Episode: Show 58 - Kings of Kings III

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Show 58 - Kings of Kings III
If this were a movie, the events and cameos would be too numerous and star-studded to mention. It includes Xerxes, Spartans, Immortals, Alexander the Great, scythed chariots, and several of the greatest battles in history.

Dan Carlin's Hardcore History
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Dan Carlin's Hardcore History > Show 56 - Kings of Kings

Often relegated to the role of slavish cannon fodder for Sparta's spears, the Achaemenid Persian empire had a glorious heritage. Under a single king they created the greatest empire the world had ever seen.

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The Mongol leader Genghis Khan displays an unmatched level of strategic genius while moving against both Northern China and the Eastern Islamic world. Both civilizations are left stunned and millions are slaughtered.
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Automated Transcript (Why is this transcription so bad?)
today show sponsored by square space the easiest way to create a beautiful website blog or online store nicholas west based on common had to be offered code hardcore at checkout to get ten percent off i'm a notoriously bad topic picture my traditionally pick something that i've been taking too much more quickly than i can and i'm right into the middle of that i feel compelled to do the top and justice we ended traditionally the very long series of shows or butcher block to hear is the equivalent of like a double album up by music banter something we're essentially giving you parts to read and for what probably should've been realistically speaking a four part series on the team in the persian empire with an obvious focus on their wars with the greeks macedonians if you missed part wanting to be probably wanna catch those before you catch this one but there's so much military history naturally 'cause i knew would be crucified if we didn't go into loving detail about what amounts to several of the best battles in ancient military history so we do that only give you what is probably twice the length of what a good our core history shows should be so savored letter last and hopefully it doesn't become like one of those double alms i grope with we listen to it with the guy they could cut half the thing just the one really good single album the way i look at it though this is what a great topic small world history and if anything it probably merited more attention than i gave it but as a soldier lama terrible topic baker i'm always trying to recover after i made my poor choice so without further ado hard to read really part four also the final installment of our series on the great kings of the ancient it's in the persian empire kings of kings point three i'm not big government it's his driving going on a day which will live and in from a deal that somehow or other out god while the other man and what i had had could have come out how but how'd one by a group of lawyers and that's a tunnel was gone and one that i've been playing hide and felipe loses the movie and the end of huh that to move ahead and get one why can't wide want white and lisbon to do it what would that political but of the what we we did beat the martyrdom of gardening and mal goode who had used them from phil coleman hi it's hard for history earlier we homes to question about whether or not absolute power corrupts absolutely and pointed out that in the canoe world most of those come from it sort of taken as a given the two won't trust a purse was actually directors look at history ahead but look at history in the story of the king and persian empire if you look at all the different king's which is what we're doing there are a number of them that almost certainly had what amounted to absolute power and several of them to wed least the dena just not abuse it but seemed to and almost beat the prototyping you want in an absolute monarch really two different kinds of prototypes too because the founder of the team in the persian paris iris the gray was like the warrior kenya to his version his empire assertion of adrenaline alexander the great probably the greatest conqueror before alexander the great soul of one kind of ruler uproar type writing arthur but then do you get darius a king or two later and darius is like the gifted it administrator person has a genius maybe at organization errand structure and handling things you know from a cost benefit ratio i mean the greek writer said his own people call them shopkeeper hucksters another name given sometimes but basically shopkeepers we sit in the last for the program if the shop is wal-mart in our shopkeeper your ceo enlisted darius was like the ceo of persia court because persia canvassing don't have like a subcontractor relationship or a subsidiary what placed a subsidiary of persia corps with their various at trapeze and provinces nonetheless if absolute power corrupts absolutely one would think that he would have a cyrus the great we would have a darius ne win who does so well so obviously there are exceptions to the world those kind of people don't come along every day in any society mean oftentimes the great empires throughout history of managed to sustain themselves in the with occasional great leadership and how many great leaders too much to have show up overtures of a hundred to two hundred years to keep the empire in good stead i suppose it depends on the variables read the outgoing conditions things are pretty stable you can have a collegial of the coming year or no problem with the barbarians at the smashing upset an abortion the empire now for pointed thirty year issue better have a directly shimmer adrian well the persian empire gets off to a really strong start the stylist agreed to send him by c. sewage probably better than the sources describe it that we're in maybe you sort of man jai kane lasted for five seconds and underwriters the clinton may have been hand picked by a bunch of other nobles were something weird happen to his predecessor to take over the geek based on competency 'cause he was competent as hack but then about four or five years after the battle of marathon which we just talked about when the persian amphibious landing force is expelled from europe by athenian with some cookie and help riotous gives this passageway says good to rice's matter now he will punish degree to me maybe do it personally but this guy is any sixties and remember that the failure of the real hundred twenty or whatever his will back then it is sixty is the current seventy or older attorneys in his sixties and he's been on the throne for more than thirty years competently and possibly reorganizing the empire in making the structure so strong interest in the use of fabulous fabulous character if you're greece you better not overlook what he can give you when he leaves the army in person which seems to be the plan but then he dies which was not part of the plan what's more the army and he was putting together to go punish the greeks now all which were told involved like all of asia and the whole mayor riordan your uses an opera or putting troops to govern mustering he just gorgeous quash dig at the unions and anybody who side with them like a bunch of boggs but then you know he faces with the big problem for most empires write history that really only two big problems that the phase one is that something was walter or destroy them for without an enemy force are numbered nation state or that you will collapse from within two to revolt and rebellion what time's the two of them work together the ceiling said to do with this all the time the persians did you even though the persians are supposed to be sort of the kinder gentler near eastern ancient nation state but remember were grading them on a curve and the current was set by a bunch of people who wish you were bolted against them they were cutter skin off you will you're still alive any gig or the british museum today stroll over to the ancient is serious action and you will see the stone released that the syrian government paid for in commission daniels said you owed you will include picture for more soldiers skinned alive a person was the governor of the city who rebelled against us but the benefit of anyone who've used it to kidnap to be there at the time for the next three thousand years it gets you on all of these ancient empires were stowed for calling in to the rebels and traitors because that was such a huge threat to them how to keep the people in law lineup when you give them the city to go ruling you take the army and go back home what's to keep them from gisenyi ha-ha for you and signed the egyptians now or i'm going totally free or whatever well we will do the most were thick things to you if you do that it's funny too few good any pre modern society you wanna see the nastiest things they can do to people pullout really awful executions and torture swim in dealing with rebels and traitors you go back to in england free sample in the middle ages they won where are the first thing that they would do you use rebel archer intestines and barbecued and in front of you you are alive all this is happening which makes us a three dimensional experience you were feeling smelling seen the whole nine yards and in doing this particular execution get to the nth degree that they will hang you but they will cut shut down and let you down before you die provide you do if you know what happens they will tied each of your limbs to a separate horse the most for forces will pull your four limbs in four different directions that is called being drawn in court heard usually reserved rebels and traitors the syrians had all sorts of things that they did and collective punishment was the rule of the day so if you were interested with an assyrian city in your job was to keep it in a loyal i'm all that pain you'd stabbed the chain of us here in the back what is gonna culture skin off you're gonna get to watch people the law of dying from doing this recently calls a lot of punishment biblical as those arrows right and which are your family for him to the wall blinders about last thing you see owl it was a rock fair or right in the syrians were amongst the rest is practitioners but they held together the big empire for long time that what the persians have always been sort of portrayed as an attempt to see if you can get away with leniency what we see knifing humid leniency at least compared to the way the syrians ran the show to see if that make people more willing to live under the rule rhyming be the ceiling in our work was so horrific awesomely interesting because they're trying to tell people this is what will happen to you if you're bellowed from again the umpire if you look at the persian stuff that has survived there is no artwork like you see rinse off the persians do not have any artwork we're we're leisure stone carving shown in torturing anyone they actually have persian officials holding hands of people better recognizably for you to date the need to go look they're holding the hand of the caribbean there or they're holding up the city into a tool that's what does a cop people that is by design the persian propaganda that as opposed to the syrian propaganda is that the people who were in their empire like them they enjoy being in the empire that it's mutually beneficial but it's an empire by choice we're not keeping you should you want to be in the persian empire good for everybody as we said you shall the persians who often sell that to the nation's before they were toward the blueprint have to do this don't listen you join us and everybody will be better off i mean that's the way they sold the empire terms of its propaganda it's it's hard in stone propaganda and they generally compared to the curve of that iraq and that error you were generally pretty lenient unless of course you were building