese involve the dead she's never having any suitable want one that darth vader versus another sip lord confrontation it could she's also got the conspiracy shadowy thing going on in the work of the most like a guerrilla war now he can't trust in the celtic people whores friends don't all your friends are your enemies are they all look the same but again not a single upon for c. c. shirley measure himself with the chili comes face to face with his german king ari of justice king of the solidity now let's step back a minute for the sake of those were huge julius caesar fans because how can we ignore how quickly everything here is happened at the hall mortgage seizure by the way that the moving with speed and determination focusing on in the core issues in the most decisive point someone on a mean this is all happening in your fifty eight b. c. the dealing with the help we should migration is during the same year as much remember they hardly ever campaign in the winter to this is really like an eight maybe nine mark campaign season and right after he deals with allegations and has goes what was a huge battle he no no marches to another part of this area to where the german kenya's and begins to deal with him at in caesar's merited this guy sort of the root cause of everything hear me why it is cease your even having to do all of the single because the germans to stabilize the whole situation came in there with their hundred and twenty thousand warriors or whatever began settling in gaul and as a whole place in motion so when caesar came from sorry vistas he's confronting the root problem is caesar worry less ambitious man this could be the end of his story this could be the culmination he goes to the root of the problem you assaulted comes home celebrated triumphant lives happily ever after i do after my myself though how this has a feel of seizures kind of being at the end of the earth we said earlier that he's like a heavily armed version of the lewis clark expedition he feels the need in the narrative to tell the people back at home what these german she calls them are like whether customs what god's today believe it or they look like how they fight supposedly the romans to deal with these people militarily before right at the time seizures born remember the cambrian the two tones invaded from the north unexpectedly a national security crisis if you've forgotten caesar will remind you over and over again and in his commentaries great way to justify going up to the germans to remind you that every now and then they come after us but other than that not allowed to go on so caesar explained to the folks back home that these germans are century like the goals on steroids the gaul search all the germans are that much taller that also belong to the germans are blond or de gaulle spike in the warm and the zuercher crazy frenzied the germans do that more often in their frenzies deeper than the goals and c. circuses they compared to the galls the germans are primitive so for using a tribal scale on the gauze or moving up to collect reason for some fires the germans are whine just no caesar with eddie will be just graduated from caveman status is it or even really practice agriculture which none of the modern history sort of stuff by archaeologist i've read none of them believe that they all think the germans practiced agriculture but there you go caesar says that the goals use to be able to stand up to the germans in battle but that they can't anymore essentially saying that they're gonna show at the law so many battles the they've lost the psychological edge if you will that becomes inevitable some qualify of things doesn't it affects human history no we talk about intimidation on a personal level but what happens when you get a group of skittish scared unpredictable human beings together and then try to quantify the impact of the mass come out of psychological intimidation if you've lost three battles to the germans are ready you're lining up to fighter for it how much does the history of how you don't against the recently play in your ability to stand up to them now and of course if the celtic people can't stand up to the germans anymore in a doggy dog or award is that mean for the long term ability of golf swing free and independent to be looking at this from the roman viewpoint you can cut in the ceiling might come to the conclusion often walk again have all these german people right next to us in gaul soon so seizure goes begins a conversation with his german leader were essentially tell the german leader okay all the stuff has to stop he says he began to correspondents who sends a message to me says can we please meet halfway between our two locations because we're importing matter to discuss this is all in caesar's commentaries by the way he says that the german kenya replied by saying essentially if i have something to say you come to you your son a decision you come to me and then begins its online discussion it's hard to understand if you're looking at the stroke seizures porn if you because the german leader begins to question caesar about maybe you could say the legality as they would understand it in the ancient world all these things he's doing and side's legal arguments that you couldn't use now in after the nazi leaders arguments like right of conquest today but that was something that was actually sometimes part rolls back than an east german leader will cleverly say over an over again we're not doing anything you don't do he was so why are you interfering the arguments that are real justice makes true depend on caesar are just as compelling as the ones that the help patients can unmade when they were trying to ask romans can we please come through territory it's a humanitarian crisis may be come on her leadership has a whole different feel for it maybe than caesar's audience would because our new vistas looks to the modern reader maybe to be making some really good points when caesar tells him in the next letter which is much more direct you will do this you will do that organ our problem she says you're gonna release the hostages of our allies you can stop attacking our allies in the midst of bringing more german term over the rhine river and our real justice straight up into shame seizure basically says would define integers the problem the only information you have a decision caesar in one sense he's the best person the world to give it to you 'cause he met this guy face to face and talk to him on the other hand the worst person the world's tallest you because nobody has more a vested interest in slanting his way caesar says that the message they came back from this barbarian again but not sending them aside a barbarian maybe barbarian lawyers helping him out with the gullies he says to caesar this is from the s. a. hanford edition of seizure quote in reply aria best to said that it was the recognise custom of war for victor strong rulebook vanquished in any way they pleased and that the romans acted on this principle by governing their conquered subjects not according to the dictates of any third party but their own discretion since you cannot dictate to them how they would exercise their rights he ought not to be interfered with in the exercise of his it was because the dweeb that tribe its allied to rome it's because the each week had tried the fortune of war and we're the losers in the fight that they had to pay in tribute and seizure was doing in missouri is wrong in coming to go all the cars in the loss of revenue he would not return the hostages to be each week but would refrain from making any wanton attack upon them up or their allies enough they kept their agreement and paid the tributes regularly every year or if they did not the title of brothers of the roman people would not save them from the consequences i am not impressed he concluded by seizures pledge to punish my in quotes oppression of these people no one has ever fought me without bringing destruction upon himself led attack whenever he pleases he will discover would german val inescapable if we have never known defeat we've had to purge reining in arms ever fourteen years we've never sheltered beneath the roof and co is he should warn us basically the equivalent of saying it's all in until he starts to send his army to undetermined he says the germiston to send his army toward caesar there's the strategic town and ends up between the two armies to seizure in a basically going day and night to note that pushing is meant to get their first gets there first like all great generals he understands the value speed they locked themselves in the scalping town they're prepared to defend it all looked pretty good for caesar except that the people that taken over this town his soldiers start talking to the local galling people most people start telling seizures troops about these germans what they're like and how they can't even look them in the face without we're running away the seizures as all the gossip mages army scared the rumors of what the germans are like freedom out any specifically singles out to have to love this the folks back home wrong probably did to those young men on the make service on those of the rich senators and whatnot fulani little military experience of my resume before they start their running for roman officer nothing to scare you understand so maybe just a nice to be a week ago a person migrants was seizure look of a resume and all will be well caesar says that when they're looking at facing east ferocious scary unknown beasts from the edge of the world that the garlic people who normally scare the romans lives of all they scare office caesar says the young men and make all of a sudden you're finding good reasons why the urgently needed back in rome he says the fear spreads to the rest of the ranks and people start drawing up their wheels and he says they're breaking into two years you know it and strange times in their bum owning their fate tamales chemist of which of course let's be honest now caesar built up his enemies of the bunny congressman to weed out much greater he's also creating a need in the army for him this eastern ago when there with a combination of shaming people but also logical arguments are throw in a little bit love theater and you know you can seizure says anyway with the army into shape and let's be honest we seen as with other great generals also it's often a quality that people associate with great general shipwreck the ability to turn around the rounder troops rally them seizures as then as soon as other german approaches that the king of the germans are the justices ok now that i'm here we can have this discussion you want haven't ceaser has this wonderful moment with the meat on like a hill in the middle of the giant in a flat area and they weren't allowed to bring their armies close to each other's other armies alike in the distance and only ten guys on horseback are supposed to accompany each leader are told they have the conversation in gaul like so is german king's supposedly speaks collagen caesar probably had a good friend could translate for him seizures is basically the same thing he said the note to the german role in the german rulers as something someone who he said before back in questioning siege right to do this putting out that we all live by the same rules you conquer your people and you did you decide what happens to afterwards that the rule we live by and then he says and it's wonderful line were he questions seizures motives and he says i think all this he is just so much pretense for you coming here to crush me and many says english you take your army out of this country right now you know he's gonna finish caesar and any tells him that if you do leave right now i'll be happy to be your muscle man here in germany and in gaul in any time you need a favor you have to lift a finger on good for you so it's a little bit of a carrot sticks offer and once again if you were a neutral arbitrator are you might say something like hey that's not a bad deal so let's stop for a minute say you really dying at this point the story for an outsider's view point anyone else besides caesar here 'cause he's really tough to read this point why is he putting these sorts of accusatory good arguments into the mouth of the his character is that he wants you to want him to conquer we mentioned earlier there were couple of roman writers became an actor seizure us to telling us is one that's not for long after seizure about a century after two centuries after which is a guy named cash to steal india has a much more greedy viewer ceaser is motivations and essentially is what those guys the falls and the camp and c. c. should do in this the most base reasons you can think of he's involved in this monumental gamble in the politics of rome where his involvement in this region risking his life and in devoting his entire existence you reckon you're to this cause in gaul is only because of what benefits he can glean from it in the politics of rome and he's desperately in need of things like money and conquest n. honors and he's got to keep this literary coming and going because that the moment that his term in office is over he's prosecutable by his enemies and licking their chops back in rome we get to him at the same time you know at least at this point in history he has to assume that this is not a permanent command so he's on a bit of a time clock if caesar really want to do these greeting she's gonna end up doing in gaul he's got a limited amount of time to do it in cash is deals one of the people that says that everything see is doing years the equivalent of poking the germans with the stick trying to get the more roused obscene have an excuse to go in there and to labonte bomb deo by the way confuses us entirely by saying that ari of this decision making of the german she's a king of the celts that means what two things either fascist deal is a lazy romanesque number for and they were plenty and doesn't really draw a distinction but if she is accurate then you have to say well why didn't seize your column in german what's the point of seizure doing that what does he gained by creating this new group of people that may have been a generic name that once upon a time only applied to one tried be in modern day germany this from my harbor baldwin foster conditioned by the way a ship or not the p. l. o.'s pronouns musa pronouns sometimes confusing saw him a inserted into the purse nice talking about in place of the pronoun so it makes more sense you're right court now are you missed as the ruler of those celts is demeaning had been ratified by actions of the romans and he'd been registered among their friends and allies by caesar himself in his consul shep jim harrison however with the glory to be derived from the war in the power which that glory would bring the roman general caesar she didn't love those considerations except as is so far as you wish to get some excuse for the quarrel from the barbarian so that should not be thought that there was any grievance against him caesar at the start therefore he sent for ari of eustace pretending to be what the hold some conversation with him are you this distance that of obeying replied missis close to caesar's on description by the way seize your wishes to tell me anything let him come himself to me i'm not in any way inferior to him at the man who has need of anyone that must always go to that person but this caesar showed anger on the grounds that are in the midst isn't salted all the romans as caesar immediately demanded the barrio this does the hostages of the allies and forbade him either to set foot on their land where bring against them any auxiliary force from all this seizure did not do with the idea scaring him but because he hoped to make him furious and by that means to gain a great and feeding pretext for the war was expected to replace the barbarian enraged the injunctions may along in our readers reply to that caesar no longer bandied words with him and co that's a completely different view isn't it cashews deal also gives a very different account of caesar rallying his terrified roman synagogue town we just discussed rather than being one of the few non terrified people who could do and spread his lack of fear to his entire army deal basically has the troops looking at what you're up against and thinking maybe that they shouldn't even be up against an awesome that the germans the american guy who put the situation with they should be fighting the germans according to deal they are very aware of what role they played in this whole thing get the pawns in seizures game to further seizures courier and they also seem to realize politically speaking that this is outside the boundaries maybe of what the romans themselves would consider a legal military adventure caches diaz says that when these romans were scared in a college town been scared 'cause they keep hearing about the germans and the germans are coming he says it leaves them deeply dejected and then he says quote alarmed about the stature of their enemies by their numbers their boldness and consequently threats they were in such a move is to feel that they were going to continue and not against men against uncanny in ferocious beasts and the top was that they were undertaking no war which was none of their business and it not been decreed merely on account of caesar's personal ambition and they threatened it also to leave him in the lurch if he should not changes course and equal cessna pushes skiers soldiers to get their fear rallied out of them by a charisma grier this is a bunch of troops to fully realize what's going on here are angry to leader for putting 'em in his position in the threatening need me if he doesn't change the course she's on the mean that's a very different story right there isn't it i'm not sure it really matters know in terms of how weber flecks on seizures reputation because either way it really says something about the guy that he was able to rally those troops and put them in a position in the state of mind with a good face this german leader of your king or maybe aria vistas was an elected war leader for a confederation of tribes it's argued about but that's a guy who are in this tissue as the entire the central park and in fact he did say most of gaul how would buy his power authority seizure jersey's either mutinous or petrified with fear or some combination of the two troops and gets them on the field against this guy huh now the way the battle shapes up supposedly is it starts with a bunch of maneuvering this is the very on the sexy side of military history people like yours truly who like to cut right to choose we like a nice no well organized and sewed up field bottles in a nice level valley we've had a lot of time for both sides to set up a menu of your super big encountered but truthfully in real history for the general said on his job for job bomb you should have the other side beaten by the time you get to that point and sometimes the big maneuvering on the strategic level that as the but sometimes it's just the little shading he here and the slighted managed care and they all add up general strike history been almost no roddick about figuring out a little elements that again in damage and there are quite a few different periods in history where because of the military technology in the limitations if both sides didn't actively want to fight the battle sometimes it didn't happen at once i'm gone to avoid it often times it was easy to do the seventeenth and eighteenth century probably like the high water mark of a few hundred years ago where because of the way things were enough one sided modified about almost never happened in this period caesar and the german commander are both sort of jockeying for position and maneuvering one of the things about the romans that makes them so not yet another swans sexy side of military history but the roman soldiers are about half devastating soldier in about half construction worker and these people could set up a fortifications in real time in a way that actually affected the battles inundated the situation in the case with our interest is the maneuvering actually takes the form of both sides trying to march around the other ring came upon the lines of supplies to cut them off when the germans did they would take wagons and whatnot supposedly with them as sort of the put them in a circle like pioneers in the old west used to do of course they had a lot more wagons were talking about what bigger structures but when the romans would build it can't even a small sum can't they would build it like an old fort in the old american wax genome and we're talking about with chamber and guard powers and maybe even artillery in the guard towers and the romans were so good at this and often gave it every night when they were on the field that they had this down to a science merely knew exactly where to go on how to do more with a look at the layout was always the same so when the romans came to in your line of supply you wake up the next morning they would be a fort there were there was open country the day before so then after the initial maneuverings want the romans had this forty two good of the position the germans are launching attacks against the ford and those are beaten often is a bunch of this kind of preliminary but still pretty large scale skirmishing before caesar maybe some mr raines think is beginning to have supply problems himself missile lot more of the natives around in here and he seems to be in danger and needing to fight a battle or get out and so he says he draws the army up in battle formation marches it out toward the germans on several occasions by the way by this time period the roman battle formation by the way easter we beat the lines deep usually in caesar says that's the way he lives up to see you know that means at different thing from ranks ranks of the number of troops that are lined up in rwanda humming the other and oftentimes each of these alliances between this is not just for roman to anyone for to like sixteen ranks depot pike formation maybe twelve of sixteen ranks the romans war forty eight but then it will be a dead zone of maybe fifty yards per yard hundred yards animal be another line of men lined up and rex is should be the romans second line of the romans were often have a third line this seems like common sense we think about it today but in the ancient world is very unusual the romans have worse or herbs and time and again it will save them in these battles because they will find out all sums going wrong someplace and all guess what we have about twenty italy five percent of our total force on engaged just sitting back there for limine to the trouble their reaction time and again it saves go in this battle caesar he is very cut and dried remember this is not a true history he's writing this is supposed to be sort of in the format of your dispatches from the front and sometimes to talk about what's going on the ballot lying but you would think with the really important one like this will he go into great detail and he doesn't he basically says when the real clash of arms comes this bottle was opposed to the four most historians think in what's now alsace but no one shirt probably on the west bank of the ride is somewhere the romans probably had in the neighborhood of thirty thousand men and the germans who knows you should see from fifty two hundred thousand although you get the occasional outlier i love and storm broke asian no leisure the a great neutral arbitrator and lost is germans involved which case he's got his home or glasses on the proceedings quite as on biased and he thinks the romans outnumbered the germans but he's unusual sobel set him aside during just assume the romans were probably somewhat outnumber perhaps two to one in the worst case scenario caesar says that the battle takes place so quickly there's no time for the usual exchange of missiles the rome's long control those heavy gallons they do a lot of damage when you throw them in all it wants hundreds of thousands of men throwing you should be jealous all want but the germans in the roman senate charging each other too quickly for that we get rich was sorts log right away seizures as to the flanks he's on the begins to push the german flag opposite them back but that the other romans like on the force on the battlefield is being overwhelmed by the german numbers dennis says that a roman officer that he name is buying amen 'cause he's on horseback can see the problem from a distance realize all somebody better or the third line it's not doing anything right now you need to fix this situation and he does so we saved about seizure by the way named this person as the sign at all of the richest guy in rome crisis with you recall is one of the embers of the first triumvirate along with caesar and poppy so you see in a way caesar still doesn't forget no we're his bread is buttered and how the play the wonderful game of politics in you scratch my back and i'll scratch yours remember caesar was allegedly not able to leave rome at one point because his creditors would let him out of the city until classes paid the bill now listen here in this battle were seizure has been going to death about much of anything he goes out of his way to mention a single individual dishonored the guy who paid the debt form an all by the way he's basically saying without that guy you know we lost the battle against the germans that funny little bit of a honor to the family isn't it so maybe paying back a favor or maybe putting crisis in debt for the future one unless he's yours never far from playing the game in this case the game is deadly as you might imagine these germans want again are supposed to come up with the wagons and the families and the women on the wagons you know with the disheveled hair screaming at the man please don't let us all into slavery the problem with having all these women why guns on the battlefield is obviously that at some point the battle moves from where it started to the wagons and the people in the wagon isn't once again we have a battle where it's implied more than laid out for you but that the romans kill a lot of civilians including on some of the relatives of aria vistas who somehow gets away what we don't hear any more from him the germans were ron miles to the rhine caesar says there will be more germane to just about to come more help us with a cure but the big defeat of our investors to turn around go home what caesar's doing here for mum mum macro perspective though if you think about is that there were aboard ship powers that were the power brokers in this region before caesar intervened in oregon last year so think about how quickly everything's happening caesar has essentially neutered one of them held the shemona most powerful tribes on the celts is no shadow of what was just moments before 'cause what teacher did you would and now this player from outside the street ego or risk mab board to come in in intervened in gaul in politics is smashed and sent packing back over the rhine the sting of seizure portrays a border what's crazy to think about is that all of this is happening here fifty eight b. c. because when you think about the ancient world you think about world in many cases whose much more slowly than the modern one and yet caesar has a blitzkrieg going on in gaul he says in some historical double date three battle some some holding two battles depending on what you consider that for so long for the helvey shuns when a corridor number were koran on the force on the river to be about or not but nonetheless in that war the release six to eight months because they don't campaign most of the time in the winter exceeded all this damage and changed the the power structure of this region if he thought it was de stabilize before we got involved in that was the skis for getting involved he's totally de stabilized it now but when years coming so what is caesar do well he puts his army in winter quarters me goes back to the area just north of rome to keep an eye on roman politics is so think about us next move now here's the thing you could make a case if you wanted to win some have that everything caesar just accomplish was donna you know in a crisis situation in hot pursuit whether with the migration held the issues which is you know as we said earlier it's like if you woke up this morning found two hundred thousand people in on your board just unexpectedly be some silver prices so that we see super traces of the given the benefit of the doctor say we'll hear the reactor couldn't go back to roman has provoked and before you just but for what you do as a and the province you go when they're knew you roll with the punches so caesar had to do that and in the germans in our economy not was also the same thing they were coming over the border was getting worse you had it was a critical situation but undertaken when ross we go from a high blood situation to cold blood we didn't think about which you would do now i love the way tom on doesn't alter he's created building the sons of suspension and he portrays the goals of this point in his book rubicam on a as sort of waking up together to the fact that during the process of being conquered it's a strange thing that's happening so quickly and because the galway tribes or you'd separate from each other if they conquered the tribe it next to you does that mean your being conquered will not necessarily a new line happy to panic but if enough of the big tribes knew you were being conquered and if you happen in old just a little of the history of roman behavior pina their celtic areas spain for example or northern italy or what's now southern france you understand that these romans have a track record they come in to defeat the celtic people did begin to settle in in a generation or two they kill the people become shorter galls in a couple generations after that they become a toga wearing goggles and tom all in prisons this case where one caesar puts his troops in winter quarters in the middle of gaul it sends a signal that everyone that hey wait a minute he's here to stay and we're going to prevent a complete take over as has happened to other celtic peoples it's time to get serious about defending this place tom holland right cool too that winter worth fifty eight fifty seven b. c. rather than withdrawing his legions back into his province caesar left the ability of a hundred miles north of the bronte or deep in the territory of the supposedly independent try once again an illegal measure was justified by the pro console as an actor forward defense this was an argument that mia satisfy public opinion back in rome but did not think he's amounting sense of outrage in gaul itself the full implications of seizures new policy or by now starting to hit home what precisely would satisfy the romans desire for defensible ferrante or if the rotten to the east them why not the channel to the north with the atlantic coast of the west across frozen for instance the yields from village to village been chieftains halted chieftains called the same rumor was born the romans were aiming to pacify all gall that in quotation marks as warriors burnished to their glittering jewel were ought to shields and strip billings he did approve themselves ready for battle for did id she did streams with full armor on their backs so rival tribes sought to patch up their differences frigo all prepared itself for war end quote i think the surest sign of the weight to caesar was thinking during this time period is he is excuse for going back in de gaulle and continuing to fight even though the spring lose in these crisis moments bed forced him to respond and honest he says the very act of these people deciding to work together against him justified am going after them this is for my carolyn hammond translation caesar were first to caesar the stock in himself and the third person only talks about the delegate he's talking about this kind of celtic people as he described it to the north of the eerie he's been campaigning the people that actually make up what was the population of modern day belgium part of the netherlands a part of germany and part of northeast conferred a much larger area the modern day belgium as some of them may have migrated across the channel to southeastern britain to you but it's these tribes of del game that are uniting against seizure so he points out that well obviously it's a conspiracy hammond translation says quote as we mentioned about caesar was a mirror gall or you're a host of rumors confirmed by letter from lady and ask that all the delegate who make up one third of gaul as we said before we're hatching a plot against the roman people exchanging hostages the reason for this plot were as follows first they were afraid their army would march against them now that all the rest of gold been subdued secondly they were being stirred up by a number of the dolls some of whom had been unwilling to the germans to have any further involvement in gaul and were equally we're locked into the army of the roman people took over winter and become established mayor others were volatile among stable disposition the sort of men who don't like him changes of rule yet another group inside the delegate to conspire because it was common in gaul for men who possessed some degree of power and the means the higher support to seize regal pao or something which would be more difficult to achieve under our rule and quote now to look it does in neutral arbitrator here once again caesar resists initially indicting these people for do against actually what they should be doing if you think about this logically because caesar's just smashed one of the most powerful tribes in gaul pete got the support of another war roman allies pages kick the dreaded germans algae few believe that these really were germans and he's taken the surrender or in submission of abolish of other galling tribes who wore a power now by what he's accomplished and these people to the north all these tribes the seizures as are the town of implies that their part celtic and part german but this is freed all at this point these are the tribes that have the ability to raise a lot of troops and still fight caesar and seizure says it's not hard to believe that these fifth columnists from friendly tribes in certain tribes that every submitted barbados secretly whispering in the year of the delegates you in other words there is an anti roman insurgency in gaul and seizures talking about here and once again the simple fact they did exist legitimizes his involvement in the region to stop it allegedly this tribal confederation in the northeast delegate tribes will be able to put together almost three hundred thousand warriors not when children old people on that boat warriors i'm taking you can't help but contrast that with what the native americans are trying to resist you know expansion in north america with a fifteen hundred or maybe two thousand don't really good day warriors in here see is trying to figure out how to tackle with no guns right with no cannon not unlike that three hundred thousand native peoples even if that number's high with its two hundred thousand one of my favorite stories which kind in my mind shows how you know you can do things in different ways to accomplish the same goals we think of the really bureaucratic ancient state to be taken in egypt or china or to see real or rome even you think okay when they needed an army has they must retire the court together and the reason you think abruptly bureaucratic affair the only thing missing the or the eye patch for these people in the big paper records the be all kinds of stuff it's a modern an organization situation we raise our misa had tried to do it especially tribes and lots of people walk the changes source that says that the celtic method for this was a variation if you will on the idea the last one in his rotten egg it's last one who rides to the mustard get tortured to death in front of the army isn't that wickedly efficient and yet any de centralize so tribal way we're not gonna get to our recommended to specific about his diary written record of huddled up at the last guy who shows up to the muster we we kill him by slow torture for the whole army just so you now see you soon i love that i hope that's true justice that's that's wonderfully collar fall any of the problems of these tribes have is that they need all these people to resist roman encroach with but the larger these so called barbarian armies get harder they are to feed and just imagine as the three hundred thousand more play within a smaller number two hundred thousand well that's what two three each modern football stadiums how long can you feed that with barbarian logistics ann stone broke we like love to call chrissy so materialistic and algorithm scoffs at a key point out that this is where the young sexy damage of them of the so called civilized bureaucratic state to really it is ability to feed people in the field so that they're there to fight doesn't matter how the people your opponent has it you're starving anatomy that good for the army has to break up to the camp find food we're not really an army three hundred thousand people than are you you're a bunch a smaller army is spread out over why your area trying to find enough stuff to keep you trip to starving to death a new c. n. he can defeat you bit by bit which is what seizure does caesar will also have is gone like ally as attack individual tribes are part of this they'll get a confederation keep them busy while he concentrates on whether wants once again caesar says that these people are particularly ferocious and once again he blames it on the fact that they're not corrupted by roman law treated her long way from world which keeps and somewhat insulated to bring archaeological works that to say that before the north you go for rome the smaller the town's get cholesterol been nice sort of encore you have the more the government's begin to resemble governments that are gone out of fashion in the park to gaul call should roll like aristocracy seen kings so maybe there's some truth to it it's hard to explain why you these bell gay people were so much tougher than the surrounding calls if indeed the war all seemed a bit more numerous or better landed they don't have better work with meant for training they don't have more money me none of that none of the things were you might be able to say will there's a legitimate reason why these people lord it over the golan neighbors caesar says it's basically 'cause they're tougher and more ferocious you don't accept that because that's a stereotypical rhetorical for open it is why do you explain it a friend of mine there was a military history major i went to college with um he had the best n.'s remember her to the us his answer was he just wasn't buying any of it he wasn't leaving any of the stuff caesar said in his mind any question about how tough this trial was russia's how tough that tribe was all star caesar throws in munich seizure look better he says you can never know about that time the stasi he's going to use the only a fact that you have out there on the table to form a most likely scenario he said one fact on the table here that is clear from everything in its screenings through the sources is that this roman army was income peregrine better and the fellows that they faced it's not a very good story though she talked about how the u. pitied the roman army may be the best of the roman army is arguably the best of the roman armies that was ever feel good if you say that yes or army came to cut to the barbarians like pottery was no competition that child could come into the romans and destroy the barbarians that's not a very good way to frame yourself promotional peace which is sending back to rome is it my friend just doesn't buy any of that in his mind the only thing you know for sure is that these battles sound like slaughters and even the seizure usually tries to throw in a near riot moment yes it was touch and go for law that we crush them it doesn't really seem that way and romany damages are hard for most modern people certainly for me to really understand because if something about the way were raised to this technological here is that we live in the whenever you talk about the vast differences between military capabilities we assume it's gonna be mostly technological not easy for us to conceptual eyes if you say it was on his ballot machine guns never had bows and arrows are modern gringos awhile but the slaughter at the technological difference he's going to equals are gonna come but if you tell us the two armies in two thousand years ago were really different in terms of what they could do you reach other how you nasty they were but they're very similar in terms of actual weapons technology it's hard for us to understand it what is that makes up the difference is that could account for that of course all the x. which really understand and there are few experts on real ancient warfare but don't tell you you mrs would drill and discipline does this one equipping basically emotions your troops with armored and metal how much does and we used the example want to mention two n. f. l. teams decide and have a football game one teams not allowed any pattern helmet to anything now imagine that both sides direction toying with edged weapons and it's a lot more nasty been pro football tickets you aware that might be a big damage also so you throw that in with the drill with i mean if there's a lot that goes into it but it's not as i said a very good stories you say the romans came and destroyed the barbarians it was no trouble all and my friends mine that's why you need to keep up open up this next tried to teach and information you thought about what that does leave the worse because it begins to get aluminum and caesar's not losing any of these battles and not even coming close really untold you and that was one of these tribes doing it what common sense would dictate that certain point you should do which is his caesar's baptist income apparently fantastic army and if it's eating you all live from the battlefield stop facing it you don't have to red snapper scribe and it's hard for certain cultures sometimes because when you get to these warrior cultures that have the heroic some of our personally fells where are you doing battle and bravery and conspicuous bravery right out in front of other people and they're frightened tools and all that is part of your makeup to talk about subterfuge and ambushing and stuff like that no it doesn't always mesh so well with the warrior spirit but believe me necessities the mother of invention and seizure goes to take on the various tribes the bell gave the bell guy by the way isn't that where pronounce it on the first thing that happens is they get these large numbers of people together which they can't feed so seizure apparently wakes them out we'll be some skirmishing london this'll do that but it looks like caesar times to just sit there and absorb all the food he can for rizzo logistical services while he watches the enemy around him supposedly in a three hundred thousand numerical range begin to start so pasha have to call and still broke you 'cause he's the logistical guy jill brooke explains seizures foray into northern gaul with the belge compelled to people live and says quote the belle de also bell guy had a premonition of their impending danger united their forces him when caesar crossed their borders moved out against him with a large allied army of civilization as means of warfare that are lacking to barbarians the bell gay were no doubt capable of assembling a large army but not holding it together and feeding it just as the kimberly and two tones those barbarians from caesar's birth period had to split up on their campaign in italy and were defeated individually by marius caesar instead of moving immediately into a decisive battle against an army of the same size as his or perhaps considerably larger than the means of splitting up the allied army so that he didn't deal with only individual tribes in the meantime go broke right caesar and organized two legions somebody now have a total of eight with his auxiliary troops of canadians creek ms boe lyrics in gaul account or read his army may have well numbered fifty thousand combatants the grand total of eighty thousand two hundred thousand souls in order to feed such a mass in one place for rather long time one must have a very strong reliable organization transport suppliers and finance system the romans had such means or as the delegated not and many points out that we get ability of the romans to sort of make stationary field fortifications a battlefield weapon the brooks is cool but caesar had still other means at his disposal be set up a camp on the north bank of the main drina river in his army was so well equipped with tools the soldiers so well disciplined and so well trained in the techniques that within the shortest possible time an impregnable fortress stood there in the coat to give unity of size and size vary depending on how large the roman forced needed to be in the camp happen to be bad some of these camps to be well over a hundred acres in size and i always had a kitchen they always have a ram part of the roman soldiers carry sharpens stakes when they marched to the midnight the dipstick the stakes into the earth and ramparts of became a pin cushion around the camp the record towers walls and every day they can stay in the same spot indian movie became a more sophisticated deeper more defensible more finished if you're there long enough roman times which were laid out on a prescribe roman road grid system which included a main street insider none of this little roman towns what amounted to these tents returning the cabins at that camp for their long enough to be artillery and they could put it up so fast note as we said earlier i believe the roman soldiers about how soldier might have construction worker and a construction worker side was more important than you might think you fans the romans nor ready to which it's something that they brought to the table which was unusual there were other armies they can create a camps in war obsessive about creating camps to to protect themselves for example when on campaign but the romans almost used their construction ability in an office of why it's fabulous that was a core shrink all look upon into which case no how disheartening is it to think okay we've got a nice relatively open battle field here we're gonna freak he's romans tomorrow and wake up in the morning to find fortifications on the battlefield and artillery hash of one of only say artillery we obviously need roman in greek style artillery nothing gunpowder re in this case a lot of it was what's called a portion devices and i've seen nice things and i still don't understand the principle but it involves twisted c. news and its stores up on energy one inch released you can fling it stones or projectiles to look like a big heavy arrows works the years from these weapons and by the way these weapons come in all shapes and sizes and the very largest of them are rather enormous but in this case most of the ones we're talking about are lighter weapons seizure specifically in woman translations refers to one of the artillery pieces involved is a one pound or an antelope oedipal one hundred means the stone itself that this weapon the long and weigh one pound and and i read another source to talk about the fee or that these stones flying through the air at high speed in the cell may made if you can generate some time did you run the receiving end of those maybe this is how you outclass an opponent when your weapons systems are not all bad dissimilar i mean they're both use and edged weapons that are metal they both got spears they both the use humans in your power for a tactical battlefield stopped romer jewelry is pretty awesome and having the logistical organization capability to build a fortress overnight but pretty important affected too add to that we've been talking about the ability to feed your army on campaign that and easily explains how caesar's campaign against these tribes about gay actually work out we said he may be facing three hundred thousand of these warriors up in the north hearing in the english channel but how do you feed a barbarian army that large the answer is apparently you don't seizures as the tribes come together have a meeting and say tom we gotta go home where we gotta go back to their own homes we know we can figure selves so i'll go back to our own homes and we get there if caesar attach any of us everybody will come to the aid of the attack to write historians are divided as to whether or not that is a realistic defense strategy some soda pact or whether it is a cop out shana to cover up the every man for himself or every tribe for himself sort of attitude for those curious and storm broke falls into the latter category but he's trying to decide to break up and go home well let's pretend it is three hundred thousand people when they decide to go home and they've been facing caesar a hundred even go about this money is it like to make a pair of things to woodstock the woodstock for a cause earlier what'll happen to woodstock breaks up lots of people in large masses just lugo streaming in the opposite direction so we do if your caesar your opportunist will you attack don't you he said discount or re running through these crowds of people stealing them shooting them each is running and get killed untold numbers all these belgacom and ran back to work for their tribal homeland was as they seem to have decided that they were gonna hold up most of the time in these hills force of theirs which by the way if you'd never seen one go look in the real photo they're awesome basically what these people do you must find it in our natures fortification were nature handcrafted the wonderful area to defend him then added in a human touch is some timber hear some stole more clear and what have you but if you have a nice flat giant hale you have maybe in the