and scum i'm told that story in storied maybe from her roberts is describing what happened to the egyptians and your earlier persian king took over the egyptians and the egyptians had to be punished for mistreating some diplomats pat robertson says and should be very persian to do that all the nobles were gathered in the aristocracy of egypt not the poor people who had nothing to do with decision making but those on the upper crust wrought comin' in and brought their children in in front of them and executed the boys two thousand of them including the king of egypt kid and sold an equal number of girls into slavery we wonder what that sounded like remember that still seen him at what the movie seem like that you recreate that for the film nonetheless that kind of collective punishment was not unusual all which makes you wonder but if if that's what faces you let's just say you're the governor in english global rule and you run a serious idiots or the persians up taken over and they've come in they've signed a bunch of documents with union it may be put your finger with blood yet but the bottom is by yes i will be loyal to the persian empire got about an end for some reason might have a good reason who knows you rebel contortions come back because what the odds that that rebellious cities can manage to you boy being recaptured and the persians do something horrible do you in your family just need to quit imagination run wild the persians have a polish recall the boats for example are sometimes called the word deal the boats which is hideous top three he'd always on my top three worst execution of its all time along with him also the death by a thousand cuts of the chinese meadows and diabolical what by wishing to myself i'd like you know with dispersion al to somebody had to come up with this somebody invented this knew what would it be be proud fina listen to company years later wish to talk about it but the method supposedly in this country greek authors and who knows but the method was to get a couple of boats like canoes or flat bottom boats or whatever you know small for years but that fit together to pull one upside down on the other one yeah but the perfect little compartment and it would stick to pursue be executed in the bottom boat then they would put the top or on top of them but they would lead to head the hands and feet out according to these pre copiers then they would feed the person in the boat alon milk and honey immense mural over their face beneath you leave them in the song or set the boat adrift on a calm wait in the sauna and sources different was worse but apparently your face would be covered with insects attract about milk and honey also of course for stock in that boat so you do with nature were course you do and the worms in the bogs and everything basically each life according to the ancient greek doctor pathak reading hundreds of years later by the way the bomb that seventeen days to die that's critical came up with that idea but if that's what you know faces you if your city rebels why on earth would you care for do that so why think about our ancestors like yet decided to just above the bubbly badass or if maybe you know what our whole concept of what horrible has been changed by softening times ameen know the country's is still execute people considered the penalty to be the deprivation of life right when we are executed in that state to a lot of states that is put to sleep and you're being punished by losing the rest of the year statute otherwise would happen in the ancient world in the middle ages death is not the punishment does the byproduct the punishment is the pain you suffer on the way to die just getting your head cut off in some of these places if you're rubble is cheating justice so maybe we could put our execute criminals to sleep maybe to cost the ordeal of the boats is unbelievable the baby to the people of the time they would go up hanging out i'll take it over being flayed alive reading everything on occur right nonetheless the whole reason the degree to fighting or that they get drawn into war with persia to begin with has to do with revolt stuff happened in greek c. d.'s on the coast of marnie turkey the idling in revolt so yeah that'd well you know good must not happen too often nor in the next few years right after the battle marathon maybe and maybe even tied to the outcome a mean the persians to the set back at marathon also in egypt for adults and whereas the greeks and that whole greek world in europe is like the fringes of the backwaters of nowhere right egypt has been sky bye-bye just reaches the crown jewel of yucky muddy persian empire and like there cultural equals in babylonian next to impossible to whirl successfully the egyptians in the babylonians or north korea sleep difficult to govern and part is because these are popular societies are urban societies with crowds in in egypt for example right after the cylinder be lots of documentation about how you don't pay enough attention to the general public on the ground they were high at least are burning in destroying stop the mob in places like alexandria which doesn't exist yet of course but the legendary sending the babylonian it there's so many people is such a small area you gotta watch that crowd control little bit but also about the place of unbelievably high levels of cultural achievement and they are aware of their heritage in egypt the places you have to do nothing that toward the horizon and see pyramids there are two thousand years old you this error when they were almost as old to the acumen the persians as the king in the persians are glass now and if you're egyptian you think into yourself for these barbarians just pure messina put my ancestors were building in difficult times and kiki you madge what person in for nine bbc you thought about something two thousand years can even conceptual as something two thousand years before that whenever we win i don't even get thee to get their mind around the whole concept but what if the pyramids were both the babylonians the egyptians are these very well developed religious hierarchies with tom is it different priesthood in religion that they were very powerful and influential the time you can speak for god but some credibility you can use against anyone and so all these places difficult to control and when egypt rebels peratis says that darius essentially finds out about right around the same time he finds out about what happened at marathon increase in here is the way the ancient screenwriter short run or prerogatives collar rising history really for the first time ever with personalities and dialogue and you know so significant plot development this is what ross is writes about and does come for mine for this edition by the way to run to says hello us what he means grease or athenians direct quote when the report of the battle of marathon reached darius some of his past this would already been thoroughly exasperated by the athenians attack on sword is in our reacted with a much more intense you read and became even more determined to make war on how was the knee had been before and once he began the issue commands and send messengers to rob the cities of the empire with instructions to each of them to provide a great deal more than they had provided previously including the horses food warships and transports boats the announcement of these orders through asia into commotion for three years at the best men were enlisted to serve in the army had to make preparations for war against tell us then in the fourth year or the egyptians who would be enslaved by came by seas were bolted from the persians which only increased to rise his desire to go to war but now against both people and i quote as we said though before he can do those things this ruler who would be in charge the persian empire in blood or competent why for more than thirty years the highest generally considered to be around sixty four years old and in keeping with the mysterious nature of the early eighteen in the persian kings the history lesson record our darius dodd that's pretty common by the way mean de founder of the empire of the war the greatest bigger small world history cyrus the great leno's and he died in my dying bed a natural death of course the traditional story use he was killed his body found on the battlefield the head shop often shoved into a wind skin filled with human blood by a vengeful homicidal central asian queen but you don't know at the his sondheim ice he's a guy who gets the first no absolute power corrupts absolutely treatment of the part of the greek writers the status over the sword to accidentally gun gang ridden died or could've been something more nefarious you don't now the next persian king is the one which either irises other solemnly heir to the throne or some new sir purcell madge i'm from outside the royal line we know how that one died because the person who killed him by hand and about the rest of his known day is that the i just died after ruling persia for thirty six years in his name was to write the great doctor ryan us as a guard who came from outside the director oil line himself seemed to have done a pretty good job trying to make sure that the right side adopted job in that was all understood who was gonna get it although the ancient alderson of allude to some potential problems 'cause these persian king's first of all like a lot of ancient kings don't just have one life to have several legitimate lives and then they often have a tama concubines some of the persian kings will have more than a hundred children that i was one of twenty one will talk about it often the persian kings will put close family members in charge of important things that a lot of them in this case be in a potential pool of both successors seemed to have only included those of the legitimate wives that seemed to boil down to two warriors the first room was the rice's old us on the second one was darius is all this on born after he became king this is something that's important i guess if you're worried about something to do with the mythical blueblood nature run the religious conception in that you're indifferent acting it from king and the child you sire after that point might have something the one you saw you before you working didn't have any mrs conner the way the logical debate on the subject almost twenty five hundred years ago at least that's the way her rotors which explains it to the guy who gets the deed is the oldest son born after the riots becomes king his name in persian will sound something like that how sir yes sir remember the course us an approximation of chaim multilingual in my ability to mispronounce names for many languages to bear that in mind of course she's known history by different name in each probably the most well known famous king of the team in the persian dynasty he's not by the name of cirque seats he also happens to be the grand sana cyrus the great the founder of the empire this king arthur like figure remember after riots the perhaps usurp are himself was smart we we'd city kind of like married and to henry ford's fairly big rally was running for our company will this would be like henry ford's grandson darius was careful to marry cyrus the great daughter when he became the leader of persia this kid small mrs george c. says mommy cyrus the great daughter he used you're the royal bloodline of this blubber prompting guy may be chosen strictly on merit for me select pulled aristocratic worst riots the great and so i rushed agree the mythical figure already in parisian society we're told that the based their views on male handsome yes based on cyrus is so design whenever he looked like touch the cooperman anybody who's got back on the nose mcnamara more blacks i wish to look the more perfect you are to this is an amazing character some of the sarver says go inside to say this all our promises kill lot of hype and high expectations that you live up to that search she's also hindered historically speaking by the fact that the portrayal of him fits nicely into into a couple of different narratives to the way the story has always been told what woolsey idea decline in the other involves the idea of the life cycle we decline is the last stage only recently of historians really thrown out or mostly thrown out this idea that they are his life cycle of empires if you will the idea that once upon a time you have people who worked for in their poverty makes them sort of how often the toughness of their poverty and the values and the discipline in the spartan lifestyle you preach the kind of people who can conqueror master which were to create an empire which brings in lots of money enough linton that eventually you know you cut the sweet spot we had the best mixture of the old russian discipline values that she had we were pork are also the coach rolled advancements and what not to calm with some influence in some leisure time all that and then eventually you know that the life cycle of empires culminates with the downhill slope would falter called the silk slippers what issues going upstairs option woodbridge going downstairs yeah the the luxury in the influence bringing on tap into the deck image brings in softness of luxury weakness in his hobson in survival of the biggest kind of world then you get taken over by the new poor people on the block were tougher horsepower and knew what the value shore and sister she possessed thirties is often seen often portrayed as the beginning us or the rich kid iraq of persian change of the ones you didn't have to r m empire of agar ra panetta agra buzzer king sauna and it's just a little different right sure they tell me how right had to throw the spirit maybe maybe run five miles and into all these things that proved i was toppled i'm still the rich kids on richest men in the world so on the idea absorb seizes failings or the multitude of things bother with the classic stereotype buzzard she says is the guy who couldn't stay out of the harem love the women hung on their all time and like to drink is want to drink a lot wine hang out law the chicks and dissipating as they would've said amongst the old boxing trainers dissipating week the beginning of the downhill slide in the persian empire the declining if you will begins to look to the pier briana this will all go now to listen the high water mark of the empire for using the old line way of measuring this is is it expanding in territory or is it contract in territory well the height of territory leaks by hitchins right around the times ricky's takes over and it never will be that began by the time search she sleeps soho you blame for all that well historically speaking it's hard not to look for rapoport where's the box stop the absolute monarchy well whether or not it's advisers or generals who really calling the shots about usually starts with the absolute monarch in this case desert c.'s once again the pork out i deserved or not get stuck with the bill and blamed for being the first of the persian kings to rule as the empire has crossed the a peak of its performance in the beginning the downhill slide to the first to the king james bolger's analogy to be heading down the stairs of civilization will fight in silk slippers is traditionally surgeries his rehabilitation it has been going on for almost all of us in fifty years with peter green in nineteen seventy are reading that book but even before the enemy eighty olmstead right after the second world war was running his history the persians and search c.'s was called the sort of misunderstood and maligned figure that yours are green put it in nineteen seventy in a book it's pretty long in the tooth now on your lies how many things they discovered about ancient persia but even back then trying to recapture search c.'s historical reputation for home forty four hundred years of media were he'd become a stock character basically green writes quote the traditional pictures or cheese is a caricature are put together from hostile and frankly contemptuous greek propaganda we see him as a small blog lowering the famine that oriental a cowardly despot who ruled by his women in pennies you next parole in victory spineless in defeat persians sources no doubt he writes equally prejudice in the opposite direction revealed a very different man tall weigle and handsome he stands in the purse apple us were leaks and is proclamations have a ringing dignity which echoes down pretty gauges are we scolding the proclamation by cirque she's cool the great god is awful roma stop who created this earth who created man who created peace for man and who may exert c.'s king wanting of many one lord of many kinds search seized the great king king of kings king of lions containing many men king in this greater cornwall at some of the right as the king and acumen that the persian some of the persian an error yan of areas seed wynter writes my father passed away by the will of all moral mazda i became king and queen you know it's easy to say that all the stuff you have from these greek writer shriek samples all moviemaking and it's all falsified and we're due to rot this is dialogue come from afterall keep the key was working for transcripts sold the d'souza a. all mustache be thrown out because all these people the story rather than being historical figures are more like character's but if you do that when you were placed it will gabriel says that many times in his book if you get rid of her rock is 'cause he's so inaccurate war you replace him with the board of the dutch really the only time you appreciate the guys when you lose him 'cause you will after four seventy nine b. c. and n. there's not even a raw to see me more so it's it's part what makes the job of historian fascinating to think of those people the historians having to tease out the facts in the haystack of fiction here that are the stories and these planes and what not to try to figure out could this be true could that be true women can make check it's a morals against a mother evidence they may have we need to detective stories we sydney earlier produce tail we take for example the fact that you began to see some significant portrayals of women in the story in the persian empire which is great 'cause as everyone knows women get the short end of the stake in so much historical writing but you have to ask yourself as a detective don't to fewer historian which i'm not is why all of a sudden you see women when you didn't see as many of them before are they there because there's a legitimate reason to have them 'cause there always is right we all understand how the population they're serving some of the worrisome her already there because the storyteller requires them as a tool to do something else in this case it's very easy to see how sometimes these parisian women who sometimes are shown as like a dragon lady is like murder which we scare read a minimal level of alexander the great's mother olympians was another wonderful character but she's or real as far as they can tell but i mean these murderers dragon lady should be there because they really were these murders dragon ladies and that's what portion court when we're like or they there because they played into the stereotype of the harriman the women beginning to dominate the man a nice persian manner sitting there drinking and drug i wonder what's going on the women are needling them from him and his brother twenty three twenty liking to get the reason is that they decrease one the one who brought us has doing that don't is somebody that there's nothing you could do the color for greatness any other color but magnificent this is what the greatest leaders certain maybe the greatest female figure in the history the persian empire and only the barest back sufferer known but the barest facts by themselves or testimony to an amazing life the person who special moonshine story would one or you really have orpheum names and dates and facts her name was a tall saw respect what the greeks calder when she was or jesus' mother riotous basically says the main reasons or cheese was chosen over anyone else's because of the influence of that woman but that she would have any influence should surprise nobody listened to the facts the comprises woman's life can look at how it shows the woman who was that like the so long as our new level of the historical focus in the vortex anemic she's cyrus to greeks daughter actually being a napoleon's daughter genghis khan's dollar julius caesar's door make you name it and she's there when the umpires being want informed orleans that's the vortex of history in that part of the world as we said he's probably the greatest conqueror in world history up to that point and this is his girl and she's there what's happening shuldiner read his successor cyrus his successor her father successor who happens to be your brother cam by eighties no not only will she then be married to her brother but when can buy ceased guy is remember we had a very weird situation where maybe can buy sees his brother that the legitimate here takes over or maybe there's back to win this match i've got a seizes the trombley their way to every day is that gets on the throne next he marries a toss up to so she either married or your brother rigging and or she married to take usurp are whose blood should've contaminated her super royal blue blood all up and the guy who may be killed her brother she then mary's to writers the great when he takes over and remember when he takes over either did so by killing it real weird to the throne perot brother husband or the madge i'm guy who seized the throw in which case he saved her from that in a low level person who should never have been anywhere near the kingship nevada which of those stories are true that's an amazing life right there i look at it this way this woman was either the daughter the mother or the wife of the first five kings of the team in the persian empire which by the wind klooster greatest kings when surprise anyone if she had little influence accord would it he can tell by reading about are the little bit of seeped through the she's not like some shrinking violet pride assertion that it just gets passed around you can tell that she's valuable for what she knows that she's raised in this entire ministers to do when you're in the center of that vortex all this history being made bishop she sounds like a political animal like someone who knows how to move the levers of power and influence and rule three husbands and sons and she's a fascinating character she's probably the most famous powerful character if the new character in a king in the persian empire history the fact that so little is still known about or to show issue how much this error is still sort of carver in greenest with only the most bright and luminary characters in our daily appearing from the other side the houses want some the toss us on direct cecil so have the opposite problem of his mother were as we have some facts anonymous caller to flush it out with her with surrogacy is whatever fact she'll have urso overwhelmed by the collar it's difficult to figure out who the guy you're dealing with really is way back to the early nineteen sixties histories like a harbor and an doubt that or some good qualities observed seated even creeping into the original sources like a rocket test burn wrote quote search c.'s lose in the greek tradition is the arch enemy presented naturally in an unfavorable light peratis more generous to the enemy than later writers alone presented in the wound is ortiz has a persian love of natural beauty he enjoys being inefficient on a princely scale he can forgive surrendered enemies even though surrendered in atonement for war crime he weeps for compassion over the mortality of mankind but he's easily well as to wage by opposition he is cruel winkler lost even to those