east river the curves around a whole side of that forming a defense of obstacle i mean you're you get a pretty good start a lot of these tribes may be thought that they could hold out in these locations and they were wrong apparently all caesar had to do we show up to some of these nasty scary tribes the talk about and the second they saw him they gave up one tribe big nasty tried times about as warriors seizures as they saw the romans siege weapons when i'm out if you're to use those are my so over awed by roman technology there he says another with his big nasty tribes didn't even get within five miles of their health fortney were coming on to say we're don he says the last of the big tribes that was opposing him with his tribe called energy and under the eye wayne oppenheim ulrich right scary northeast is that the took their people their wives and children and their elderly their animals in their baggage and possessions and they took him into the deep dark swamps with romans couldn't get 'em what can resist so of course caesar takes the army into the land of america yeah i he says one day till they're deciding whether to make camp for the night 'cause we talk about the hit the little obsessive about the camps but if you're as bad at scouting a reconnaissance as the romans roadways joke about being a as well my friends also said that the jurors bats can as the romans are you better have a good camp with big walls and towers and in this case easier as his arm you're riding along calm down the road because where we like to talk about feel battles all the time let's understand most of the time these armies rama move 'em when they're on the move there stretched out a long line like a snake all the way into the distance very vulnerable position to be in in the head of the snake arrives at the campsite for the night seizure tells blows legion is better their first star billing the camp the legions of the very tale of the snake will be arriving for some time seizure chooses another one of these hills but if you've been paying attention he likes all peratis writings he likes a nice day old they could put most of his army on its size why's he likes a nice gentle slope on one side he loves it if you can have a train featured regard flying in this case there's river at the bottom of the softly sloping hill he says to re feet deep but it's there any says on the opposite side of the river is a mirror image of his hill it's slopes up from the river gently he says there's about two hundred paces to take about a couple football fields album sort of open country in the mayor's awarded on the top of the hill so seizure as the elite legions put down their packs to put a military stuff aside get their hair merge their nails the timber the schobel to begin making the camp and transform themselves into these amazing construction workers meanwhile he says and this could be open to question by the way first as what's about to happen here will turn caesar some criticism during his own lifetime under military experts ever since but he said has i put out my cavalry in my white troops and have them screening this whole operation right to protect the volatile regions that were now under construction at the moment as mourn more of my troops arrived from the calm eventually caesar will have six legions they are building a fort with more on the way and he says my cavalry is skirmishing with some of the delegate cavalry and he says and then my baggage comes into view in the distance of the roman baggage is in the middle of this long calmly comes over the horizon and everyone can see attorney says when that happens that's the signal for the ambush to start he says appears in the army of nervy ally in the woods on the opposite hill from caesar's and army as my friend said right hey if you're good to be so bad it's getting you miss the army of barbarians in the woods across rumor you're building a camp you better have a strong camp in this case right around the time seizures calvary gets close enough to the woods maybe to figure out what's in there within their charges out of the woods seizures as an astonishing speed dance by carolyn mpeg caroline jimenez de great line astonishing speed seizure then goes on to say that the brush aside his cavalry and light infantry screen like an insect basically and they come screaming down the hill now we have no idea how big this hill idiots all we can say it is that the screen down that hill they crossed the three foot river the start up the next till i'm aspinall caesar is six legions aronie not ready for this now we talked earlier about why we chose this is supposed subject i said it was fascinated with the tribal people in this situation at the scene all through history trying to resist the encroachment of the more technologically organization superior for more fish and culture i chose this one because unlike the native american example of the african example these people had a chance to win now they were never in the bidding favorites and the way that they performed so far in battles against the roman army demonstrates that the numbers are so much larger than what the north american native americans for example could put together that you can see why you got to give these people into court boxing line departures chance good luck figuring out how many people there or here of your gun w. caesar you're gonna get up to numbers are like seventy five thousand though seem absurd the while rome's mayor and that's pretty confirmable so sad to be too low a few said twenty thousand that's going to be four times the largest native american force i've ever heard of four times and we're talking about the charging of the woods all wants twenty thousand would also be about how many zulus rep and famous battle in the late eighteen hundreds when they wiped out the force of thirteen or fourteen hundred i'm a soldier sean britain but the truth is it's probably large amounts of peace in thirty five thousand thirty five thousand men charging out of the woods we've been running distance from reno and that's how long you have to get your act together before they hit you and try to blow you away like a wave blowing through a few bathers on the beach caesar goes into overdrive this point and you begin to see what makes the guy so special he's not alexander the great grabbing the spirit leading the cow bring to the charge seizure does rubbish shield he says but he begins to go and demonstrate leadership he also says that these veteran troops to allot for themselves as caesar had left their officers with him and so all of them was simply throw down their work tools grab the weapon that they could find seizures as their shields were still on the leather cases their helmets were often around and they just were handed in your standards they forgot anything about going to be around you know dishes trying to form a block of human beings that to resist us on the russians coming toward the mouthful running speed unless an estimate of the nervy i'd charge him here are purchase up a huge gamble because they certainly know that they're going to be like blown the horses of the time they reached the roman lines they're taking this gambled that there will be in you were on lines when they get there yet that they're going to be able to attack these romans walter still divided and small clumps butter on connected to each other in which case they should be able to judge baltimore way but to gamble is it they don't they're not going to have a whole lot last distressingly any kind of long term school all geared to seizures as he grabs a flag peace as a couple of words of encouragement to the unit that he's with before going to the next unit to talk to them about the time he gets to the next to their already engaged this is a moment here with these legions in caesar with them could easily be overrun that allows us to play was encounter factual sui haven't really been able to discussion pepper scanner for actually is when caesar losers here the second contractually as we seize your di is here in the first case that we had said earlier that the roman expansion into the tribal territory which trouble territory to the north of them seemed inevitable just a manifest as jimmy seemed inevitable maybe the question to ask is how many guess would it take to make something that seemed inevitable not inevitable anymore because we can see that only about sixty five years after this battle the rumors of the ambush by another tribe of people were tribes of people this time in germany modern day germany in there probably will be to call germans they will destroy this roman army of famous battle called the twitter burger vault in nine maybe i believe it is the roman commander will commit suicide on the battlefield to avoid falling into the hands of his barbarian opponents which if you believe the hype that poor woman sources is a good thing to do because the romans conducted it's legendary would be a good way to put the legendary mission a couple years after the defeat in tobacco to recover what's left of their dead comrades they go into the deep dark forest is supposedly the jewelry details of a roman skeletons in stapled to the trees and piles of skulls and religious all chores with their dead romans and blood everywhere i mean just this horrible tribal nightmarish visitation of all shall we say the natives frustration at the situation you have the famous story of the roman emperor at the time go beat his head against the wall and supposedly y'all the name of the general who kill themself garrison say there is give me back my legions tell us only about fifteen thousand dead romans and what ever happened there was one of the main component supposedly that made the romans decide to know what we don't need to dance before they're in germany more it's a good place to set aboard or the will expand elsewhere if that really play that large a role in the romans decide not to go and germany any farther if caesar lost twice that many men at this battle and what is twice that many men in the larger scheme of things if you say that she could the navy is it ever done anything to short circuit manifest asked me well i don't know what they killed thirty thousand american soldiers in an afternoon when did the math i mean all these numbers are up her they doubled to that which is a common sources and i added up all of the combat deaths that the united states has suffered from the wars of independence we got our independence in this country up until the first for war started an ice attracted the civil war because those are crazy datsun everybody on both sides dying is american casualty so how would you as combat jets excluding the civil war up to nineteen seventeen and it's oh certainly hundred thirty thousand if you lost all the people you lost your independence to the first for warp minus the civil war in an afternoon that without a slowdown manifest as to the all how much if the united states ran into a garlic kingdom on the other side the western side of the mississippi early on and they inflicted the thirty thousand afternoon on the united states but the ramifications of that who knows but remember the romans have no guns they have no can in tehran this hill trying to deal with these people that are going to smash into them and seizures running community you know trying to help it's the most critical pointed his career so far if he dies here which is very very possible as the roman republic fall does the empire rubber starter mean the domino star tom bowling if there's no caesar at the end of this afternoon and remember seizures going to maximize his chances of becoming a casualty by continually in the running over to whichever part of his battle line if you can even call it something as organized as that whichever party is the most threatened right we're the nine one call is he's gonna go there when the bell gay women are the i've managed to hitch his troops his troops on the laughter we will get off he says a throw of the appealingly henry javelin and in charge down the hill but this one group of celts are a delegate will beat them chased him down the hill chased them over the river the warriors walden regroup in charge the romans again only to be beaten by the left wing of the romans again and that left wing will start dancing up the hill wards where the celtic camp is caesar center will also weather the storm and managed to do something similar by being in hand to hand combat the warriors that they run into to their front will also advance now the problem is is with the left in the center and dancing you end up with an open space the roman rate we no longer has any protection there aren't covered on the flank you might say i am and seizures as a giant group of these men are the i tried to run with the commander elected giant hammer hand column push drew this gap and i'm was there passed the center point some of them turn around and begin to smash into the flank of caesar's right-hand units some of them go straight on ahead to what the roman camp with thoughts of looting and burning in pillaging so seizures rate and legions are now in trouble he runs over to them to try to help meanwhile when the celtic forces do delegate forces breaking into caesar's camp to start looting and the people that see that think the battle's over seizures as his calgary in an allied troops the dude did been brushed aside like insects and beaten so badly when this first start are just now we're really strangling in the camp they look up in the seat the very people who just beat the hell out of them running rampant three caesar's camp and they go that's anatomy ron away all the civilian and the average joe camp followers ron in fear we're told even that seizures very top supposedly a celtic ally encounter ringing sees these bell gay running rampant through the roman came up and figures they're going to so they turn around and go home and other words the seizures bad situation is getting worse by the moment so he runs over to the right flank with asian uttering a desperate trouble and basically or trace the situation as dire collapsed on the right flank as imminent usually seizure described the difficulties on the right flank is for my essay hanford translation remember when caesar right sea stories talking about himself and the third person court after addressing the tenth legion caesar regard to the right wing worry falmouth troops in difficulties that cohorts of the twelfth legion were packed together so closely that the men were in one of his way and could not fight properly although censure riggins of the fourth cohort as well as the standard bearer were killed in the standard was lost nearly all the century and the other cohorts were either killed or wounded including the chief century and probably a sixty years back it was a man a very great courage who was so disabled by a number of severe wounds that he could no longer stand the men's movement were slow in some in the rear feeling themselves abandoned were retiring from the fight in trying to get out of range meanwhile the enemy maintained unceasing pressure rub the hill in front and we're also closing in on both flanks that the situation is critical and no reserves were available caesar snatched the shield from soldier when every year he had not his own shield with him made his way into the front line addressed each century him by name and shouted encouragement to the rest of the troops ordering them to push forward and open up their ranks of that they could use their swords more easily he's coming gave them fresh hard to help each man wanted to do his best under the eyes of this commander in chief however desperate the payroll any enemies assault was slow down a little and co but the legion next door that was having even worse trouble to caesar ran over there you're the commanders of that forced to put his soldiers into a squire are so that they couldn't be outflanked an attack from the rear really more not stabilize that situation the story metering goldsworthy writes about this moment saying that caesar had stabilized the situation on the right flank but the collapse was still came in it was just a matter of time the the celtic force was battering these romans down the two things happened that ended up having the same effect on this battle the romans having a third reserve line has done in the previous battle term and they don't have reserve line here get out of line enough to plough aid or is it happening to those romans that had been victorious initially on the left the big on capture the barbarian camp on the opposite hill we're now able to look down and see the problem that caesar was facing to the began to come down the hill to review the fight themselves plots the legions in the very end of the column the detail of the snake have finally gotten to the top of the hill and look down and see what's going on at and they now into the fray so even though seizure wasn't able to create the traditional roman for blind reserve lined up for when you know when everything was going to hell hand basket the circumstances had an effect created water in the legion they came down after capturing the celtic camp and the ones that came up from the rerouting baggage train that turned the tide of the battle and remember these bell gave these nearly allied and related tribes had sold your soul for that initial charge they were labeled horses as we said the arrival of fresh troops is the worst thing that could've happened to them but caesar says they were top they were ferocious they would not giving in even when he had them basically you know compressed into 'em and disordered mob money was he was killing them all with missile weapons to the deep enough to risk is troops he said the warrior stood on top of the corpses of their friends hold the the years of the enemy out of their shields were caught them in the air and turn around and threw them back there yelling to finally to the romans even as they know how the afternoon stomach turn out a ferocious war your enemy allowing themselves to be absolutely decimated rather than run away and once again lunch remember caesar as every interest to portraying them to be as incredibly nasty and brave as possible on the last may be the war seizure says that after the bottle the families to be taken shelter in the deep dark wood church wants came out to a baking his clemency which seizure gears and was known forgiving plenty of times and point out and be fair to him it was part of this act a little bit toward the shtick part of imagine us a call sometimes only to move somebody did also says though they gave him a rundown of what they suffered in the battle he says that they told him i'm sixty thousand fighting men they only had five hundred left you could carry arms now that doesn't tell you if those people are all dead or if they're incapacitated from wounds likelier combination of both we have no idea what the breakdown is but they also point out caesar has destroyed their leadership in the style the sale of six hundred and differ translation see different things want to senators another says counsellors another says magistrates put out of six hundred of these leading figures in the tribe the survivors tell caesar only three are alive so for all intents and purposes he has destroyed this tribe i didn't basil and it's going to make a crucial difference in this one little bit of leftover business of the seas are calm pushes read the news battle one of the tribes it was coming to help the nervy i never made it to the battlefield found out the results turn brown went home but that doesn't get she lot of trouble with caesar who follows them back home he has a very confusing incidental hauling in the deals of the surrender the blood maybe were misinterpreted it nonetheless bad things happen so seizure eventually had to storm the town to lucky pole he says she sold fifty three thousand people from the population into slavery and points out that he sold 'em all in one locked roman version of storage war sir something how much for this entire city of slave say you get fifty three thousand a bargain price in the slaves now let's recall something this he is money teaching you sell the slaves you make money at one of the things that comprise booty mani stop it whenever you can take in cell or whatever you can take for yourself sometimes caesar when gift slave is the one word slaves five minutes ago let's put that out i'm julia soldier should reach one gets a slave that is a nice little christmas bonus if you're roman soldier or any soldier and a couple of historians arm say but no one knows because it's not what we have the financial statement on how caesar's doing each your mom but he stopped hearing about seizures terrible financial crunch is now a nice he seemed distributing money more he's allegedly paying his troops more than the going rate any sharing the winnings with the which is pretty normal but if you doing really well the winnings can be really good and as a side note all of you who know the romans story understand there's there's a process underway here that will play the mightily into the destruction of the roman republic very soon and that's the allegiance on this army not necessarily being one hundred percent entirely to the senate and people of rome increasingly more and more to this man julius caesar and he's far from the only roman general this is happening to the kismet fellow members of the triumvirate getting into similar situations on the allegiance of the truth because you know how they're doing life is so dependent on a single figure at the head of their particular me when they're in the gym shoes from the state to a single individual you can see other recipe for disaster is just all the chain reaction has already started right world problems go deep into the distance but that's a key component of hasta happened and why we tell people that think they see parallels with united states today and rome republicans yes there's there are some but you're missing a key component and it's important we all have armies that herbal hold the single the military individuals more than any other state increasingly is disarming seizure bonding gathering sure the fruits of their labors they are so the question of whether seizures and get any more seems to be that he probably isn't an anti pistol business venture in gaul is working out pretty well indeed so caesar says after this little battle with the bell get a he sends a message to rome and he says and let me point out not for the last time in his commentary go all he is pacified now let me stop for a minute because if you say not for the last time is gaul really pacified because again you have to wonder what seizures doing here he may have had a whole lot reasons for going back to rome at this time period and telling them that the war's over and we wanted you can see some advice on was she's really annoyed you what'll it round rum runner we're trying to these people like that of the senate would really help with the timing of good news and we want angle right wing edition i'm saying is i trust caesar his intelligence both his mental intelligence in his recognizance enough to think that i doubt whether he thought gaul really was pacified because let's look at what just happened here in two campaign season so less than two years caesar conquered replace the size of texas who charges three hundred tribes really you expected to stay subdued what if he didn't expect that he was wrong if he didn't call the must've been another reason for telling the people back to rome that the war was over caesar you know we're obvious brandy in the commentaries point out that when the romans herded that caesar had just won gold apricot and fifteen days of thanksgiving in the capital seizure points out is a longer lot of time than anyone before him had ever had a thanksgiving declared in their honor so maybe that accounts for it right there let's remember why seizures gingold doing all this to begin with because of how it's looking back home fifteen days of thanksgiving an unprecedented amount that makes it all worth it right there does that and so much goals are scores now the other thing the knees before daughters how victory as a way oh for giving everything because there is an undercover in general most prominent individuals admittedly prominent individuals that don't like caesar anyway would find something to get in with if they could anywhere to what seizures doing is grossly legal on many fronts he's raised legions i was on pocketbook and without permission his opponents in rome at or not things that he's done during this campaign that are violations of roman on air and water two of them will suggest maybe he should be handed over to the former roman enemies as a hum well with british with roman saddam metaphor where some roman general on the ground maybe deal with another city came back the roman senate repudiated the deal said the general back to the former appalling scenes shane is left about sullivan from the front gates and sorry he could make a deal like that that's against