lately favored he is on control been lost and harder coward it is well proceed with your report for the character rather nor yentl prints born of good stock brought up to rule but not to tolerate opposition ring dewar said that there may be much truth in it and co for my favorite radha to stories about the search seizes the one where he tells the spartans of the sport is trying to reconstruct their damaged karma i guess you could save for lack of a better word we told a story while back to when the persians and sports first got together the persians and the diplomats and they asked for or thin water which is the judicial token of submission and spartans threw them away all the signature of the water down there which of course kills them but this is like a violation of the ancient world version the international law the gods frowned upon treating diplomats like that and supposedly the oracle star given the spartans all these bad pronouncements for awhile and they try to figure out how we can at repair this car more for lack of a better word basically they come up with this idea that the senate couples ordnance to the king of the persians and he can do with them what he wants presumably he's going to kill them can even the score here to the spartans asked for volunteers to some older well the spartans may be looking to find one last thing they can do you approve their duty to the state volunteer to go be the sacrificial victims who show up in zurich seed korda said that there's repair the hormone pay the cormac build off for the death of the persian diplomats in zurich ceases go home do you think i could violate international law the little like to paris in two wrongs don't make a right that's canada ways or cheese is portrayed which is a pretty cool way to be all boulders perhaps a more intelligent we look at the babies are pieces thinking to himself wait a minute so they kill diplomat to get bad karma and now they want me to do the same thing no thank you i'd rather keep my karma untainted by giver much go home disbarred so that's a good portrait of search used as we said otherwise he's mostly voldemort or two or three during the story all part of the fine is he's like darth vader who besides his black ominous get up happens to be wearing voltaire silk slippers at the same time capsule to little bit to little bit of a softer version perhaps and then maybe something a little bit more luxurious and wealthy and maybe just a hint of decadence on more than the earlier kings who came before him weeks that's the way it's always portrayed on shore the egyptians would not of thought that the persians were any softer than they had been wins turks east takes the army his father was gathering to go punish the greeks music against the egyptians would recently revolted the literary traditions have sorties being the first of the common cold persian things 'cause as we said it had a reputation for for coming in there and saying listen you can keep doing business the way you want to keep your religion keep you were doing things there's a new boss in town were very hands off all the sudden surge seized by the the ratings of the greek starts to look like a jerk as in egypt and start saying no no no more additional did a sure way anymore we're not taxes and take more people for building projects in the egyptians are mad at the way you can conceive the persians one of you if they'd been lenient with the egyptians all this time the egyptians are still a pain in the rear what point as the pressure ratchet up to finally get tough on these people looking over the persian khan review maybe you would save yourself listen we tried lenient approach with the people time and time again the keeper babbling or maybe the whole thing is made out but it's all greek propaganda inserts he's never did any of this we do know we crush the rebellion on the egyptian stay good for a short period of time digit gains may also have revolted during this period the babylonians rubble twice you think yourself what revolting punishments are gonna happen all these people who were faulty within to revolt would be fewer and farther between the turnout which we pointed out that this is just the stuff we know about encourages west trying to divine history purchase like trying to divine the history the moon there's a light side of the movie that you can see him that's the sign of persia that faced greece in the dock written about extensively the bosnian babylon egypt in these other societies account could records then there's the dark side of the moon which is everything it the east approach which is a huge expanse of territory going up into modern day afghanistan and pakistan places like that that's almost completely invisible in terms of the historical record the persians mayor had an amazing battles and de what monstrous were balls over there we just don't know butter cheese crushes efficiently revolt in these very important places in the persian empire egypt and babylonian my favorite story in babylonians perhaps which might call the final solution to the babylonian problem but it's not what you might think they found during archaeological digs i guess the receipt maybe you could call it for a statue taken from babylon when the revolt is crushed by search sees the statue is the famous statue of the babylonian god more doc supposed to be solid gold about thirteen feet tall somewhere between eight hundred and thirteen hundred pounds and this is the statue that anyone who wanted to be the ruler about gloria had to grasp the hands of the cold grasping the hands of more talk the report a religious ceremony when the persians talk that statue apparently melted down they eliminated the ability of market to grasp anybody's hands every gay man ha ha ha we got jirga odd isn't that we said no house version detailed the politics of dealing with the gods of local communities is fascinating fascinating aspect to these really societies and now what were the babylonians going to do if they want a new local ruler more jokes hands who'd been melted forever i suppose if you're babylonian that is a pretty big black mark max's irk c.'s name forever your book isn't it twenty eighth search is well enough to go my god all understandable after crushing these revolts search seas will turn his attention now to finishing the job his father began the job of conquering the strobl some people who inhabit the european mainland but people that after the battle of marathon have had a good ten years to prepare for the return of the persians remember you might think of the battle of marathon is an athenian or greek victory but really all that they had down here is pair were you persian blown all the persian second blow should come a lot sooner but they had the death of the king who'd been on the throne for thirty six years that'll throw off your game a little bit then the succession them the crushing the multiple revolts now ten years after the battle of marathon the persians ready for blow number two law number two was the mabel number one look like a tap the preparations for this next invasion will take years it'll be visible to all the greeks could not have been surprised some of the things that the persons were going to smooth the way for the next time they showed up no we're hard to hide emmy for example the last time the persians were there and it had problems crossing the peninsula around discernment and their fleet had been wrecked way to the tip of the board the peninsula this time it's been three or four years ahead of time eating a canal more than a mile long run through that the neck of the peninsula right at the base or in half to go round it next time the engine authors and to try leaned to pass side-by-side the canal and apparently they can find remnants of the today that's the candidate takes thousands and thousands of people in years and agree to know an additional like the last assault which culminated at the battle of marathon which was essentially an amphibious landing which is chemical for this period when you think about the capabilities and move nor me but my ship and landing in supporting them all that that's really cool but this time they were gonna go and more the old-fashioned route which leaves a lot more historians 'cause there's no agreement on this to think that the second time the persians come around this time lady in person by dessert she's the great king of kings this time it's a full invasion this is not a punitive expedition this is not something to us care of the locals all although his drink your bird on points out that this also would've been something the new king sorties would've uses we show the flag with all the people to march the army through their territory on the way to some other gold and as the subsidy your effective reminding the locals in a quitter king isn't dissuaded me attempt to change that situation nonetheless if they're going to invade by landed this time so they can take one is reported to be the largest army veteran be danny were in the world up until this time all bullets remember these people did not know anything about the chinese so that they cannot be your question who knows how those numbers with stacked up unless she came with an army that big over the sea so you can move it over the ledge of attacking europe from any shit is only one problem is you probably department this water and a separate juror for asia it's not very much in it to strip with famous the darnell the greeks called it hello scott wide enough and strong of current though to get anybody fix can't build a solid bridge would last gotta figure or we're on the problem persia start doing that to you to begin to build floating bridges across at least two spots the divine your information i think the narrowest is like seventeen hundred yards around there but because what it's like two miles long the first bridge is destroyed by the car and a storm so search sees as the man i'm bill that and the ones in charge be headed we've been told in a wonderful piece of raw that is that there is a lot aqaba and it may have been true but who knows what the reasons we're told the desert c. supporters water itself to be punished for such activity he has his man that wade into the water this is for murrah to stop the kilograms of this money just been a great movie scene who knows but he said that sorties has them with the water with whips brand the water with hot irons throw in fetters you know like handcuffs in the water as gallbladder all the time while doing it for socially being naughty this is what robert his rights to exert she's dead after finding out his first attempt build a bridge been thwarted by a storm peratis is quote sorties was infuriated when he learned of this he ordered that the hell spawn cluster received three hundred lashes under the whip and a pair of shackles was to be dropped into the sea i'm also already said others to blandly hello spot in a case he instructed his men to say barbarian in insulin things as they were striking the house don't really scolding with the men were saying is that with the water court better water or your master resume opposing this penalty upon you for wanting him even though you would suffer know when justice for him kings or chiefs will cross she whether you like it or not this for just cause after all that no human offer to sacrifice your target and briony river an equal remember eroticism is thus he ordered that the sea was to be punished and also that the supervisors of the bridge over the house on forty be headed and quote now if you're rotted tissue just to exert c.'s look like a bit of in my job there don't shoot and maybe he was absolute power corrupts absolutely sometimes rides are gimenez thought that made a difference on the other hand i always try to think of these people are cynical just to see if there's a cynical answer for some of the staff mme theoretically look at how old the hand it looks for the king of kings is bridge to be destroyed by something that would cure the act of god to the locals will certainly turned out to watch everything maybe the way you pacify the rooms you would in a quarrel any worries that somehow maybe gods are happy with decaying it to blame it on the water and upon the shit ashley maybe this was a public relations stunt to make the people know that the war was acting out of turn it won't do it again toes or cheese gets to work on the bridge again and they end up building at least will maybe two across the water using boats we're told that they do is they put these boats side by side by side with the ballo facing the courage and they lash them altogether so the rope boats strings of boats together the malay planks across the boats and they put signs up peratis is to keep the animals were looking over the side seen the water getting spook then they put doctor down unpack it down the house and you have a flowing breaks and they can handle the current because a king's up and down and be flexible all of sudden there's a bridge train asia and europe the giant nasty persian army can cross with all its cavalry and baggage and supplies and everything he's a dick armey engineering feats they're the persians and the entire part of the world whose heritage day with the character's olive could do so while military engineering and the greeks were justifiably scared and i say greeks but it's important opponent the big stories always emphasized it is no greece to this point and there is no sense of national greek consciousness that people for things more in terms of the city state they were for home which is why they had so many problems with each other a lot of this story they were telling me he was actually created after the fact as poured some historians think of of the lead eureka relation of the past unity that may or may not have ever existed but at this the event which is really to the ancient greeks the equivalent of like our second world war in terms of the interest in the fascination and how disruptive an important thing it was and how how people talk about for long after we're totally books and movies in everything still sell on that event this in part explains why it's so exaggerated in there so much myth built on top of it it so hard please the little fact from fiction and then for all the western civilization stopped come in a long after that night the car's hard to discern what really happened but you can certainly tell the creature not foolish enough to see odds when they're not even really greeks but in this case athenians on one hand or spartans on the other hand course the bins or four guys were indians in other words the persian empire against greece is no contest the persian empire regained some greek city states is less than no contest in fact even seen this the traditional sense of greeks against persians is probably not accurate archaeologist warwick ball who's trying him against all odds 'cause of the sources to look at this more for persian can review point out that in the end it you'll have more greeks fighting on the side of the great king of kings of persia then with his brethren the greeks supposedly fighting for greek freedom so things may be a lot more complicated and thousands of years of historical tweaking make it appear to be today for my favorite part of the story the happens now and the greeks do what people in this era dead when you're worried about something he needed vice one to the gods the greeks go to the most famous of all the oracles in this part of the world delphi to speak to the representative of apollo i'm kind of channels the voice of the god threw herself it's one of the fascinating part of this disappear in human history the king were talking about babylonian earlier on we talked about magic meatballs and wege keyboard to how weird it was almost how'd that side of the metaphysical be so connected to things like policy decisions should we invade this country or not the whole shake the magic eight ball sources say yes we have to ask again later outlook is positive i mean you know i it's it's crazy soared to the modern mind once again there are multiple ways of viewing it some of them much more cynical than could suggest that some of this stuff was only metaphysical maybe the rank and file on the ground maybe the sophisticated people work in this or call angle but totally different way for example the king's to persia traditionally give watching good stuff to all the work closely you play any favorites and they covered all the races why take any chances the oracle at delphi channeling the voice of god of apollo was friends with the persians 'cause the persians were friends with the daughter pollinate proved it many times in which your real ways the oracle at delphi was usually perot persian in this case the athenians go to basically say okay we know the great king is coming back and we're trying to work together to figure on some ideas and you know maybe we should have any maybe you should have an army made whoosh work with scorn subpoenaed but ask a little advice amigo today hit the ice in the corners temple ms at this woman there the supposedly they are matronly buddha like fifty years old his bones they used to be like teen virgins at the morgue out too well so they just address these fifty euro women like teens put them on it a tripod that was in the cauldron maybe they don't know exactly but what the accounts as it is called an ad like little ear holes in the bottom so that the fumes from a crack in the earth that they were placed over could see put up through the cauldron into their nostrils and allow them to channel the god this is a fascinating thing you could go and oracles forever i loved you dorset she loses a account how the confound us that a crack in your piece isn't that the sheep from the shepherd fell into the crack in the shepherd window look for the sheep and all the sudden you know he could see the past and he could see the future remus all its whilst often historians and scientists ever since been trying to figure out assuming it's true what the heck made this woman the pithy issues called the was associated with snakes by the way so that makes it more exotic and interesting too weird arm know what she was on which she was taken or she chewing laurel leaves for oleander leisure something or was it something to this idea of crack in the earth as she sat over in the fumes did it to recall the hair stood on end this game changed color the spokane tongs suspiciously sometimes you can understand a word they said they had these handlers o'connor been interpreted told his wishes and and sometimes even with the interpretation you had to go back to you know you're seeing it was like reading a fortune cookie an episode of debate with that said that's really helpful big know how to do that what we're up okay here's what she said what that does that mean i think it means as will porsche woodward to live anywhere what beginnings albacore she would enter port of these are because like that sometimes in this case when he'd loans basically so you know what we do about the persians were coming back the oracle gives one of it's most fire and brimstone and scary pronouncements i've ever read for giving orders to assert its apollo him giving the oracle says quote why sit so idol you poor wretched man to be invisible and you should we leave your homes leave the heights of your circular fortress for needed ahead nor the body remains in its place nor the feet underneath nor the hanes nor the middle is left as it was but now all is obscure for casting it down his fire and here we so sharp on the heels of the sea ringing share react you will destroy many cities with towers and not yours alone into the devouring fire he will give the temples of eternal god which now drip with sweat and shaking their fee or as blood gushes darkly from the top of their roofs foreseen the force of compelling disaster and step out of the shrine in shroud over your heart with the evils to come i had gone to the god apollo to ask what they should do in the face of this persian invasion and i got apollo window on certain terms told them to run for their lives as you might imagine these unions are horrified and our response imagine if you really took his seriously how horrified duty by at least prophesies your june during courage to go back to her trying to get another so that maybe like a follow up question in in a roundabout way and they're given one of those cryptic fortune cookie type responses which they take back to athens to be stretched argue over the bottom line no use getting results in athens deciding to build a navy which had come to the expense of athens deciding to support an army was with an either or proposition but it happens will be known for ever afterwards as a great naval power with this is where they develop that power will be for the first time in they do it to you it takes on the great kangaroo least give them now some ability to cope dixie because not only does the great king hammond massive or me so we're told he is a massive fleet as well this time it's a battle fleet as opposed to blood may be an amphibious landing flee to supply fleet although some historians think it supplied the army all the army was marching no one knows how big the army was a nobody knows how big the fleet was peratis as one of the many exaggerate years will claim that when all the people and their servants and everyone else is added up sir cheeses army is more than five million men whose fleet has more than in a thousand ships as we said earlier he everybody knows those numbers are wrong but nobody knows what numbers are right the government has way of arguing it but even if we play with relatively low ball numbers and to save fifty thousand soldiers fifty thousand people leisure average size college football stadium is that every good size college football stadium assert his army we'll be on the road for a long time imagine trying to keep fifty thousand people in the stadium marching enough hundreds and hundreds of miles alive and well when ready to fight the distant location imagine trying to do that twenty five hundred years ago sir she's army will cross the hell was spawned over the bridge of boats eroticism took seven days for the whole army across he runs down famously it takes pages of koran says he runs down every contingent in the army and he says forty six nations took apart this reason they call the persian king the king of kings dizzy rolled over budget peoples we still have their own gain is they just answered to the persian king their kings were sometimes call set traps in the persian king could we'll put the more take them off at will peratis is that they all showed up in your traditional local garbage ready to fight in the traditional ways right the syrians the last great military empire this region will eventually turn them all and it was seriously would look like a roman legion irritate the uniform and i will fight the same way the persians let these units find out whatever they were good at getting the budget three shuns we're nasty if you met him in the forest in the hill country we bring them along and we have somebody up in the hills giving you trouble he's in the three choose to go deal with them right have some apache scouts i keep them in case i'm fighting apaches peratis goes down this list what strikes you when you read it he goes into butter armed with and what are called it look like amateur facial features an epic features look like is that the search seizes bringing peoples from three different continents with him to attack greece from europe asia and africa he's got subsaharan africa troops or dressed he says in leopard and lying in schemes with antelope horns be years painting half their body white would shock the other half were you did and carrying six foot tall kane bows that supposedly only they could pull back as they were so strong but with