roman honor but since he did hear you can have him do with him what you want more people in a decade elkind two or maybe suggesting seizure deserve treatment like that but very few people were listening you know why as the guy just conquered area larger than all of italy itself into campaigns seasons he came here that crowd going wrong wrong wrong we're number one i mean come on winning human history at the populist on celebrated unbelievable victory it's almost we're to imagine the general public ever doing the opposite so what it took for seizure to get these victories legal or illegal are totally overshadowed by the result the result may be in allusion o. caesar salad is that after he's done here he goes to start to look at the next big venture he's going to do is teach violated ago we did in aleria around where the modern adriatic is nice to mr congress and tribes to which had been a plan of his all along but now the goal was pacified he can be impotent timing do it he says while he's there go all the rocks back into war it happened so far she can help but wonder if he was ever pacified in all and they're missing theories floated in the barger books ever lived in which i think is fascinating and run past you 'cause it would make a lot since when did it the idea that maybe the reason gaul almost immediately routes into trouble after seizure says it's pacified is that maybe they didn't fully understand what they were agreeing to when they said that they were going to submit to rome in other words rome is treating them as though they have signed a contract and if you break the contract the ramifications are in a mafia style in nature's operate the contract and maybe like a bunch of native americans who were expected to read like a lawyer this treaty and yet they can hardly writer james in the white man's language maybe these celtic leaders were essentially taken for rider barbarian lawyers not as good as the roman ones and maybe as soon as they start living under the real terms of the deal may be little different than they thought were these histories of gridlock he said he's tried for costume to making themselves clients of other barbarian peoples very well may have treated damage him much more laissez faire hands off kind of fashion mit been their idea of a client in their world but now the romans were coming in and you gunnison to the sun surveyors to your proper you've seen the property line is your order so some former soldier but from some boring appropriate irwin take a shot into the army in all we are what taxes are going up is your need extra week as the army starve enemy whatever might be the goalie people are chafing at words like to be roman but now i think we get to the crops question that we started this talk now with you know would you be willing to sacrifice everything for if your chafing in other words you to the chafing from roman domination what point is the chafing bad enough for you to risk having the romans come back beach you in some sort of feel about all kill you before we say before till you kill your son's rape your wife's injured or softest lavery to destroy him at what point is chafing bad enough to our own mind you began getting to this question of human motivations what is it it's worth risking that kind of terrible outcome for seizure says it's liberty and freedom and independence and that's weird not because those are weird motivation is because seizures the guy who's going to stay about these people and once again he's giving them aspirations that we can sort of early to the make of them sympathetic character stu was in the same way he's put another voice of an almost war crimes prosecutor in the mouth of his german opponent aria vistas he's going to put with words of people like patrick henry give me liberty or give me death all those kind of people into the mouths of these call it the pollens whose liberty he is smashing it's fascinating again it's very complicated are fully understand i enjoyed him for him reach peace book as i said on the on the whole analysis but no consensus exist they just analyze the three dimensional chess game seizures why uh course the first question we all ask ryan is if caesar says that these people are fighting for liberty and freedom that we put words into their speeches and they talk about liberty and freedom what the heck do people barbarian people a thousand years ago mean when they say that or caesar's putting those words get him out of their caesar's words what is caesar mean free to mean so according to enter rigby is to switch you think it means maybe only more so he writes the word and then give should the latin word seizure actually use she says quote freedom and liberty os was an even more politically charged term for the romans it is generally today breathed deeply rooted in the pervasive social institution of slavery despite the may need and they're worried situations to which was applied to liberate us remained a powerful slogan because of it's on the ambiguous we positive primary sense can persuade slavery servant us were called the degradation of slaves seen daily in a society which as we've already noted personal dignity was a fighting matter in the court in other words you know seizures basically giving it an excuse for these rebellions to the calls but he says right away right is it is a question of freedom versus slavery implying the romans understand that we never settled be slaves and that we'd say look at me go like in fully see what the gauze or bob because i'd be on their side too it's a very interesting document and it says a lot about the tenor of the times in the audience he was writing for the deposition the whole story this way and still expect you to cheer on his victories we crushes these freedom loving calls right up and truly what they were and just with every story of revolution by the way for every account she here are the golf trying to preserve their own liberty and freedom in every high minded patrick henry since you read the account to get much more greedy and ascribe much more bass values to the people who were doing the same job this particular group run by this aristocrat once more power within his tribe but roman domination in athwart his ambition is so he's wanting revolution when the southern tribe who used to collect all the tolls on this river before the romans took over but now they favor the rival tribe has so we were seater gown from the river trolls worker rebel the ones who were just plain fickle and tired of living under the same set of rules for significant retire seizures is that the calls all have a bunch of men who just the white in the chain jirga the tunney keyboard easily and so the easily aroused to some sort of changes for changes sake so who knows what the actual reasons are the bottom line though is caesar barely gets to enjoy it the winter off before he's back into all right recently pacified gaul has exploded into problems three or four months after seizure declares mission accomplished there's a stranger spring chicken dishes all part of the plan teachers morning give up his commander member he'd be vulnerable and rob gloster still places to conquer money to remain resist a armies to keep assembled in your hands but a patent going to emerge for the next couple years and to parachute it's not that dissimilar from other roman conquest of celtic peoples in other parts of europe before this time the pattern is curries matic leaders emerged who can manage to united least local groupings of tribes into larger confederacy shooting challenge the romans by rebelling against them and the romans will respond with each stream thoughts it's actually very interesting case study for modern people and if you're interested military affairs in guerrilla warfare and our civil wars and things like that to watch how caesar approaches in the rooms during history approach how you quell domestic resistance you know by a population because when i was growing up in the wake of the vietnam war there were so much talk about it the only fought the vietnam war in the with the gloves off was the phrase c. student to take away these modern cultural inhibitions that tell you that you can't do this you can't do that to you go in there you really just are ruthless and you'll change the battlefield seen overnight to the romans our example of that in later roman history they will be very good you know at the game of the character the state can all learn how to bribe tribes when it's better to spend money in the beat people up and head with a stake in the sea surgery they're much more in the beat the other people over the head with a stick mode procedural go back to gaul and spend the next several years truly pass a falling act the methods to caesar we use go to quell this resistance or we're off the first people to deal with it it's a confederacy peoples on the atlantic seaboard and fifty six b. c. he will defeat he asked him bill buckley to do what the romans a crazy good that way defeats the sea faring people bomb because it is caesar's mind all of the serious already been pacify we're now dealing with rebellions this isn't a contest both in over chews on the battlefield with the best man win you'll probably get clumsy afterwards this issue were rebelling against the authority of the state you're setting a bad example for other people need to get down to get to make an example of you know on the main tribe called them the time sometimes the needy caesar killed their entire leadership be headed them sold the population into slavery he will deal with a german encouraged and again or so he says in fifty five b. c. are so he launches which you might call it a for re he read the punitive expedition into germany meanwhile manages to have another battle against the german tribe this is the incident by the way some of the cato crowd back in rome suggested to caesar maybe should be handed over to his german enemies in chains because what he did and he admitted freely in commentaries is this leadership of this german tribe was out a large number of people showed up to caesar maybe to negotiate what they thought was a surrender or instead caesar grab some of the halls and instances army are to attack the nile leaderless and i'm expecting german tribe and the numbers to die here are crazy unbelievable and crazy immune to chart says wait for it four hundred thousand german charge people died and caesar himself in the writing talks about a moment in the fighting it with use just crowds of women and children and morrissey do you he sends his cavalry to look and this is a quote from the hammond translation the hunted them down so perhaps we're moving for almost a bomb was a potential u. n. war crimes tribunals and charges when we're talking about free and understood warfare and a contest of arms and something like this the most amazing things he shouldn't we have to point out the waffle accused the week is that he will build a bridge over the rhine river right no small river that he will do it in ten days in eden falls cranes and high lawns and wayans to put pillars into the soup and riverbed it's heat in incredibly tribes common submit to him you simply because they'd seen him build this he said he had to build it because boats did not seem like a good we crossed the river annie was a shirt was in keeping with roman dignity he said to you spend ten days in you build a trestle bridge the romans crossed the bridge burnt lots of villages in a kilt quite a bit people in these raids took eighteen days comes back over the rhine on the bridge they built and then they destroyed the bridge it generally assumed that caesar was trying to send a message the message is at least one is clear and that's that we can come over this river anytime you want to know barry recall don't pretend like you're safe the other one which is what some mysteries of also said that there was also seizes way of saying and by the way this is the border you come over here expect response not from these ghali people's whom you come to expect you can beat in battle against ox she just lost yet another battle to how many dead four hundred thousand seizure city were fourteen thirty thousand people they are they talked about great numbers all of them dying even michael greene says the numbers may be exaggerated but maybe not that much would you do was caesar's death ledgers their ages one up by a lot in that attic you believe kato in that segment of the romans it wasn't something that had happened caesar prompted it maybe you wanna bet after this defeat of the germans late in the campaign season ready should probably pack it in after them big german thing now he takes a fleet and crosses the english channel and those were no mediterranean army has ever gone before the foggy misty almost legendary in mediterranean circles island of britain lance laird talks about the natives being in chariots and painting themselves blue and seizure as a battle of course it's been on your round things will cause a problem of course she wins on the fleet almost gets destroyed by a storm at their howls of protest to bone his contemporary political opponents and let's be honest armchair generals ever since going what the heck he doing was this has to do with anything honey justify this thing at the publicity is our regis lee good earlier we cities eating this expedition like a heavily armed lewis and clark exploration team orgy just landed in britain and the people back home can't stop talking about it all those people to keep talking about him exceeding his wartime authority in what have you no one can hardly make themselves heard above all of the deposit of commons by the way little side note here the debate he is ongoing whether or not these people in the british isles during this period should be classified as celtic or not the amount talking in terms of ethnicity as much as in culture it's a little confusing to caesar says one of these tribes that lived on the now french side of the english channel did some migrating over so when caesar goes to burton describes people that sure sound celtic they sound a lot like the people we've been talking about in terms of the address and styles in the dirt attitudes in the religion or not you don't know whether or not he's running into that one tribe or whether or not the people to the rest of the money they all have celtic names an indian i'm not qualified to wade into this ongoing debate apparently seizure doesn't refer to them specifically as celts in the ancient worldly used to defer named for them and use my barry can live in the jail free card is in dekalb is anyone who considers himself the celtic i don't know all now seizures obviously created the problem now hard one to imagine happening either when he takes a big chunk of his army for which now modern de france and takes it over to britain because that means it's no longer in which now modern day friends you can our refueled in two thousand plus years later some of the rumblings going on right is yours not actively here in the cauldron starch bubbling again the next year fifty four b. c. seizure launches a much better prepared and significant bomb but your brain was what the earlier expedition to bring probably was this is more like an a. k. we're condescension force reminder invasion elaine's dewey defeated major breach tribe and here is sort of a major fall and seizure storing see the narrative truck entire narrative we said there's been this fifth column entity in gaul itself people who were in these tribes certainly in the less friendly tribes but even in rome's greatest allies you don't like the romans and so caesar we're gonna go back to britain for the second time realizes that he may he's leaving all these troublemakers back in gaul so in a very ancient typical roman think he asks for them to come get your honor guest could probably be witty imitations of the hostages is the way do you recall that today hostages for good behavior could imitate the troublemakers without us there's a whole bunch of famous troublemakers in the roman celtic history these people that are like the jaw ron are most of the day of celtic resistance in this case one of 'em i'm not that i expected for one to remember you know that magician gandalf dumbledore religious leader druid guy we talked about earlier he disorder the reason this whole thing happen most you believe the official narrative to take issues but we will also see did the kayakers and to be she octaves but we're gonna go to pick issues what does the dishes is sort of a roman friend buddy's got a brother think of like two heads of the same telling his brother in this tribe their world's greatest friends in the region is anti roman and is the druid brother's been covering for more this time caesar says he's been nice about the whole thing because he he appreciates the strode garden likes him and needs to support this trial is reporting to but this is what the guys his name's tim nor it's what the guy sees you want to take with him into the british isles of these are causing trouble when seizures away mr nor and scary to decide that this at least what you're going for teachers seizures as to your rich think seizures can i take heed and all the other troublemakers across the english channel and kill them there away from the prying eyes of his own people able to come back and make up any old excuse why they're not with him anymore and is doomed oryx doesn't lead to some self seizure says he's going all these other in a tribal leaders are saying your dog overseas again to bring peace to make jealous there she's been talked about in many excuses that there's two more makeup of the sort that you know i get seasick and i can go with you for all these other resists seizures as finally when the nazis or corps am the guy bolts basically showing his true colors caesar would basically have to understand he's just a car burden on mask this conspiracy he sent his men to go bring this guy back better why they bring him back dead and the sky becomes just one of many drogoul makers that seizure begins ego laughter now was his way on shutting down his colleague resistance regie rid of that the leaders of the resistance because you're some of these tribes have large numbers of people that are of a different political opinion them was the major were eventually gets anymore these battles the seizures facing the face a tribe that has reportedly killed all their senators who disagreed with the idea arbor belly and so we were saying what you willing to die for we would lose everything for there might be disagreement in your trinity about that the seizures as what he's trying to kill all the senators that i made no vote on rebellion that and went unified to go meet their fight against the romans the troublemaker did caesar had instructed be brought back to him get to rely on that doomed oryx guy you were present an example of what that powder faction an opposition party if you will in his own tribe any must've been korea's matic mean must've been dangers in the roman eyes and he just becomes the latest victim in the romans standard policy of how you deal with these troublemakers everywhere you encountered them it's a sort of if you will a jury mafia like approach to the situation but hard argue about it's efficacy when faced with the curries magic tribal guerrilla leaders if you will kill lemieux can the romans done this many times you do directly or indirectly i believe earlier we mentioned one of the national heroes of the people of portugal now when they were in their ancient version and he's what these people that will lead a position to roman they manage to get him assassinated and levi his own people believed that was a bribe paid assassination in another case the romans ran into what these leaders and this is in this conflict it was charisma and that they want to get and during a cavalry about all the romanticism seizure by the way the roman leader on the site had instructed his counselor remember this is at least hundreds of men against hundreds of men and maybe thousands of men against thousands of men when you go out there on the field for this large caliber rebound or don't pay any attention to any of the other people in front of you go right after that one guy only to think about was imagine being in a bad guy you're on the field with your hundreds and hundreds of cohorts thinking we're gonna take on their big formation and everyone in their formation is after you personally nico society they brought his head back to the roman commander should accomplish today or another influential maybe your replaceable leader of the celtic opposition is no more right out of the roman playbook and in fifty four b. c. it you get one of the pre good troublemakers right these are all sparked this is a pretty good spark his name is and your exit was one of several important people in revolt he's a national hero of belgium now annie fit this template of a of the korea's maddie celtic figure who could be united budget tribes together to oppose the romans he's a bit to tripoli successful wore these rebels and he manages by hook or by crook to kilobyte sure froman his favorite fifteen cohorts like a legion in five cohorts of things like that he gets out clear and convinces them to leave the safety of their fort benning ambushes them when they're marching through some deep dark woods no doubt when the romans would be in trouble all the time during the winter when they would break up to the various areas they had to patrol and keep safe in these fortune becomes like fort apache and anytime rebellion happen shelby's this isolated legionnaire two of rome's will find themselves deep in the indian country surrounded by angry natives and time again this becomes part of the narrative but when caesar will go back and rescue all these people or of vanished them a lot more of the goal it folks die you again have to ask yourself what's going on here in and win what do you form in terms of an opinion on whether or not is a good idea if you wore off follower of any oryx for example to rebel against the romans goes on one hand how could anybody say you didn't have a good nice cars are you talking about your freedom in your independence writer liberty your political liberty the sovereignty of your own people whatever it is those are pretty high minded causes but if you're in the meeting amongst your peers in your countrymen you're having this discussion of do we rebel and don't worry i'm nina you look howard if you stand up and say listen we have very little chance of actually succeeding here and if we fail there's a hundred percent chance we're gonna lose everything that matters to us including the liberty major worried about now maybe we shouldn't do this those of the company choices as the old saying goes that tried men's souls ryan issues to give an example of what might mean in practice take a look at what happened at the santa york's character right to slay the spark the guy who would destroy these roman legions in the deep dark woods on the march you see sir made it out to be like a custer's last stand situation with the officers and men who were left over commit suicide because it just they're trapped by the natives surrounding the mean it's it's a harrowing terrible story in seizure launches recriminations uncertain commanders i mean it's a stain and so the bad guy will probably hero in the gallen guys with the bag and rama story and you're just going to be pursued as if to the ends of the earth and caesar has this ongoing no attempted track him down he finally has and getting away in writing off and the sunset with likely four bodyguards he says the only amount people eat buttresses life too of course to get into the movie is now mean that the geronimo figure here from the roman coin if you get away lives to write another day off into the sunset whatever but unfortunately is will try get to that and caesar will wiped them out of existence well that's the way he frames and anyway ties to ranger not sure if that was really what happened it's pretty fair to say though that caesar treats his tribe to tribe that and your ex was a leading figure in it as harshly or more harshly than any other entity seizure punished in his career and so you might think yourself ok now that these people have seen what almost everything is the romans after this tree will start going after him celtic cultural things that they think are inciting revolt or bringing tried together we mentioned druids earlier there's a panic tribal nature to the druids maybe where they come together for multiple tribes in meetings to debate things in at certain points after the street romans will think that the druids are sort of a hotbed of resistance and target than the romans could be very accommodating to your local traditions of small nation didn't mess with them if you cause trouble and they decided that these local traditions have something to do with the good-bye local traditions to this is where some who will say that maybe we're not talking about in actual genocide here as much as we're talking about a cultural genocide may have a point there as we said before this genocide question is somewhat clouded by the fact people in the story have a choice only those involved in the second world war or cost right the choices submit and stay quiet or die how does having a choice like that made the disorder the holocaust if indeed that's the proper term for the celtic august paris having a choice make it different 'cause obviously got from something like what the victims of the second world war holocaust went through it would also be remiss if i didn't at least point out the basic idea of choice may have been in illusion for most of the people in the story caesar himself said are how will we can believe him that they were really only three classes to use a modern germany galling society monday night's you're basically the aristocracy and an ability to lead the druids and then you have everyone else who said everyone else is basically a sweat this is probably roman hyperbole in and misinformation one archaeologist like barry can live the sean collins will point out to dinner so lot more time you want to something like a procedure point out that his point might be well taken how many people if you give the choice of no if you just acquiesced to roman conquest to submit everything will be fine it but if you don't draw going to die and be sold into slavery how many people get to make the choice in the garlic society how he blur in that decision would submit that it's probably unlikely and common sense that most of the people in the situation is simply caught up in the gears of history like most people in any other period sometimes it seems like we're all just along for the historic or ride does ned in this case caesar will spend the entire campaign season the fifty three b. c. yes in chile punishing punitive expeditions finishing off battles small things as the ringel for these as he campaigns the entire campaign season gobbling doesn't find a major battle what's he doing pacifier it's ugly brutal business on the ground and we'll have details but goldsworthy has an interesting line or he says that the archaeological record has shown that at the quantities of gold other pressures the cheerios found in sight in this area after seizures time in gaul plummet he says quote overall the archaeological record shows a market decline in the quality and quantity of material called church and suggest that the region did not recover for a least a generation and co so quelling the spirit of the population to resist that's an age old counterinsurgency strategy you don't just go out to the rank and file of the people you go after their leadership as we said and seizure determined that this one um it seems highly respected figure charge draw any other conclusion considering what his head to mine is created in terms of resentment but see jupiter messages call uglier name taco or keiko is in part responsible or was somehow involved in this resistance maybe but secretly supplying them with something we're having a seizure decides he must die so he has him flaunted to death whipped the deficit the bully think of a bull whip or electrical cord getting you until you die and then caesar had his head cut off which is an extra twist the knife given the religious reverence the garlic people in the celtic people have for the head and then caesar get swept back into the maelstrom of roman politics because all the sudden in as if the roman ship of state has been foundering for long time and taking on water are all the sudden initiative ship just go straight down in about the the start of it stood straight up in the air all of sudden it's teetering and seizure of course because this entire life of his revolves around roman politics in how he's doing it it's drawn back in a situation here is rioters killings the senate houses burned down and did go like helping people here of this and they think maybe seizures not coming back the same time they're upset about this nobleman being with to death they're upset about the pacification as a whole bunch of tribes age ringgold worthy reminds me that are some of the most powerful tribes in gaul some of the most sophisticated to want to have the most contact with rome which is why most of the more roman friends which is why it up until this time they haven't really purchase a paid in the defense and all 'cause they're on the romans side but they're starting to realize the romans sided is going to control all of them at some point you may be a more favored tribe under roman domination be you're still under roman domination goldsworthy disagree john explain the situation he writes quote caesar's understanding him manipulation of tribal politics was generally good but over the winter fifty three fifty two b. c. this policy failed badly or number of reasons for this failure but it's wrote with a growing sense of the extent to which his presence to change things this is especially true of the celtic galling peoples of central and southern drawl one of three broad grouped into which caesar's commentaries divided quote unquote the whole of gaul these tribes had not yet fought against caesar to any meaningful degree alone was in their lands to campaigns against unhealthy and our real vistas had been waged dominating the trade routes with a role in world tribes like the edi we took on a our bernie we're wealthier and more politically sophisticated than the people to the north they had a good caesar and he in turn had favored the tribes and leader's most sympathetic to him and you thought portly so he claimed it on their behalf against the hell bebe in our real business now over the course of the next year are virtually all of them would turn against him this was not simply a question of rebellion by those who would not receive the pro counsels favored an ad watches rivals were elevated above them the rebels eventually include many chief into with dan rather well under roman domination that was at the heart of this new mood the realization that caesar in his legions whirring gall to stay would not be returning to the confines of the trends alpine province after a few swift campaigns were all now expected her power to big knowledge them a permanent basis throughout all yeah like it come a conqueror without ever facing serious resistance from the celtic peoples end quote well of course they hadn't face serious resistance to caesar had been practicing the dividing koppers remedy on them he been using these powerful tribes were friendly to roll up against the powerful tribes that worked now the ones that are friendly to rome realized it doesn't matter which side july where going to be living under roman control either way and it makes them receptive to the ideas that come forward once it's clear that the political problems in loma make traps caesar their bosses legions are winter ring in gaul what if all go all could unite get caesar especially while it was away think of how crazy the movie idea would be islam screenwriter developed a treatment based on the idea that all the north american tribes unite together in a common effort to militarily speaking to defeat the european colonists on the eastern seaboard in maternal sixteen fifteen will say they would if of course had been conducted their own native american version of alyssa clark expedition so this eastern tribes could try to put across north american find out that there's west coast and natives living there were open them into the defense arrangement and then at some point you get this big face off between all the native tribes in north america against a relative newcomer europeans it's too crazy to imagine the wiesner you would be able to suspend disbelief the premise is too farfetched but that's what happens in gaul that's why it's such a rare moment the dividing conquer strategy all of a sudden fails called wants and these tribal people realize their predicament at the same time and are able to drop there are each old animosities and decide together that it's now or never over the maintain our freedom even our freedom to fight each other for tribal supremacy down the road we're going to have to unite now and defeatist to read before it's too late it might already be too late but this opportunity seizure getting right back in the politics of rome opens up the door caesar says that the others a lot of other grievances they're coming to have all of the same time including seizures execution of that nobleman accelerator that he had with to death and he says that these calling tribes come together to make some some with the leadership's come together in the deep dark wallets archaeologist billy come on suggestible got the strange to think of the druids being the ones who sort of officiated an event like this bill for sacred reasons but also because they're sort of the diplomats in the pan national sanctify years these tried to mean they would've been a respected people to act as the referees and judges and arbitrators in a case like this there are stories by the way of druids stopping a marching to the middle of the battlefield between the lines of two armies about the caution stopping the conflict of these are people with huge amounts of moral authority incumbency just run it for such a sacred important situation is this conspiracy in the grove says seizure portrays it would not be beyond the pale in fact considering what the structure pledging to do he would wanna have a signed contract in blood you wanna have the druids officiating you what i have a lotta witnesses if you know republics because that the challenge here is that not everyone is aware what stakes are and everyone knows now that if the rebel we're gonna get the treatment that these tribes that it had everybody wiped out as taste everyone understands that to fight back now he is to wager everything once again in the genesis of the story ground zero is caesar himself i would love to know if it's even true how he found out about it he gives an account of this tribal meeting in the deep dark woods my thomas holmes translation of seizure which dates back to the early nineteen hundreds in is a chasm fabulous different words on it than most other more modern ones in existence angola's pacified over over he uses that word tranquilize which gives a different sort of feel and he picked up the story were seizures back to rome doable the political trouble and the celtic the bowling ball here about the political trouble which then prompts this meeting in the woods you someone homes translation of caesar has it taking a predator seizure charge but all those problems in rome keeping him there quote the news of these events speedily made its way the trans outlined all the galls amplified and embellish the story is the facts seem to warrant spreading rumors that caesar was detained by the disturbances in the capital and that will be spears conflicts were raging he could not rejoin his army the opportunity stimulated the galls stimulated and it stimulated the galls they were already smarting it's not a good when they were already smarting under their subjugate shoe to the roman people and they now began on reserve italy and boldly to form new projects for war the leading man of gaul mutually arrange meetings in secluded woodland spots they spoke bitterly of the death tobacco but the man was whipped to death by the way telling their hearers that the same fate might befall them and deploring the fortune the press the whole country they made promises and offered rewards of every kind to induce volunteers to strike the first ball and risk their lives to restore the liberty of gaul end quote here he goes against seizure making these people in their cause someone to warn you wanna get behind right colleague liberty who would oppose that righteous we darth vader to oppose out what caesar dealing and as we said earlier the experts disagreed seizure rain on multiple points here on there's lots of speculation some of its fall on tuskegee one of the ideas on to that might be no again speculation might help explain no worries been doing this whole time we see making the celtic side out to be somewhat admirable others ninety out to the soda setting the stage for what happens a generation heard today on the road after they've conquered all these people i mean you have to pena sell the idea back to rome little bit don't do that listen don't worry will incorporate called into world but there is some old label of course sure they're on intractable one-on-one house broken in their culture substandard by roman bomb the measure calm but we can fix that you know couple generational germany good romans in the way you can tell is because look at how they have our same values i mean if you puppies freezes and concepts in the mountains on the whirlwind character remain romans stage play it the roman audience is gonna cheer in other words the sort of making the case according to one of these theories are ready with the galls are trainable but the germans are never going to be house broken therefore we can incorporate the galls and down the road in north we break into the yoke of empire bomb to teach i'm afraid look at how will those goals in shorter gold been doing now for fifty sixty seventy years i'm in a week and we could make these people into the romans and you can tell just look at how their spouting phrases that would make them good romans today it's an interesting idea and it would explain i'm why caesar makes their cars sympathetic as he's crushing it it does sound a little bit like you misjudge chelsea reason was when he got word of it back in rome the situation was starting to mellow out a little bit back there he says many hears about these problems but as one historian pointed out you know he conquered the scenery award for five six years ago initially and he's had problems with it every year had a case like sparks the way we describe them all these are heading to me doesn't know yet this is more like a stroke and all the sparks we've talked about earlier finally fan into a general forest fire as all of gaul will go on basically in rebellion including the great friendly tribes of rome and it starts with one of those moves the tribe does as a way of sort of dipping their dagger in use as a nation victim saying okay i'm in it involves a tribe it's always been impossible the romans that is the one that steps forward allegedly at this woodland conspiracies says will strike the first blow they go after this bill for town of the celtic try but it's full of roman traders and businessmen an effort to take the town the massacre all the romans so essentially saying that the rest the tribes okay we agreed to do these were all when there's no going back for ross who's next and the rhythm of the story is interesting because you will how the tribes to join the rebellion you usually in big shots but even you all along the way some big tribal up the last moment change sides in and so slowly but surely we're going jane steam the massacre the kicks it off the week mentioned earlier the news of that spreads like wildfire in the central goal it tried to open flames except for the wanted most loyal roaming the edi we're the other big trod the matter here the other ones who initially went to roman said we need help 'cause this germans been brought in the mean this is the ally of allies for the romans in this region so they're the ones that they worry about that's where the romans get all their supply help the granted for the store their hostages when they've taken from the golan trying to sort of their administrative centre and all these are good allies we can trust them well on paper it may look that way but remember we said earlier these ghali tribes are not united and even caesar sister split in rife with factions so think democrats republicans stories and labor knew what everyone is saying right you're here two sides the coin in maybe just because a tribe is taking a particular course of action may be like fifty one percent of the trial was to do and forty nine percent doesn't so sometimes it doesn't take a whole lot of change to sort of make the scales tip the other way and when the first big tribe i'm calls to make this massacre of roman see it's all on a number of these tribes start to get up and he does as caesar said that canada goalie character anyway right see excitement happening you wanna get on board by the time he realizes how bad things are he's in trouble because he's a long way from the action and he's got enemies between him in rome in northern italy now and gaul with the armies are so the first chapter of this story as caesar doing amazing things let's be honest she's an amazing guy and in the speed of movement that he employs for example is crazy and is audacity heat he takes the great calculated risk alexander would've jumped off you know that the cliff in darkness and whatever happens happens i'm a god right caesar to peace calculated risk it but his audacity in his speed is continually on the sly and so he manages to get back to his army is his armies managed to break out of a imam which one more the strides toward go on the other wedding while this is going on a figure emerges on the scene that we only need really know was because of caesar but he's fascinating and in the way could be an example of that beam see idea we talked about earlier you have the celts might've been caught in the beam see because they were in transition from the more ferocious barbarian way of life to use a term from a hundred years ago any more romans with existence and that they get sick maybe lost in my court jester silly theory the ferocious news of the more barbarian tribes and not yet again to the damages the calms with being able to handle logistics was applauded and finance an organization will be roman things this person that will crop up at the last available moment will try to turn the celtic armies into something that can fight the romans because just because you can make a lot of ghali tribes decide to join a rebellion and maybe grab hold of more warriors than they've ever been able to put together in one place and all you still can't feed them right we learned that earlier and seizures conquest these armies can just get bigger they have to get better and they have to be able to support bigger better armies to honey do that will enter amazing character the tougher now as we several different ways you can have fights over have always gone up with your king derek's but piercing generates is also popular he used the great you know fire of the galling people in the last possible moment you weren't resistance is possible he appears on the scene as they came by the time caesar runs into him he came from a tribe that was pretty power this whole celtic galling war thing at this point the attorney that's a trial by the way that one of those developed warns us more the senate to morgan oligarchy extort romans system 'em and their king getter wreaks his dad had apparently been executed for trying to become king of these people taking them back to an old way of government and by the way it early in rome's history when there are public was new unabated ditch the monarchy the crime of trying to bring still the monarchy was was equally harshly punished for this case remember you're supposed to be burned alive if you try to do that so i guess without really saying so maybe they're keen get hurt his dad was burned alive for trying to become making it when this whole rebellion takes place as the story goes working getter rex and his family members including all gold will have to fight over what to do you on their king generates will apparently be wanting to become making it and maybe take on the romans the uncle opposes him so fucking get risk it's coronado his studied seizures as he goes out and using gallego liberty and freedom has seized as his rallying cry rally all these seizures as desperadoes and de interest but you could really see them as may be patriotic young girl luck warriors finally ready to rise up i mean it depends on the way you're doing this they must've been pretty decently intimidating because we're together rates will come back to his home city will these desperado some dead under surround him essentially launch a cool if you will against his old city become a king of those people and then began to rally tribes together the strikers begin to cede authority to him as a war leader which is very unusual the celtic world historian classicist michael and sage corn salad that jerking gatorade didn't start this rebellion against the romans but he quickly came in and sort of took it over he sent embassies everywhere and formed alliances sage said as many names all these big important tribes that there can get rich begins to communicate with him saying listen the time is now remember it's only been a few years as caesar conquered display so it these are all we said leave the subdued peoples and they sort of understand that this is how it's going to be unless they moved at some point and decking get her to sending him ceased all these tribe saying that point is now michael him say drives the jerking generates was chosen the war leader of these tribes and begin implementing policies there were buried on garlic in nature but other rolling like caesar could appreciate because they're more like roman standard sage writes quote that can get a riggs was chosen as commander and quickly said about organizing the rebel army according to standard ghali procedure be demanded and received hostages from each of his allies as pledges of good faith and issued orders to them up to provide a specific number of soldiers for the allied army be enforced is orders with for roche's punishments that included execution and torture as was an extraordinary development during his campaigns in golf caesar and faced individual tribes or coalitions on the battlefield perhaps the largest was that of the bell gained fifty seven b. c. however in these conflicts there is no hint of any central organization among allied tribes that diseases initial refusal to engage the bell declare made the tribe simply returned home to face caesar individually there came direct represent an entirely new direction in gaul the resistance to the romans for the first time their apartment was essentially organized into reckoned army that represented an alliance of the number of different tribes its creation was in part due to the extraordinary personality of their king cataracts and also to the effects of the roman conquest the galls repeated failures against caesar and led to the realization that the traditional military methods were no longer adequate to the roman army in gaul was too large to be dealt with without a collective effort importantly it provided the model of a highly organized and centralized army could get together it's correct we saw was the only possibility of defeating the romans and co sage goes on to point out that their king gallery to stride was friends with the romans and that it was not unusual for gaul it nobleman of friendly tried to serve with the romans on campaign is ally cavalry in it's possible although heat until we have no evidence one way the other there to get rich adonis once upon a time to you and maybe was quite familiar with the way the romans fought adrian gold or even suggests the possibility that caesar and jerking frederick's knew each other personally from years before this paley at which would add a completely new later things wouldn't it nonetheless there are some things that jerking get rich now is the supreme commander of the warlord of all these tribes in gaul with the exception of the few who were slowly but surely can come on board taking control some things now with greater worth or even any garlic rulers and seizure first arrived on the scene but there's other things he can change he can start ordering tried to ram house was to having to beg the tribe you would normally are enemies with butter temporarily fighting for supplies in and and troops in one night you did or correct see you can begin to mimic him maybe less efficient way things like romans supply and working together and telling one trying to go over here in a different ago already restore some larger strategy which is huge improvement but you're not changing the reality on the tactical level on the ground you're not turning your gaul it warriors with their swords and shields and roman legion aries you're not inventing century n.'s you're not getting battlefield discipline and drill an organization of that level so you still can't face the legions in the field under king dederick seems to notice because he's going to be famous for telling the rest of the gall to pay half to do something that runs against their nature in terms of this heroic he thought he tells them they're essentially going to have a guerrilla war and we're going to have to adopt a scorched earth strategy and they're going to have to destroy it their stuff and with a live and everything in order to defeat these roman's know we talked earlier about some of the greatest tragedies in human history being a and some of the things on the list which are willing