stone tipped arrows many goes down the list of all these exotic people's an historian to wandering ever since what this means to these people all get out there and fight is it symbolic instead in mid to convince people all along the way you grease and everybody along the way look at the majesty the breaching look at all these exotic people see him as a good diet persians you and all these people so the animals in the great king is the zoo keeper no role in their most in a colorful for other person look at my army is in bloom maybe it's like that some historians have suggested all those people could be hostages for the good behavior the rest of the empire right how many revolted they been dealing with the new gonna take this enormous army and the king of kings and taken to europe lesson in courage everyone to revolt when all of you have two or three thousand you know of the songs of the nobility of all those places we few on campaign is that so to guarantee a good behavior so that's been the rockets but the core of the army is persian and related people's one to one the empire of the one to hold the empire the very dangerous group that's your cheese has overwhelmed him so he may have on the subject peoples but the people that are going to bear the brunt of this thing or desperately good fighters even the history in the greek times as portrayed the sort of ants run along by the lash and nothing more than the slaves of the soap slipper whirring darth vader this in determining number of people or gather all through forty one b. c. in which now modern day turkey and spring of forty bbc they will cross from the ship into europe and begin you're looking at a map to do to go around the body of water now descended on increase from above from the north perhaps it is a sign of exactly how dish united the greeks are that with the persian preparations that advanced in the persian army bearing down on them the greek still have a hard time in a crafting together any sort of unified approach to dealing with the persian tread in fact if you tell the story the old-fashioned way that a lot of politics going on right now is the greeks try to form this alliances to the west indies earnestly outlooks each of the go in eventually only about ten percent will join the anti persian alliance i can understand why look at how her city state or the buried there even recent differences with each other take our goes for instance would just fought a war we start out with a lost six thousand people now they're gonna join an alliance it's going to be general by a spartan general it's time for all was states or goes include will remain neutral against the persian allow states will join the persians especially in the north thing you can blame 'em because the north is where the persians aha not easy to flip the persians the bird from down south in the worst barnett is little different if europe and desolate with the persians persian diplomacy was was that much more effective would've happened had the or meteor we fit especially because all decked out and offenders and were painted your exotic looking country countenance this royal army is like you know we've got to talk to and pointed down the course to mainland greeks and intellect sometime around this time period the opinions began evacuating athens lauded by c. n. peratis it makes it seem like a desperate effort to get women and children the elderly and the slaves off the mainland off to these islands would make it hopefully be safe because that understanding uses of the persians break into central greece which is depart for athens is feeds places like that too athens is doomed where were they were o'connor said they needed to ron wow they're taking it seriously and they know that they're on the persians not a list of probably the number one in an audience creek state in the eyes of the persians and the persians get in the central greece there's nothing that will stop them from moving right on athens so the greeks and of force to block the purchase now we get in the areas rather much argued by the experts and i'm not qualified even have a favour position that amongst them but the problem so stems from caracas you know you rely on this guy occasional everyone else the only comes to cholera drama story he's awesome when it comes to real military details that you can reconstruct to make sense out of afterwards not so awesome he's heavily criticized for this and i'm the other thing so everything has to soar to be taken with the great assault he may not even really understood well some of the military realities here his ability to write blow would probably amounts to some of the two does this guy is the guy who wrote the oldest surviving don't battle scenes of the sort that we would know when literature in entertainment and in movies and everything else ever since i mean does robert physicist reaches chalk full battle scenes by screenwriter our firm that approach the one he asked for for more police power the reason for motley has become the greatest military last and in history and think about how many of those in must've been throughout the entire length and breadth of human affairs invested in that thousands and thousands of great last in stories that no one survived to write the account of them to me like the proverbial tree falling in the forest rate is to make a sound of the lyric did you also have to get by the way from sympathetic owner view what's going to be the battle of thermo poli he's got some very different if it's a persian oral historian describing it to his audience that if robert is to spreading into a greek one the moment with the great king including in his entourage and exiled spartan king live arriving for the hotcakes the blocking position the degree to take him up on land thermo poli and if you're reading the persian history of this you basically seventy eight within the week the great king forced disposition outflanked tar and disposition that was the strongest in greece while the same time jordan spartan king budget is elite soldiers in a thousand or more other drinks a bunch of the grinch ran away you can add to that to your fleet fought the greek blocking fleet a place called art museum were to hold on like the same dead heat both sides were roughly handled it is the way historians like to put broccoli and disagree term but the greeks ran away yeah they may have gone down to athens is because after the news at this point he's evacuating this is part of war also brings home the stakes of all this and it makes us sympathetic forever with the greek columns on so many levels because all the story elements ringer favre who europe you get refugees and women children old people jumping on the ships to fleet offshore islands because they will die or be enslaved or something at the state part i have some sympathy when the story's about you know six foot five inch tall giant about to your beat up a four foot tall men again are natural sympathies to go to the underdog for when the fact that to a lot of most agree to the home team for western civilization as we said earlier and there are a lot of reasons to not see the story the way the majority of people during this time period not on the greek side would've which is the degree to made will seem like a relatively feeble effort to stop the great king at the pass of thermo poli emigrating brush them aside to ronna to sneak into sources sea shepherd twenty thousand dead doing it which would be to be something that the greeks would say will look at the outer proportion casualties to the spartans in them how was caught is that for bollinger ross is numbers now remember he puts the persians and over five million men do the math that means that they turned the strongest defensive position in greece kill the spartan king is the guard basically an abortion by the greeks but the cost of less than half a percent of his total force most military commanders would take that any day once the persians or through their model leader into some from greece and now the loaded weapon is right up against the head of places like adamson thieves and central greece not that story is much much better issue might expect it to listen to her brought us talent because we just told you the equivalent of the story of the alamo trombone mexican side which is rico will delay the alimony till the barge or guys no big deal but we chill every last one of 'em we moved on from the greek point of view this is an inspiration of town it starts were told to be inspiration from the get go meaning you had an effect on the war effort but then it's been one of those things and inspire people ever since reduces to learn the name of all three hundred spartans to foul up the bottle he could've gone back and told those people we still be talking about them twenty five hundred years later i wonder what the reaction would be unless we would be remiss if we suggested to the only been three hundred spartans and to spot on the persian show wop n. r. block that i'm awfully there are thousands of greeks on the other side of the past now here's the thing to understand is passed doesn't look the same today you go look at it now it doesn't look that imposing but if you go to the re creations the people of mop up about where the water used to be which is receded you basically have a narrow strip of beach between the mountains of the water in some places the angel author said it was so narrow you could hardly fit a horse truong part for what the norms of hundred yards us all on mock up suggesting any case to the point that makes useful the signal fires so many of the persians advantages of the really are your persians can we use those numbers can i can get around the greeks and in the past like that that mean parisian barrister cavalry kicking around the greeks he can basically have a solid line of oregon or heard men that stretching from the mountains to the sea it's a solid body of troops is nothing you can do to go straight at it i'm going straight at this what the greeks were best act the persians were beginning to prove that beast with facing greeks we're back stat an hour if you have a long memory you'll recognize it we've now come full circle twirl we actually began this tale the story of now how in my mind's eye i see all the sporting troops as a manifestation of clint eastwood somehow but her radha two's has your cheese and shoes advisory who happens to be in exile king of spark to himself up to preclude by just looking it's barnes born over the finer points of what a jerk she says spiders his report to him the spy city when we look to the passes saw these long their warriors combing their hair into in body weight exercises and searches church's porn king says these people the small of people that are going to try to contest the past are they in that when the spartan king who just they are needn't kill me if i'm a wire this dramatic any old but the resistance of these creeks dying for any number of teams that been heaped upon the cement sense fidelity to the state loyalty to their comrades sacrifice for the greater good freedom of chirpy by me just on the themes are heaped upon one another in the white wine so difficult to see this in the persian twenty meters from the persian for do not release the loser here heroism of davy crockett means nothing to santa anna's mexicans right remember it to talk four hundred and fifty years later or thereabouts who says that the response that blue unitas king of the spartans remember they always have two of 'em this one maybe you could call the spare sacrificial lamb he's a descendant of heroically supposedly lizzie descended to do so this is a spartan king is god's uses blondes veins no big deal but supposedly according to go dark the persians off from the typical persian deal you guys up and join us we make in the king's agree sure more than you ever had before you profit we profit it's all good just lay down your arms in them answer the