to die for become the cost of other things on the list that you want to die for and this is the greatest test in the history of illegal uglier that we seen well maybe anywhere in the history books where are you are going to have members of rival tribes making decisions that tell you you have to burn down your homes years the and leave the fact that these bribes listen and agreed to adopt the strategy of their king generators is a sign one of the desperate times and two of his own rivaled authority for the first time in history golf or most of it anyway is acting under the control of soda one mind one wheel because the nazis who dissented but it creates a situation where the goals are now at least on par with caesar in the ability to have a united strategy and this is never before been the case but just because you have more power than any garlic warlord you can find in the previous history books doesn't mean you're the one that will we skipped to decide what to do we own all right wars again was seizing the initiative and sometimes responding to the other person doing that at some time to deploy office but sometimes the other guy has the ball right in this case what the games a bowl caesar anderson get her to play with the city's it's sort of ironic that were the things better singular it is known for sterling that celtic you live the burn all the cities where will the major encounters happen outside he's going counter should ease much of this internal siege is in the attempt to really use teaches her reese political reasons caesar will show up on the scene in kobe and bam and take a couple of town to real fast for mining the celtic people that they cannot stand up to roman's he does very well then they will defeat some call the cavalry in a skirmish or for mining the galls they can face up to roman field tactics and feel the army's very well either so what do you do then this is what the strategy comes into play golf you're scorch tourist ideal sold their king get rich acquaint according to caesar we should emphasize that gives his big speech retelling again after destroying everything it's great for scoring in for one notice at the end by the way he throws up one of those in you'll lose everything the kinds of pictures to these people right now realize i'm asking you to allotment to budgeting should be willing to die for maybe but it's there to preserve other things you be willing to die for remember the stakes this from the s. a. hanford edition and this is caesar putting this into their king getter riches mouth remember but we see she will mention these other cities that he's not taken already on the way to dealing with this rebellion and the sound like names on a billboard rings don't they call after this series ever verses and delano don't i'm as santa bomb and no leo don't i'm begging get eric summoned his followers to a council of war and told them that their plan of campaign must be completely changed this is their king frederick stalking according to caesar quote we must drive by every means he said to prevent the romans from obtaining for region supplies this'll be easy says we are strong in calgary in the season is in our favour there is no grass ticket to the enemy will be forced to send our party's to get hey from the barnes and our cavalry to go on every day and see that not a single one of the returns a lot what is more with our lives are worth stake we must be prepared to sacrifice our private possessions along the enemy's line of march we must burn all the villages and farms within the radius that the forgers can cover we ourselves have plenty of supplies because we can rely upon the resources of the people in whose territory the campaign is conducted by the romans will lead us to come to starvation raft we expose themselves to serious risk by going far from their camp in search of food week either kill them or strip them of their baggage which will be equally effective since without it they cannot keep the field we should also burned all the towns except goes better rendered impregnable by natural and artificial defenses otherwise they may serve as refugees for sure occurs among our own numbers again the enemy the chance of loading the stores are provisions and other property that they contain you may think these measures harsh and cruel she must admit it would be a still harsher fate to have your wives and children carried off into slavery to be killed yourselves which is what will inevitably both call you if you were conquered and co that is by the way sort of caesar putting out i guess you could read it did this yes that's true that is what all due to come seizures as the most to these tribes that we're working with their king coverage complied he says one of them burned twenty of their towns simultaneously and he could see the smoke in the sky is but one tribe but bade the other ghali tribes not to make them burn their city down it was the special city they said a minute we're wrapped up the navy was born the finest in your book called please don't make him do this if i please don't make we choose between one thing on my list that i'd be willing to die for some other thing on the list the fucking get rich is softer than he seems another part of the story or maybe he didn't have as much authority as you suggested by caesar but nonetheless these people are able to get their city spared this hill top town of theirs supposedly one of the argument they may use listen it's incredible don't worry and then caesar took it this is the studios are very calm and traditionally it's considered to be one of the three main encounters that formed the military side of this kollek rebellion but it's worth pointing out that in in the same way that the word pacification covers it honolulu bull violence that doesn't quite reach the standards of making it into the history books talking about this colloquy billion in them boiling it down to three sieges and the violence associated with that is a minimize ear also of all the things that we're going on and so is under the radar under the historical radar so to speak archaeologist billy conn was point on an interesting so ironic fact first of all gather can generate you're saying the gun at a bar in the cities of the romans have no high value targets and yet here they are going after high value targets anyway all the major encounters in this rebellion will happen around city is so what happened there and they should be burned down should've been each one so that as an excuse for wyatt still there and barry thomas points out that what's ironic is that it's only in the parts of gaul this has significant contact with the romans and the common law roman light to have these sorts of studies for the romans in julius caesar to target to begin with ready to go to the less civilized amusing here coach my hand to the less civilized tribal north up with an air of the ally in the belly are nobody believed have studies like this they're much more de centralize to connect to chase that tribal people out of the little mina hudson into the woods but here you can almost treat these gaul extends remember that's the way some translators translated now not tribes but state you can almost treating the way you treat the states in the easter grease on the romans go there they just go to the major population centers and take 'em them war's over does when he's calling tried to becoming more like the romans of the romans can fight the more like their traditional enemies they can go after basically the capitals of the states the administrative center the tribal heart if you will come on fred court in dealing with the more organized tribes of central galt caesar's tactic was simply to pick off the population centers won by water and such an approach would be impossible ammonia tribes of a more come up and l. chicken with this degree of centralization had not yet developed and co in one spot in the knock on the galls always been that they weren't able to work together and to take things to the next level developmentally speaking and form for example more organize states but john heywood i think was the author that i read that they're going to complete hundred eighty degrees on that theory and said that what would have kept the celts safer longer was to be even more de centralized and his theory of our member correctly was that when the romans faced other organized centers in other places egypt greece anyplace like that they would destroy those states in one or two battles because the other centralized state brought all of its assets to one place the romans destroy them there but look how long get up and remembering the word correctly he said it took to defeat the celts and various other peoples of the spanish and portuguese area right of the lusitania all there because those tribes were so divided and so de centralize you always had to keep the one after another tribe it's an interesting theory but in this case the fact that you're even cities at all for caesar to target is a facet of galls becoming more and more like the romans and by the way this is something seizure now portrays in his writings and it becomes a feature of what's going on in the longer the romans around here now from the gaul caesar says the more the goals are imitating the romans of becoming even more dangerous others this now under current of meat here that the modeling of the goals perhaps worthy of becoming romans a preacher string him up a little bit but the more the contact they have with us to more like romans they're becoming hearing battle so we better hurry and a fairer comes caesar and the romans will be unable because of the fact that this hill fort this city on any shelling in mesa is a good way to put it that's what these hill for to become held towns that eventually morphine to hill c. d.'s in these more sophisticated garlic state to why great it's not a manmade featured it's something that was the life aboard the rings understood here since the dawn of time in and put some fortifications on top of that american has marshes all around it so the romans can't do their normal practice of building a giant wall around the whole place because we can build and build a swamp there's only one interest to the place so it looks like if this were a goalie besieging army they would be stymied but of course this is the romans and over course of almost every day is they build a counter mountain maybe you could say it's hard to understand some of the sources talk about a ramp others talk about a mile owned it but essentially caesar build something on one part of one side of the fortification to equalize the height and it takes to legionnaire is almost a month and it's like four hundred feet long about eighty feet high then you just more of all what the romans are capable of doing unless a lot of other engine armies could to when you have that many people involved in laboring for ten hours a day seven days a week you can get a lot on now the romans walder building a surrender pressure because their king getter rick says strategy of scorched worth is working he's brought his army nice keeping it fifteen or sixteen miles away from the romans were building mc delusions and creating this giant mound rep and they're picking off roman stragglers the romans look for food and they're looking for food already this strategy is starting to bite is one of the historians are reported about the scorched earth strategy starting to bite but the siege is working to win the one point seizure says the man in the garrison decided to try to slip out and get to the king generators army live to fight another day at the problem is is that that town contains not just those warriors but their families to and caesar says the return to sneak out you know without alerting the romans was foiled when the women started screaming and crying when they realized the men were leaving baking in besieging them not to leave them to the fate of falling into the hands of the romans sort of screwed up there plenty alerted the enemy because they were so loud and the warriors had to give up their ideas slipping away but it's an emotional reminders and of the stakes heating get caught up in the that this happened and then this happened on those that fear this happened and forget that no we have women and children screaming because they think they're men are leaving because it's better to save at least the warriors and have everyone daughter right because that's what's going to happen when less than a month after the cease darted after the rain storm begins on the goals to lose their focus on one part of the wall for second romans take over the wall close off the city and you know they can put out of the ever been to lighten the old towns in some of these european cities and stockholm for example spellman were when you walk through it you realize how wheeling maryland and small all these old fashioned medieval an ancient streets were all the little side street and how clogged they could be if you read crowds of people trying to pull i don't know get away ephraim pursuers the same time caesar points out that every place gets choked with people trying to get away none of the population of forty thousand caesar says about eight hundred survived the romans killed everyone man woman child upholding for and everything and olds or the another's pulling out to dis might not have been a part of caesar's plan he will be very strategic is he sort of puts down his rebellion who gets clemency and who gets absolutely decimated the important tribes that we used to be friendly to the romans seizure tends to be counted light handed grip right all we're sorry you left you should come back to the romans right but the people that have been nasty the whole time into the romans had nothing to politically game with often are used as examples in this case though caesar he's gearing up a lot of money when these people are being killed on the streets of america i'm even the soldiers who were stood together caught tried it on again the rose slightly but they're busy killing the booty in these narrow streets of this girl like town and some of these stories goals from each one of 'em i think made the suggestion that this might have been an army that was just so angry for all sorts of reasons including the killing of the roman be assistant traitors to kick off this rebellion that they could be controlled or were mad enough to think to hell with the money to hell with the slaves to hell with the booty and killing these people and they did and it's another one of those tragedies that goes into stopping down garlic resistance normally a disaster like overcome would've hurt the war leaders reputation that caesar suggestion it's not hard to believe that actually help american generators because he'd been one of the people that said we should be burning this town down and then when his advice wasn't chosen because he's not an absolute ruler running since the war he slumped shoulders and almost like an outside contractor fewer look at the swim by the strong and the only does leadership they can bolt singly or in groups in this case he looks like he was in the right all along laughter of error come de gaulle economy continues to harass and shadow seizures romans remember seizures romans are the only roman army here are so there's no other pincher that can come around and do stuff if caesar what does that do something in two places at the same time he has to split the army he's got which means that the galls keep caesar's army some occupied somewhere they're free to move around and do things in every other area of the theater for example the king get rich is continually standing is emissaries to all these other tribes have been joined rebellion yet there's one particular that would transform the situation that if there can get rich could flip them it's too strident so close to the romans the u. do we the ones who got us involved in the story began with that so called truly do vacations is a member of the debris tribe right the reason that they're so important is because that is providing seizures food right now enter guarding his food supply lines also with their warriors what would happen if they flipped so fast forward to what's going on caesar anise garlic arm you're sort of shadowing each other it there together it takes his army up into some hills or wound did this but call it a very large hill or remaining mountain in it's very odd tops it's twenty four hundred plus feet above the ground level and the sea is another ghali kill city or held town were fortified town would ever finish you wanna use and once again the snakes peace white escape burning at this is very keen dederick says tribal capital this is his home basically so maybe it to do as i say not as i do situation you all burned out your talent on a burned out mine or maybe this place was so easily defended him so hard to take the durkin get restart was a place he could pin seizure down while he destroyed his supply by getting this friendly tribe that was providing seizures flew to flip seizures in terrible trouble came down from the city college or go via sure go via is normally considered the second big encounter with the big three as part of the scala quarters it's also won we have to take caesar and even less face value because this is not the high water mark of seizures general ship and song for peace a propaganda like these war commentaries if you're ever gonna shade the truth and try to make yourself look better in spain things this is good to be the place we do it normally seizure would look at a place like this and think let's start out but given the supply situation he be more likely with his army to starve before the people injured go via did what's more seizures a little light on troops at this point says one of the moves that some have criticized over the arrows but we told you earlier seizure needs to things done simultaneously in different places he doesn't have another ramiro we can come on yes to split is on them before this battle to see deter go v. he does concerns at about forty percent of his forces to go handle something involving aqaba the tribe that may be good for whacking but it needed to go the other now they are so when you start considering a whole maybe in closing an entire mean mountain with walls and fences in things to cut off from the outside world and you look interesting to leave ginger may be thinking to yourself i really don't have enough people for back and strategy right now now describing sieges is always difficult sort issues these bees roffe ideas but basically procedure gets here sees worries up against the start nibbling at train teachers nearby that will help them for example is a little nearby where she takes that little hill with the goals haven't really defended it'll be harder for the goals to get water should becomes a little game of the nibbling on train features building a chance i'm doing all this other stuff in him while he's doing it he gets word that the heat do we have flipped and at the baggage in his rear is compromised and the food may not be arriving city takes a large portion of the legions he's working with ager go via end goes down to deal with the problem with the supply lines him while he's gone supposedly either can get original warriors come out of the heights down the hill an attack this roman k. the roman camp built for like six legions but now only defended by two which you can see would make it difficult caesar gets word of this when he's on his way back from dealing with the supply warren problems with like four legions and when he gets to the camp b. c.'s that damage to beat off the assault with artillery in all kinds of things but there it appear that way to see you devices the strategy or he's going to faint an attack on one side get all the celtic warriors to go to that side of the top of the mesa on the hill fort and and caesar will attack on the on the far side it's now abandoned us a more troops so we set this up eventually get to the point was the galls take the bait they all come to the one side of the may set to deal with seizures frank seizures since his legions around the supposedly now on defended other side the start doing real well they get through that the main walters partner caught up some of the camp and women and children i mean maybe this is gonna win it and then the celtic warriors had been drawn off to the other side of the mesa by the faint come back and maps there can get rich and self might have led the cavalry charge that sent the romans careening back then omitted all caesar will get together a bunch of lesions that are non vault that the bottom somewhere near the bottom of the old so that his own troops can then hide baja in them in his new troops that are on involved in the combat to ward off the pursuing celts user says will admit to you like seven hundred and legion aires between forty and fifty these people are sing chileans there's been an interesting debate you can read it on whether or not this is the roman habit of encouraging it well conspicuous bravery would be one way of putting it if you want to spin a one-way reckless endangerment for personal gain might be another caesar karma blames all of that little bit at the same time it seizure been encouraging this kind of audacity forever you were these legion area mission to reenter were worried for throwing themselves into the breach of being extra ta femme extra progressive in this case seizure says no one calling these goals will be for whirlwind be used in romans over the walls headfirst in caesar will name at least one of these dead romans being thrown over the wall bonding celtic warriors who killed him by name you know the guy who you're seeing thrown over the walls didn't mean it it sounds like it was a nasty situation some historians have suggested the casualties could be a great deal higher than caesar was admitting to the military setback that caesar suffers a target opium combined with the blues singer of the eagerly trying to the rebel again against a flip yet more tribes and to emphasize how quickly this is happening the more talky writers have a new fifty two b. c. normally when you think it is scary to think of an error of all most glacial like operations whether we're talking about armies advancing our sieges really siege could take years all of this is happening in fifty two which shows you how quickly you venture unfolding and by the way caesar was not giving conventional dates to you could say that all the stuff happen in this one you're bitchy don't know why and sometimes to give you any inkling of the season eyes he disabled as happened in the winter of this happened in the spring or what have you but most are muzak and think of from the ancient jury well up into almost the modern era would have a hard time dealing with the speed of something going as fast aidid china mention the european army from the middle ages trying to crush the swivel does quickly part of that of course is rome but the other party is what sort of bad karma clock to the galls have that this happened that they get one of the great generals in all human history and a guy at the top of his resume when he's bragging about his god given qualities is going to put speed and decisiveness of movement as if the kelso already didn't have enough we're going against them in this deal between the technology and the the lack of centralization all the things we've been talking what they gonna get this guy at this time too in fact it's worse than just that seizures political intended as you might imagine from a guy honing his skills in the role of the late republican our exclusive it in his ability to read the proper way to respond to these tribes in order to play them as much as he can delight get musical instrument is crazy yes i'm trying to get clemency others get wiped out in uganda play this game to keep most of them your campers least the forty nine percent of the tribe maybe the wishes they were your camp but are currently in the minority you think about guys come in from the error caesar was born in mary is solid in my view been equally successful destroying these garlic armies but i imagine caesar's going to look like a great big soft eighty one comes to the genocide of the holocaust we're talking about this mary is ursula dishing out the punishment maybe everything only talk about these historical genocide and crimes against humanity and all these modern terms maybe they all need to be graded on occur or bury him don't listen to scorn the story this is about the low water mark of seizures entire career and most of the general should be toast to this point remember now this is an army caesar's that was already feeling the bite of the scorched earth policy so you could he was not one all by great to begin with the military said packager gobi is not huge in the military since the romans can sock oppose casualties but in a political sense debate ever historians who pointed to the shatters the aura of roman invincibility more tribes join the rebellion but bigger than that is the flooding of the retry and for all sorts of reasons but just look a lot of them the day we control rome's administrative base in gaul their storage locker refueled with a put all their stuff water traipsing around all the city called novi and unum when the edi we flip they take no for you to him with them then the sackett almost as if they were conquering their own studied so that they can keep it out of the romans hands would it have in it here's the story in nick fields talking about an opium dunham and it's important to caesar hope here were to be found all his gall wish hostages is grain reserves his war chest we mount risk how they're worried and the best part of the army baggage the cord or rick's the rhythm are asked to young chieftains of the u. do we turned on the roman garrison in novi you do mum as slaughtered them together with the traders gathered their released the hostages divided the money and carried as much grain is they could transport and don't the remainder raina river and torch the town end quote feels actions and all the dome which is the word forgot what town the point is that about this from the gaul the perspective this is an apache raided the successful and it takes an enemy who's already reeling from drug over yet and stabbed them in the back of venus is a huge moment from a native perspective here and the potential ramifications to become possible now caesar's defeat in the distance well that's a chance that the native american tribes never happened mean we even if they had gone after the very early settlement in virginia places like that could they have wiped them out forever could they have had the europeans draw lines say we're not crossing the solution anymore because you can't live on the upside the natives until you same thing with africa he was just too late to technology since the conduit to one sided but look this year this is opportunity for the tribal people to win seizures in trouble think about what just having the hostages does for change in power and authority your caesar had been keeping the il sung's and daughters of the powerful and important people of all these goalie tried she hoped to keep under his column an enormous and they fall into the hands of the rebels of course the rebels can do a number of things with them right they could be magnanimous give them back to these other ghali tribes say siegel all stick together and by the way you owe me a favor they could also fit want to play hardball say something like i'm david doesn't have your children anymore we do to your joining the rebellion right nonetheless now that the deal you're on board we are told that their king can reach us now in big trouble meeting and in this meeting a speedy we're part of it actually make a play for the leadership to smack down and almost all the other tribes in gaul the turks as a pure white three hundred tribes are states that caesar subdued i can't believe it anywhere near that many somalis maimed and really really small book was to say it's a hundred and one you're hundred fifty caesar says he's got like to work but still support him severe can generate has this big meeting with alicia be trusted giant panda all the council we need to wander he said the native americans were some these other people who were victims of colonial conquest ever were able to get all of their people together in one place with representatives of the men also try to unite to speak with one voice this is an amazing thing when you think about it all go all the exception of a couple crimes are united against caesar and seizures in trouble this historic moment he's basically cut off from getting new troops immediately at this point and remember the romans don't use their own cavalry anymore war they use while local allied troops who is allied to the romans now so sees got an issue which is to get his cavalry from well this is where we find out and none of those who enjoy a little teeny tactical things on the battlefield independent perhaps huge affection history love this part of the story that this is what we find out the seizures been making friends on the other side of the riot the german people that she can house break weekend in each incorporated can assimilate but if you need the cavalry bad enough eating maybe got a deal the caesar stretch bring in this friendly german cavalry from some of these tribes maybe they were the enemies of the people caesar was beating up on in germany and we hear of their parents and it's bedeviled walk took more gaming for instance the most war gaming rule so that's when talking about this german calgary in this period gave its special powers especially special powers over celtic troops you know why because the guilty to for scared of 'em these are the same kinds of forces remember the caesar had noticed had driven off many more times in numbering ghali calvary earlier so what's going on we talk about toughness or intimidation or all these qualities that are hard to quantify what you get one use take four hundred german calgary which is not enough to make a big difference anywhere in the size battles and they dominate look at the super manner we talkin' about here and people of wondered ever sense now we keep going to be unqualified all things but they are of course on quantifiable you could talk about the fact that these germans have a way of utilizing found in a country with the cavalry so they'd have one light infantry men to go with government which was to operate together in the light infantry men supposedly hold on to the mains of these horses they wrote in the battle they would almost act like a night with his squire and that this combined arms mobile infantry formation was unique and deadly there are also some theories that these germans were just your average german warrior but this is more like you're a bunch of german adventurers and it's like the magnificent seven or something but it's the magnificent four hundred or later maybe six hundred and for all these in a badass german caesar the germans to make other german skier bride so you might be back in a big deal that explains why do so dominating on the battlefield want to get kenny confusing isn't why caesar who's running this propaganda peace to please roman audience blah blah blah why is he saying such nice things about the germans in giving them so much credit hard to figure out especially for non expert like yours truly all i can say is that in a number of different encounters these germans are coming all the difference in the world in fact the reason that we're going to have the climactic battle this great i'm sure pollock rape as with the german general hussein is this this climactic intends to sign the whole war in the situation is one city this may be because this german calgary turn the tide of battle revere king generates had assembled all the dang cavalry keep his hands on practically told you to try to you more lenient country during any thousands and as many historians will point out eighty thousand is a lot to feed already at this point in the story and again the battle of the way these things work they're together recently were more than infantry more as a way to hold some of these tribes hostage with doctor warriors be good right off the biked the romans but at this late stage in the garlic in a military development it's their cavalry that's everything and caesar will end up re hooking up with those forces that he'd sent away to do other things before jacoby at the will start to march in a direction that looks like maybe they're leaving and this is where maybe their king dederichs gets confused a lot of different histories portraying this as an attempt to attack the romans as the romans march oui there can get erections put fifteen thousand cavalry we're told together all of whom have pledged to not go home with their wives and children or anything unless they every didn't quite east ruled roman call my attack these romans on the march and the german town are we working in conjunction with the liege near each once again saves the day and soon as their king generates in his kelso reeling back toward the first place to rally which is the squalid city once again remarkably untouched by flames although we see out seizures as by the way that he pursues de gaulle ago army so closely that he kills three thousand members of their rear guard as they try to cover the army's retreat into the the old town of elise ia the conciliation to some people do this is a typical galling killed town in the sense that the key is protected by natural features to make it pretty tough to take michael and st says it is a i tell you're dijon france right now about thirteen hundred feet high well one point two miles long six hundred fifty yards wide on three sides to two wings like impossible rivers craggy rocky terrain but on one side on the west is a nice gentle slope a couple miles long she was another history put up into the peninsula and it's a little like that so there came gary church reach to the city but then turns around and blocks the entrance to the peninsula is army day to day to build a six foot tall wall may loose stones and about him six this hill fort city with the tribe whose home media salon the civilians to avoid for caesar caesar shows up takes a look at this place and besides this is something after put under siege obviously but how do you put any place this large under siege is a huge endeavour if you really wanna go there but we've said all along the romans are the weather grid secret weapons is the fact that there are legion areas are about half construction worker half soldier historian michael m. sage writes about caesar looking italy's c. n. deciding what to do you quote since a direct assault was precluded the only alternative was to capture the town by siege which require the construction of massive fortifications what the striking aspects of the gaul like war is the engineering skill the romans displayed in constructing siege fortifications this expertise was part of a wider development in the use of fortifications by the romans they were used extensively not only in sieges but also on the battlefield the romans constructed a continuous each walt over ten miles in length to close awfully easy out and co no that's just for starters but basically what they're kingery sees what's going on here in the scope of what seizures about to do it launches a cavalry attack down the one gentle slope of the peninsula of this plateau wheeze occupying and gets into a dust up with both caesar's legionnaire ease pain in caesar's german cavalry 'em once again the german calvary make a difference and they pursue along with the romans these ghali count remember shoe caesar says get caught up kind of in your own defenses in the store clogging up around the narrow part to make it just massacre in crowds of people he says crushed to death so teacher says that this tells their king generates the snack would be of the break the siege himself and also as this on therefore if occasion start to become completely unity with cavalry anyway to caesar says he senses calvary way since all the calvary back to their home tribes 'cause this is an army that is a consolidation of a bunch of allied tribes now right almost everyone up so he says the calvary back to the wrong tribes and seizures as he tells them to bring the relief for me to put together rising of the tribe in coming years abe as we got caesar came down right here hazard to get rich is sending his cavalry all back to their own tribes seizure begin putting words in his mouth has him saying you don't leave me here don't forget who fought for your liberty then something to the effect of all yeah i have eighty thousand of your countrymen we would wanna see them die he would get which brings us to numbers here for second because who the hell knows what else you decide about these ancient battles sometimes you can reliably come close to something on the romans ike as though say something like we had this money legions you know they're probably under strength you know they probably got you a part-time combat is with her servants in camp how personal that the odyssey don't know but you can estimate better on the garlic number zhou we have seen you go from monies are rejects but as every historian says we'll fill be blank we asked i like the way injuring goals were the figures out is what's about to happen here you don't know the numbers of kelton fall but you can reliably say it involves more than had ever been assembled a single place before because this relief for me the begins to come together is going to be according to caesar absolutely enormous now seizure may have expected the relief army may not have accounts different interpretations differ on that front but if he didn't expected at some twenty years it's coming to the begins doing what does battle with this siege is kind of known for the begins building in another wall and another fortification facing him the opposite direction from the one he's our remit mostly completed so in other words he's besieging the celtic army in this hill town while preparing to be besieged himself from without the roman army to operate within two separate siege was the nikkei up there they're gonna live there and they're going to start about this celtic army on the hill while frustrating the efforts of the relief army that showing up to rescue it so for visual purposes if you imagine a hill replied hello completely surrounded by fortifications irena fortifications and an even larger ringing surrounding that read some words like a fourteen mile circumference or something and visually you'll get the right picture imagine it bombed watch towers that have artillery in them i thought i read somewhere fifteen hundred was an estimate somebody tried to put a number of those lob watch towers this is a place that's going to be able to hallows sixty to eighty fallows and roman soldiers and friends some think of the signs were talking about your guest multiple camps each camp is a is a fork in and of itself it has twenty three things that are like other roman word means little passover little fortresses the it's crazy the best short description i read because they're hard to find because even caesar was normally very spare with words can't help but go on and on by seizure standards about all these kids filled with sharpens stakes in all these things were awaiting the garlic warriors arm don't worry rock agreeable going to war for a time he described the defenses which is weird word registered differences in one sense but they're also the fortifications besieging the other army in another bizarre he described the fortifications and elise yeah i quote the roman in trench men's lincoln encircling chain of camps in forts the air ditch was twenty feet wide which she your sides i need not tapering at the bottom and the main circulation it was constructed four hundred paces behind this ditch here or there were two trenches each fifteen feet wide and eight feet deep the river was diverted to carry water into the inner trench were ever possible behind the trenches was a twelve foot birth work and how was it with edward prongs projecting from it pressed works and battlements were overlooked by turrets it your balls of tea feet caesar also sold the grounds be on his fortification with prongs in pitfalls of various patterns illustrated leader humorously termed lilies and stingers a parallel line of fortification was then provided as an outer circle malaysian against the inevitable relief force the inner perimeter was ten point one miles along the outer twelve point nine miles and co so if you wanna be's go look warriors looking to strike a blow all may be a fatal blow all in the defense or we'd conquest and ghali celtic liberty and you shall appear to do battle with the romans before you even get to the actual place where the romans are in other standing behind their birthing chamber fortifications they are behind all these defenses you get to get through the gauntlet and the goblet is warrior points out starts with a huge twenty foot wide it'll say how deep but the other trenches or eight feet each of the jury least eight feet deep trench though break up the momentum of the giant human wave charge wanted but that's about six football fields he says from the rest of the defense is when you run into them that you're running into things like a double line trenches fifteen feet wide eight feet deep lot of them filled with water you're also running into and this is something you can see you this almost enjoyment of the romans for when they say that the construction all these little traps may sound like they can attract when i was growing up the north vietnamese to be a kong will we set the peace these things with they'd put a big sharpened stake in a three feet in the ground in covered up with leaves with for someone to walk by the romans have like thousands of dollars in from there trenches and they have on the barge of other things that are similar but disguise differently in the mix them all together so that azure approaching know you're coming towards artillery range rover start shooting at you when you just turn the teacher blogger not worried about warrior stepan everything and all the son you running all these traps and then right after the traps there's you know the more trenches and then you run into these poor wrongs war recall them i was reading how they did is the roman soldiers would go connelly's branches and then they would cut the end of the bridge is a sharp and all the years and then they would arrange them in the way so that it was like a giant hage of knife born to get it's a giant almost it's almost like ancient barb wire me would you put at the bottom of what these trenches were white issue were clamoring out of one of them to bitter clamoring on this eight foot trench and you know what your human wave attack has been somewhat disrupted him what to the top of the trench this giant head juve wrongs and all this of course is before the garlic warriors even make it to the roman stockade interest in some of wall restoring the field says that six thousand trees were logged to create these fortifications you might have been tough for the celtic people to overrun without all that stuff in front of them let's not forget that the high nice fortifications of these very same legionnaire easy to beat and he's kollek warriors most of the time in the open field without even having the help of fortifications our guard towers everywhere as we said our taylor reid during it's easier doesn't have all the damage it's remember there is a reportedly he thousand let's lower that to something more believable say thirty five thousand garlic warriors essentially in his re you're the army he's besieging if the army from outside the ring attack caesar the relief for me he turned to face it he's got there can gather rick's and that army in his rear so they can coordinate their attacks well seizures got a heck of a challenge in front of him is the ori tribal army trying to resist colonization for more delusional as we said those were the technologically more sophisticated more centralized power just ignore throughout history this is one of the better chances as i said you're gonna find it to gamble this is wagering as we've been saying try to stop everything you are these celtic people's any of the same time this is a pretty good wagered might be a bit of a long shot but this is a chance that you would think for example native american tribes would be given everything to simply have a chance to maybe we're not we said that maybe eighty thousand romans were here we on our money celtic people are coming and relief force but the people inside the besieged hill town don't nobody really forces coming at all seizure points out that there can get rich in his army up on the hill for car off for many news information they had this to date in their heads when the thing to relieving army's gonna show walk but the army doesn't food starch running low and they start having these hardcore debate inside the hill for amongst the various go lick leaders in people of note there's like forty six tribe some i think caesar returned fire is involved in those things of this is a pen tribal group of people that are starting to think that there's no we're leaving army coming maybe so what're we gonna do one group wants to surrender another wants to charge doctor result of like a giant bonsai charge of death right make a good song at least and there's a third group that wants to hold out 'cause they think of leaving army is coming in seizure put what these fantastic speeches into the mouths of one of the shuttle launches a big ever it's the longest speech seizure putting anybody's mouth i'm a whole commentaries any means it in a bad way you want to look at this people think are the disgusting because this college guys saying it it we need to be prepared to be cannibals we need to just eat the old people and not useless mouse ears way of holding out and the speech is worth we're counting on caesar again he's trying to make this guy looked like a degraded by this because another would look at it which is mean again and this is a commitment was mean when you sacrifice we're willing to sacrifice everything in manger willing to go cannibal if that's what it takes says from my thomas homes translation of caesar to seizures as of this on nobleman stuart no one makes the speech which he says should not be passed over he doesn't think in other words somebody should say that the school also these horrible things and so here seizure with this colony has him saying quote i do not intend he said to notice the view of those to dignify the most abject slavery by the title of surrender trial that they ought not to be counted as citizens were admitted to counsel i'm only concerned with those were in favor of the sortie nina raid by bonds i attacked racial are all agreed in their council was to be recognized the memory of our ancient valor to be unable to bear privation for short span that i call weakness not manly resolution is easier to find a man who will from death than men who were patiently and we're suffering and yet i would give my sanction to this view so highly july respect the authority of its advocates if i saw no evil involved in and say this sacrifice our own lives but informing our plans we must have regard to the whole of gaul for we called upon the whole gall to help us if eighty thousand men all on one field what think you will be the feelings of our friends and his men with their guns trained to fight almost on the very corpses of the slain say you walk the accounted their personal danger is nothing to not been robbed them of your read do not buy your folly your rash mr lack of resolution for when the whole of golf and subjected to perpetual slavery to be that because they have not arrived upon should lead to the day you doubt they're good faith and resolution what then do you suppose that the romans or toiling day after day m. o.'s our lines simply to amuse themselves if the messengers of your countrymen cannot reassure you because all gingrich's barred except roman testimony that they're coming is near dread of that event keeps him busy upon their works nineteen day and co in other words you saying if you doubt there were leaving the army is on the way tell me why the romans are going to all this trouble he then says that they ought to be prepared to each other if that's what it takes to regain garlic liberty but instead what one translation here calls the council of war decides to send out the useless mouths and prolonged and how long the food will last a little more soda counting on the romans may be to take in these women and children and old people and for and you know the people who used to live in that town before became a battlefield sold their king derek's says those people out to the roman lines and seizure promptly sends them back it's been explained it may be seizure dean of the food to feed these people those people were besieging seizure make as slaves and feed us like slaves because what the procedure done a veteran of the new self obviously of also he thought sending them back might be that there can get riches food supply even faster the problem is is neither side relented the most people began to die in between the lines eating grass is the way one nation's first tried that to these women and children the families of some of these warriors dying in front of your day after day of slow starvation exposure to the young woman's will the siege goes on in you have no idea if your friends are coming and then one day they do and they are visible in the distance and durkin gary to his troops can see them at her reading on an open plain in the distance in a way that is all but like the sky writers saying that rejoice in all of gaul is here are your rescued and on multiple hills in the distance the romans see what a real goal for the set is almost certainly the largest oleg army ever assembled however many people that might be actually goes with the sun is probably wanna of the largest army six eight two sons are like little