wonderful and you see emblazoned on caps today 'cause wanted to causes including second amendment firearms causes united states adopted the phrases milan law that translated hundred different ways pus come and take them is uh huh standard on the six of the committee can lay down your arms come and take them maybe we can add come and take them from our cold dead ends but if you looking at this from the persian porn view that's exactly what they do they killed clint eastwood the other clint eastwood's only agreed to warn clint eastwood in the private weapons from the cold dead hands and they move on and if you're a clint eastwood defender back in the greek city stage go yes but they killed ten persians for everyone they lost me to persian king you go so what i have lots more that side of the persian intimidating qualities is not really been brought out here who cares i will spend twenty lives to take you down how's it feel i mean it's if you look at the right way this is brutally intimidating and since historians can't agree on what the greeks strategy was as they can't really determine how big a good deal for monopoly was in terms of the disaster but since allies to rings think it might've been an attempt to block the persians and keep them out of the rest of greece online and then there was as we said the corresponding blocking for sixty to eighty art museum if that force was intended to halt the persians bloody shoe store in space so that the supplies could begin to ride out the persian army to starving the strangling back to persia like napoleon strangling out of russia that's good strategy by the way but that's the strategy how will split as a horrible failure do you judge the inability to hold that most offensive position in all of greece for week really only two or three days actual fighting if we're honest with ourselves the greeks get blown out of the monopoly and if radha this is being honest with us the persians to the unusual step of decapitate in you know the sensitive herrick liza sticking his head on a stick as they marched out of the mountain passes and to central greece and you can almost hear the background you know empire music and heavy breathing and darth vader is speedily he he walks through the pass while rides on his chariot close-up slippers don't handle the rocks in the road for you well you know peratis is version of the fight it tomorrow pulley which would have been heard by greek audience members within living memory of those events is somewhat more colorful detail done more rotor gleaming in the inner rotted his tail it may be true the greeks are holding their world in fact impeding the persians every time the persians attack the past they're beaten back by greek worsens it's only because some trainer shows up in the trees degree cause for gold persians role ways getting people to betray their people for gold imagine that and the traitor shows in the forces of kings works easy secret pass by high negrete defenses thirty cents troops behind a degree grier and in one of the versions of this leon ideas is able to get the other greeks to head back in safety that to their cities to fight another day and so the defense to retreat to the last minute becomes the rear guard to another version of the story it'll bind the idea that this was an attempt to halt the persians until there is supplies ran out the maybe you buy into that jury that this is a delaying action in which case the death of the spartans achieve something that abreast of the greeks get away this is the second world war dunkirk evacuation in ancient greece in the spartan king and three hundred of his men at the butcher of the greeks i want to cover the retreat for the rest of the greek army men may be true as whispering pointed out is the persian calorie get to the other side the mountains and as a whole one degree copland for miles and from other retreating in an outfielder spearing those people on the back so absurd to wobble lines here peratis is account of course is much more colorful he has the persian king setting up a throne maybe you could colleges mobile thrown any steps up we can watch what's going on here is supposedly like to watch all these encounters are land or sea even so great in no described there are going to one of the nation's couldn't hurt for the performance to today's bottle market on his back from a bank and rod to sissy sending in the unit after unit to fight degree to me all get beaten back their shorts be yours can cope with the greeks and finally making it decides to sending his guard unit the immortals but his immortal thrown into the more than their match winning run into spartans in if what brought it to says is true anyone who's ever been out on the field trying to do maneuvers with all these human beings and haven't all work together can understand what the this would be more damaging comment as would be a sport that really behave on the battlefield where was this has been behaving after the needs and the two scenes get destroyed or badly handled by trying to assault agree to the past years with rockets is as colorful account of the next step turns out to be walser cheese degree king watches school since the need for suffering extremely rough treatment they now withdrew and the persians and the command had our knees the king called the immortals came forth to take their place there was every expectation that they at least would prevail when they joined battle with the liens the greeks they fared no better than the meat and indeed they severed the very same setbacks fighting continued to take place in a confined space with the persians using schorsch be yours than those of the hailing some unable to deriding advantage from the superior numbers black in the morning in his meaning spartans fought remarkably well proving that they were experts in battle were fighting among men who were not especially whenever they would turn their backs and fein flight altogether the barbarians seen this would pursue them with much clattering shouted delighted i'm all ears would allow the barbarians to catch up with them and then suddenly turn around face come at which point they would slay countless numbers of them but the spartans themselves however only a few fell they are why leave the persians were treated since despite all their efforts to attack by regiments or by any other means they could not gain any ground in the past is said that during these assaults the king who was watching leaped up from his throne three times in fear for his army thus and did the contest that day in on the next the barbarians did know better and quote that's a feel for how prerogative portrays is a need he goes to roll the details i mean eventually lean ideas will be killed and will be a fight or squirrel more for his body to retrieve it and eventually kill these gardens which reacted to the withers warmly will be down to fighting with their bare hands in their chief karate says that is gripping accounting it's hard to look at it from the persians side and see anything but the bad guys in the story if it's the cowboys and indians bear the indians in the nineteen fifties right they're the zulus in you know film the gap in these kinds stories as always these defender sitting there are fighting to dogs to a new person greater cause a whole bunch of ants they're swarming over the position in the story is rama to styles of the persians are idiots but the bottom line is no matter how heroic it was in the summer for eighty the answer in central greece burning assets this is the real net result of losing the battle of the motley to the persians break into the open country of central greece many in the cities are really going over the persian to budge on the ones do too big cities to the important places like the drama persian side on all these cities will not provide troops to his army to use for the rest of this campaign at star and look like the war's over isn't it was a mop up effort isn't it the city's it don't cooperate with the persians are destroyed the tail is destroyed potatoes the city that for ten years before this time against this king of kings father with the athenians the ballot marathon long memories and aversions i've been gone thespian which you just lost the budget thespian ha point with the spartans of their motto we destroyed that burned all the homes the acropolis the few people who would not evacuating would rush to the population were killed mortals richie stearns a message back to his capital tunisia which he left three months previously remember over the bridge of boats essentially telling his people that when it comes to these athenians mission accomplished now something happens here in the story that will totally change the complexion of everything but it's hard to figure on exactly how it happens or which stories are true or what have you or you can say with any sort of true accuracy is that the persians will get involved in naval battle with the combined navies of the greeks were fighting them they may have been tricked into this encounter a budget historians think that it's the major must exert sea snakes in this whole campaign dizzy dean even need to fight enable bottle to talk for hours about what will become the battle of salama us and historians argue whether or not for the most important household time and others will say that this battle of potato which we're going to get to use it instead the most important what's up to me that tomatoes and among some historians here but the battle of selma symbols a character and how much his character actually corresponds to the historical figure named domestically use is anyone's guess but the character is penthouse tech pennies that after the second world war rubber rich in history as it were suggesting that the opposite or wore this entire greek persian stories cast into the second world war analogy in that version of things the mystic lisa structural what that does mean captured is that there's such a wonderfully clever tricky world the shula bubbled does the right thing in the wrong that he's han solo rather than winston churchill produced a good our star wars analogies are jesus darth vader the mystic lisa's han solo nice try again in roared to sue story anyway the greeks to to pull together because this is one of the reasons you know the war is almost over to solve the creature ready to go the wrong way look out for their own interest right all the greeks bull something called the isthmus of kuwait which is another blue these natural choke an intimate geography durrell trying to build a wall across that offends elves which is great if you could set off of that like sport and corinth in our girls do so bloody shoe libya with a bit like happens does 'cause the persians are already there so this is when there's a lot of barry wonderfully rogue each bargaining going on with the mystic he's using the athenian fleet as a bargaining chip basically saying look half of your fleet is os if you don't do more to help us we're leaving and then where will you be at the mercy of the persian fleet there we wonderful jousting going on in my favorite i'm back why did he uses when the admiral from current points out the giuliani standing to be having this conversation is for people about the biggest city states in your haven't won any more meaning happens is gone the great lawn but traditionally in iraq says persian distorted our wonderful harms so lovable rogue who tricked you into doing the raping each supposedly tricks the greeks in defining the bottle solemn us and if that's true thing to howl while that is and then according to her right to sit next to it tell them afterwards that's right you're surrounded my dad is so guess what we're fighting ha-ha-ha if you go look at him at the stables bottles build a satellite image worried it's obvious what happens just by looking at the geography even have to figure out too much because there's a an island off the mainland of