largest army buddy in our hopelessly outdated but impossibly logical friend from a hundred years ago hound stockbroker who thinks all these numbers are crazy admits that it might have been possible that this was a larger than normal army because even though he's the guy who's always been the senate gallery and feed him he says it's possible that these people were never meant to heat for very long that is really for me is like a cruise missile to be launched rated seizure of the romans and these defenses do you gotta worry about the breaking up like the bell again did you know esther starting over monitor something so figured you have an army here for talking about the native americans having two thousand warriors and it's a pretty good amount or the zulus having twenty thousand of the large zulu army this army might be when you combine the numbers inside the hill fort with the relief army hundred twenty thousand hundred three thousand teenagers sources haven't well over three hundred thousand tons to within fifty thousand infantry and relief for so long and those are crazy but once again and this is a hundred and twenty thousand tribal warriors in one place well you know it like that napoleon called the quantity has a quality all its own that'll make up for locker room and damages won't it just having so many people and you can understand don't brooks idea that maybe these people adjustment to be used right away when you see how quickly everything unfolds before me shows up cantonese tells about a mile for the romans goes down to this planet which is the only part of the theory which is really like a battlefield one open space that western you read the gentle slope of the plateau so all the real fighting especially the wide open powdery stuff happens and they are and they go on the demonstrator not for their kingdom original his beleaguered besieged starving people who've already seen those people from the town starving between the two armies you throw a punch here seizures as much remember why we say caesar says all the time why were so reliant on him he's the only eyewitness from this battle that we have a new town from an anyone else's account of this battle often uses him as a source turkey's both invaluable at the same time obviously biases hell all bowl any one you got to nussbaum who wrote about is probably gonna be pretty biased in this case don't caesar plays up to feel a lot of times when seizures going up to fear of the dangers of the situation you can perhaps see just be doing it to magnify his own greatness but this looks legitimately dangerous here this looks like a moment in history as we said that with a tribal people can have a shot oh hundred twenty thousand hundred thirty thousand warriors gives you a shot so when durkin get a return his people see this really for me seizures as they come running down from their positions chores that trench that separated them from the roman senate began filling in the in in other words preparing to do with their job in this whole attack which is to attack the romans from the other side when the big relief army smashes against a different the seizures as he has all us people take up the positions and then he sings his cavalry down into displaying to engage de gaulle account or read it's down there now who knows about these numbers estimates are caesar had about six thousand cavalry wide mix of things to a single account report that a spanish probably has new medium we know we had some germans and the galls will have gallstones bay fight and skirmish all afternoon in paraguay and the eagles are getting the better robert one seizure says all the sudden and now for the last time the east german counsel we once again turn the tide children to the galls chase 'em off when the day it and we she says that they're together rick's these people who were you standing by having filled in the trench waiting to attack dejected lee had backup hill toward the town have to be seated this relief armies are going to be giving them any relief today so then you get the next day and something happens that seems to validate some los earlier porch were making the ventilator books of seizures as an r. rating points out he begins to point out that these people are growing and they're changing and they are there prolonged contact and fighting with the romans making them more dangerous we said earlier this is the reasons sometimes used to explain why the germans as we all know sac roman for kenny g. right prolonged contact with the romans made the romanov so that they could do that will seizures kind of alleging is this a commentary this goes on at the counter gone that way they need to be dealt with now before they get any better because they spend the next day during the day calmly and coolly and logically and diligently you the romans might notice 'cause they listen to the delta so lazy and liking to avoid hard labor but they're cutting down trees and they're making ladders and grappling auction putting together bond dole's of sticks to the winning run toward the german trenches bacon or throw their bond old into the trench eventually the bottles filled the trench we can run over them in other words there are not rushing at the defense is like a bunch of war mad battle crazed barbarians if you can just to pick off 'cause i'm so stupid our calmly and logically planning for an organized assault so no way that scarier and then when the sun goes down when things are only lead by torch light maybe moonlight who knows the largest army probably ever assembled in gold one that is infinitely larger than any north american tribal army ever assembled in exponentially larger throws itself against the roman defenses at night caesar rights that after midnight that this celtic army right just creeps up quietly and launches its attack on what was making a lot of noise called wants me imagine europe and the gaul would kill for besieged wondering what's coming next pleasure out of touch with these relief forces on the other side of the romans and indeed still most of the night is broken by this loud roar and knew instantly know something's going on down there so addiction getter explores the trumpet seizures as begins to get his forces together to support the attack on his side meanwhile this celtic forces throwing themselves against the roman defenses in the dark and falling into all the pips and traps and spurs on all these things the seizure so lovingly and devilishly described their bad nothing daytime by the night you can see it would be even bigger probably to these calls are falling into the pits in that they're being skewered by these states the sharp and pieces of wood the size of a man's by some of our mothers are much smaller meant to go through your foot and disable you meanwhile roman are chiller reissued in from the walls that you're trying to get through the trenches you gotta deal with these prongs but caesar makes it out to be in your room thank the mayor beating off this attack will like something out wattles old westerns or the native americans are are attacking the small little forced the machine is to be an endless supply of them and you seemed almost beecher was laid seizure specifically names he's good at this remembered to all of his or my translation is called generals which is not a good translation but he means senior commanders on the scene one of them is mark antony marcus antonius of course he'll be ancient tabloid fodder later when he hooks up with cleopatra but he's one of the people that will run to be aided by the beleaguered sectors whenever it's needed caesar says the u. of all the traps and everything they got set up these goals are throwing down their bundles of sticks and they got their ladders in an eighteen year round thing of several different places in the dawn breaks and de gaulle week wave subsides and the smelting of the galls back to their camp is to produce some historians as the failure of the assault of other historians suggest that the first ballot they've bought the counter with one of the germans once again during the time that i made it impossible for these celtic in countrymen to operate in this big field during daylight so whatever the reason it the relief farming loses its second battle against caesar and the first assault that it makes against the fortifications of the romans fails us while in caesar's says that part of the problem here is the beer can gather rick's and the troops cede to the hill for never got their act together in time to help the by the time the relief for smells back toward the capital morning there together riggs has launched his attack yet it's about the traditional balik coordination problem it's not surprising older kingery to the pretty good job of windows committed traditional goal acoustic so maybe it's surprising that sense seizure says that the colloquy the ship which remember is made up of a tyler different tribes under several major war chiefs from different tribes is a native american friend i can't help but think of some of the the chief's that i've always thought most highly of working together obesity come from different countries working together in some giant effort like this i'm bob avocado chitra for what's going wrong 'cause we've lost two battles into a three day is they were upset about the reconnaissance putting out maybe that the emotional loss of the peoples of those traps that we you know about in the rearview the locals who are after all gaul like themselves about the local lay in the land is there some weak spot in the roman fortifications turns out thirty years the hill that caesar couldn't incorporated is defenses the celts find out about it caesar says sixty thousand of them underwater these war chief you gotta love it when sixty thousand easy detachment of your forces alm whatever the room number might be sixty thousand of them sneak over to the sweet spot and then when they launch their attack the ruby corresponding attacks launched elsewhere the help interesting did that to wonder whether the people of the time understood what this is this is the actual the spin of the roulette wheel right now mean this is the encounter that will decide in caesar will say this he says during the fighting to his men this is the encounter enable calm down seizures as to a moment that will decide the course of the war that he's been fighting for the better part of the decade and given what we know now will decide the state of gaul league liberty for the next five centuries seizure says that it is about noon that to surprise attack is launched against the week part of the roman fortification they say it's the week part because instead of being able to be situated on top of the hill with the good of you all around this one part of the camp had to be situated blow depressed that we should all knowing can see what's on the opposite side of the crest the river slope in this case if you believe caesar sixty thousand handpicked tribal warriors were or an around noon they come galloping over that slope heading towards a part of the camp for member seizures troops are numerous butters run our over the entire length of this fourteen miles or carpenter whatever is is about two legions maybe eight hundred thousand people right here close by with sixty thousand sounds crazy so will save thirty thousand screaming warriors coming down that hill of them as we mentioned this isn't all caesar has to deal with because of course they launch a strike from the main area this great big plane that all the battles before on the main roman defenses well those celts come out to play again to historians are divided on whether or not this is a real attack intending to produce results of its own whether it's purely a diversion but you can't just send a bunch of legionnaire is from there now to go bolster the week area 'cause they're busy and it because this is the climactic battle you would expect that there can get rigs up in the hill fort with his lina hungry besiege troops will also launch an attack to help to you should they come down off the hill and they do the same and then they began to concentrate rightmyer that same weak spot that the sixty thousand to eighty guys term outsider concentrating on the sea is now the crux of the battle to seizure goes to a place where he can see really well and his job as he sees it in the emphasizes listens to the binger roared commander on the ground wielding the sword leading his men like king arthur or alexander caesar's job is to hold onto the precious reserves and dole them out steam usually eat to wherever they're needed most any does this but what's going to happen when he runs out of reserves which can happen when you have a threatening particle line and no more liege near east isn't there to bolster it has to do this several times in the battle finally the situation at the weak spot in the fortifications is so bad it's endangered being over rwanda which everyone seems to think would mean the battle so caesar has to go and self the last thing he does before he runs to that spot olano and it turns out to be crucial wouldn't you know look is to take a few legions to be scraped together with some countering putting our german friends put them under the command of someone says right outside the fortifications and whip around try to get behind the enemy they were fighting in that mirror yet to see which acadia basically and then caesar grab some more legions i guess that's the bottom of the barrel and hence their itself he rides to the threat and portable minute you instantly have this feeling that he's just walked into the alamo all which totally undersea denise davy crockett and he didn't have to be the place where he might die in a in a few moments but now he's walking do it on his own free will caesar says everyone notices the red cloak which is why you were the red cloak but he hears the same effect that the super celebrity would have on both sides he says celtic in roman alike remember this is not modern warfare where because of the projectile weapons everybody stays as far apart from each other's they can isn't she warfare where wars decided as the romans we say by hand strokes so you gotta be close and everyone is in caesar's is that they see him arriving in both sides fight harder because of it what's more a lot this battle is visible from the battle lines of people who were not more than the fighting so they're cheering to caesar said the first counter rebound on the plane both sides are cheering it's like a murderous bloody game of quitter something as casey just as because of the way the hell was slope which made it vulnerable to begin with most of the call someone not our role was to come watch this entire fighting are cheering in making noises in the way seizure near reach this does it say near run thing he says his troops rather spears fight with swords people are cheering and yelling from different sides of the battlefield shelter going up pieces from the hillsides and then he describes this moment again you need to help but think the eagles are coming into one of those yet you had to be cuts like the people who were at the sinking of the u. s. s. indianapolis the delivered the nuclear bomb there in the water and the sharks are the nominee been in there for five days and then the rescue plane appears and there's that moment we just never happy in your whole life to see anything ceaser looks and he sees among other things is german allied or mercenary cavalry maybe the magnificent four hundred of the german people behind the celtic forced it's about to call for ron madcap part of the fortifications and slaughtering zoos it's one paragraph from caesar arriving nick at the beleaguered section of the fortifications to the complete turn of the time you did from the wonderful hammond translations seizure talked about arriving on the scene in his red cloak and no word on whether he was doing totally darth vader brass thing when he did caesar says court caesar her ring to join in the fight game of the conspicuous color of the cloak he habitually war in battle proclaimed his arrival because the downward slopes were in clear view from the heights above the enemy spotted the cavalry squadrons and cohorts he in order to follow him and joined battle i shout went up from both sides and was injured by another from the ramparts and defense workers are men through there's the years then fall with swords suddenly the cavalry was glimpsed in the rear or more cohorts were advancing the enemy turned tail and a cavalry charge them as they fled massive slaughter followed the end quote once again in caesar's spare with words but you get the picture it was a nightmare we don't know how many people died in the fighting before that climactic moment in celtic history on we don't know how many died afterwards i've seen estimates although seizures not helping me that the romans lost more than ten thousand which is a lot by roman standards but the celts lost way more they lost enough to that when these survivors of this charge in this attack on this one for the fortification made it back to their own camp about a mile away they knew it was over and they began to break up and go home and it seemed to kiddie of of how hard fought this battle was that caesar in the romans didn't just totally destroy them than that caesar said the pursuit had to be postponed for a little bit will be recovered and of course let's not forget there can get a region is besieged army is allied army of many tribes watch this whole saying that and now no big deal and along with well everything else in our maurice fascinated by the extremes of the human experience and the emotional and intellectual edge involved in some of the affairs i mean think about if you could take a photo of what it looks like from their kingery to scorn the view when this battle's over as he looks up power at the penner rail all laid out before him in a roman differences the skyline and the disaster in the foreground has that look like him or your emotions is this all sinks in as to what this means come on to get seizure makes him not to become the noble savage if you will to bring aboard those literary conventions again and i was fucking get rich basically saying you know do with me what you will i only get one idea for gaul like liberty he didn't kill me or hand me over to the romans alive whatever you think best and so caesar said in a sense of this chair the sitting outside this camp and they're bringing prisoners to him and notable figures from inside the siege is the impedes plays out and then that caesar makes no big deal about their king garrick surrendering which may be closer to the truth some listerine say that he drew gold for decency sir would never allow herself to be upstaged in his own commentaries in maybe he's suggesting you should believe the cash to steal or poach arthur counts which are more romanticized but sound much more in keeping with their king getter wreaks his status as a noble the needy of tribal chief kind of i mean you put in african cane or agree native american chief for the pacific islander king for example money we did this works a lot of places in that same position in the movie and it works just as well but the sources say they feel that allow for little amalgamation of them their king getter rick's will go and put on his best armor adorning the sofa does best weapons did on his horse ride down to caesar who sitting in the chair medulla circle around him get off the horse perot is armor dosages seizures the nazi war to be led away by the people who will throw him into the roman delusion that wait his fate which will have to look in a calm after seizures scheduled lightens up a little bit because he's got a whole civil war to fight at least a tear the guts out of the republican nominee finally gets a chance to settle down and party anita hill at twenty days of thanksgiving proclaimed in his absence when rome years about this whole thing but for him to actually participate in enjoy himself is gonna be awhile and when that happens all the blocks a different entertainment very exotic stuff and the highlight of this is the party favor of party favors will be very king dederick six years later per raided the machines as part of this procession and be taken down to one of these dungeons and he will be ritual the stranglehold so think about the human misery that emanates from the results of this bottle i like the way the story nick field so the breaks down the importance of the station you remember earlier in this conflict had mentioned that caesar saw the breaks it down to like a frantic moment practically to the whole battle hinges upon think about what that moment going the other way which might lead to that battle going the other way would mean over the long haul the story make fields writes about the effect of the lesion siege court walter singular moment in history productive of strange events much may depend upon a small detail the effects of the detail maybe victory in the effects of victory may be long lasting lee zeal was so much for a very real sense is symbolized the extinction of gaul wish liberty millions would come and go but never again would go always warlord independent of rome up hold sway over the tribes of gaul to gain liberty there together rex a strong a popular leader at hazard did everything in the louisiana and lost end quote which begs a more fundamental and difficult question when you look at the cost of losing was the fight in the gold worth it the goals went from being political slaves to being a actual slaves historian paul gathered on the news broke the cutting edge have a statement i've thought was so deep eight at the major question the entire paradigm when you think about admiring the resistance to heartbeat never-ending never say die resistance which is the thing that makes that the movie so great is the native americans in the face of calamity continued to resist against overwhelming odds writing in the the outcome is known the dumas upon them and they still fight back the oregon writes quote unfortunately the galls protracted war meaning the goal at war for nine bloody years he's been estimated at least one million of the natives perished in the process for another perspective this was their war of independence but they lost and cool when you're one of those call luck warriors looking over the edge of the hill for to the devastation after the battle of louisiana you realize now with the downside of to give me liberty oh give me death choice is going to look like and the cavaco encore which one drummed out so what's the proper amount of resistance to offer in the face of the conqueror who will take everything from you for resisting the hard question because what might be willing to sacrifice one's own life but ball kitty idea sacrificing their children mean it's one of those choices as we said we're picking things to chew literally would give your life for against other things which would give your life for the hardest choices in human experience i think the resistance of people that have been called celtic are lumped in with celtic would continue for many generations and celtic civilization would too this conquest of the calls of the submission that is supposedly n. forces doesn't mean you're gonna stop speaking the celtic language any serious for example mineral be in a people talking about the scorch of these celtic languages better still tenaciously holding on centuries after this whether or not to classify the people on the british isles umpire windows celtic amusing your coach my hands here to seems to be a judgment call best left up to experts by the dna evidence as we said earlier may indicate that there are things they go well into the roots of all the people on the region the predate the celtic shreveport and it's so if there are similarities in the mid might be a combination of cross cultural contamination with some things are very old indeed nonetheless maybe those personality traits often associated with celtic people's aren't altogether go on or made up much of this by the way you should know probably was rediscovered over the last couple hundred years as part of the week innings of nation states in their roots of who they are no they were i certainly know the irish consider themselves you know as celtic as celtic gets and i happen another least if you of them haven't given up the fight maybe the romans think they won but maybe they just got outlasted that remember when i was a she had seven years old maybe eight i had an irish girl which taking care of us some stereotypically name to maureen but nineteen years old twenty years older she came upon me one day my soldiers also that having a brothel romans against helps and she said who's gonna win most of the romans are gonna want to the romans always be the celts she said oh really what language of the speaking currently in italy she says bear in mind back at home were still speaking the irish of course irish gaelic is it celtic language daniel note the big ain't dead yet oh the indiana carla dot com for information on how to donate to