greece and then there's a body of water but look quite small between the island in the manual and that's where the greek figures but there's an entrenched that stream of water on one side and exit on the other the mystic lee's says tell somebody eventually afterwards i sent my slave over to kings or chiefs to say the degree to robin ready to pack up and all if you attack now they're dead meat so certainly is surrounded the greeks right blocked the channel that they would use for the rich returning came at them from tully and domestically sinner rocket test takes credit for this you wanna fight but now we're surrounded and you're going to get killed to humans or resist any way we're going and they need to hit that's a pretty great story and they were writing popular entertainment about it less than ten years afterwards one hour rotten to sluice to look pre teen earlier greek filmmakers rush cream writers were winning awards for their portrayals of the persians and places like the battle sell almost the school is who's one of the all time great was a veteran of the battle of marathon and may have been a veteran about looks almost too therefore may be an eyewitness certainly performing his players for an audience of veterans and eyewitnesses many times to athenian is suing for seventy two and ran around there one else was doing this we're still a war with the great king so it's very interesting the way this whole thing is portrayed the eskimos has the story about the way of domestically used you're sending a false message to the king of the persians saying that the greater ready to leave too so when eroticism preteen of stories are already being performed on stage so who knows interesting character interesting thing for history to turn on winston churchill slips a message to hitler they're all could be gone you get into a brig tomorrow nor be home if you look at that satellite map of the battlefield if you will with this bottle occurred and you think of hundreds and hundreds of ships on each side in that little teeny area you have to be a genius to imagine what happens and play writers like eskimos mention episode as everyone else it's a place where it's very easy for the ships also to become faldo disorganized together the persians coming apparently expecting a budget disorganized are ready to leave greeted instead the greeks are formed oppel jews interesting if you think about some of these complicated maneuvers these ancient creatures supposed to performed it must've taken hours hours of preparation to make sure overruled wind up just what you wanted to this is a fascinating period of naval history i'm not necessarily my strong suit on the way but the big ship tumble cider called try reames about forty archer forty meters long hundred and seventy two hundred roars on board the worst is staying at a sail for it no more crap all on your son or aided method for normal trouble apparently in warfare the news it so this is a human powered machine and because of the we're told four hundred three hundred five hundred pound braun's beak but the prow of the ship ran amok that it's like a giant human powered missile aim to the other ships and so they would rein in each other in the center of the wood should year in the wood to go by really closely and she you're the corps all forms side which can only imagine what thou must go on to poor worst people and a lot at times they would try to turn into a seaborne version of the land back once we get the ship's altogether and used the marines that were on board essentially your soldiers the final landau on board these wooden ships that's the mystic lisa's plan we're told c. that the persian fleet is superior notches to numbers but in origin and they have better roars may have guys with a lot more experience because they took over established preacher man with a sort of if so the subcontractor are wholly owned subsidiary sort of approach to some these empires like in the city center phoenician and have such great sea faring pretty shook up the nation's mabon agreed to see fearing peoples of all time to win the persians get control of the series is essentially say okay you're working for us now just keep running great fleet we liked everything about aborted tell what would you go what to do the greeks of just established to flee recently still gettin' up to speed in terms of ok this is the proper way to do you do this maneuvering see him mean just that developing the muscles you cannot forget that element of it how long a good these people you know you're fighting the battle continue to pull yours before they just exhausted one of one side's better read that in the other what do when they're in better shape to the plum orchard twenty years ago mosses that these subpoenas having it about the outcome mouths besides phoenician as the persians reusing egyptian fleets they're using by helene greek fleet into that situation when you're outnumbered and out skilled but apparently the mystic reason his council called strategist of have recognized if you could pull this giant persian fleet into that little narrow area you could turn into nuland about when they were confident that the land i'll go better for them and it did she might imagine how such a confined space we have hundreds and hundreds of ships that very disorganized very quickly that sort of a mental image and i have in his play persians for the persians as close as a messenger speaking about the way that wonderful persian queen is directly related are connected to the first five persian king's apostle the daughter were cyrus the great she saw the main character this messenger the telfer what happens if sal mrs another one and then i love when they don't make conjure rock the ghost of darius so vital be wan kenobi or marlon brando superman's dance and hologram comes up to say what's going on now all water my son do always in a year to be better to profit in it's wonderful the dispersion messenger dudes an accountant the boundless alamos as seen from the persian forgive you of course with words put into his mouth a greek playwright the greek playwright who may also have fought in that battle that for your kind of getting an eyewitness account in we're too dramatic way and sweeter to big performed for people who would forbid that battle sold can find too much without the audience catching on nonetheless this persian character describes him as the onset of the greek fleet showing up nicely ordered organized the trumpets blaring he says that on the persians and they can hear this really loud voice would you really means is he can hear the war cry of all the greeks the yelling in unison in a describes an apocalyptic seen him when you think of the hundreds and hundreds of ships on both sides in these narrow waters it's not hard to imagine a relatively apocalyptic scene what color is the ocean at this point right the persian messenger may be using adjectives from the mind of a man who actually saw the bottle solomon's says quote then the trumpet shriek and blazed through everything over they arrest signal instantly there or is it struck salt we are the rhythmic rabble slap it seemed no time to lay all stood in sight we saw the sharp first the right wing call strong strictly order to let out the next we saw the whole fleet bearing down we heard a few liege voice songs and greece go all three u. fatherland three children wide shrines of our fathers god's toulouse were our forefathers lie fight for all we have now all then on our side shelton persian rose to crest we hold back at that instant ship were and bronze clad be gone ship it was agreed ships darted the attack shearing awful whole phoenician stern each captain steered his craft straight on one other at first the wave of persia sleek world firm but next as our ships jammed into the narrows and no one could help any other than our own braun's teeth be deemed or rome's breaks hole or banks shattered them to greet ships seizing their chance swept in circling instructed overturned are holes and salt water vanished before our eyes ship wrecks build it and drifting corpses shores and reefs filled up with our dead and every able shia binder purges command broke order are scrambling to escape we might've been a tuna or knitted fish for they kept on spearing and guiding us with splinter doors and bits of wreckage while morning in screams drowned out the scene or is it till the night's black face closed at all in losses by thousands even if i'd told the catalogue for ten full days i'd could not completed for you but does he share never before in one day have so many thousands died in cool nobody knows how many people died the battle of so much nobody even makes a half away serious guess about in fact nobody knows how many ships water nobody knows how many ships were lost it all you can figure is somehow the persians probably were defeated because you could see what happened afterwards but i was a kid growing up studying the stuff it was always portrayed as the shattering defeat unexpected shattering defeat of the persian maybe to completely change the complexion of the war more modern day is trying to course are questioning this is no doubt that sub theme of this whole story led by gaza george caldwell and j. f. lazily yummy no question whether or not salomon's was a new wing years begin the defeatist portrayed i do love the story will get in trouble once again is another riot the story to punish decrees tries to send a great king in another message to cleverly didn't do something else he shouldn't do him in his hands old thing just his continual of the one that is your industry says you need to decide whether the guy is why alien public clever why lead or is he treasonous or some combination of the two one apparently makes it sound like the greeks could know we decide the traditional portrayal of search she's has him sort of running back to modern day turkey hoping to get back there before the greeks destroy the bridge of boats and track him in europe but you're not that street in anyone's guess lot of argument there are some halfway decent the count of why maybe this whole thing makes total sense it has to do with a change in persian policy the policy is going to be a force ole into battle remember up until this point the grinch really hadn't won a land battle against these guys in a straight a fair fight him in the battle of marathon of the more the scenes were maybe the greeks attack on the porch getting back on the ships to leave dockery representative all the various clint eastwood's had been milan lot made at thermo poli so maybe straight on fight with the persian army would settle this thing on suffer or the r. u. is russia's has the persians making to the king listen we can get defeated at the battle salomon's those phoenician dialing in greeks and the egyptians did the persian ezra still undefeated in the field against these greeks in a string of fight to let tapestry upright one's jerks he's moves off two books now modern day turkey in asia minor you will leave and army behind him in a peaceful lord of the hands with all these millions of insects that to swamp over to the small number of greeks well where soaks lippard darth vader and lord of the yanks lesson hands behind to finish eating greece under the general maradona's who was a relative of zurich seizure member to discredit incestuous maybe even literally sort of parisian elite that's all married with each other in related to each other in this case the guy's margo hughes who also has a history just ten years before mortal uses one of the general's with the grease the first time we've searched his dad right and we'll get more don't use an indeterminate number of pants remember all the members meaning to sources for wildly inflated so there's millions and millions of persians he divides as you have merely hundreds and hundreds of thousands now would really most historians seem to be pre comparable with anything in the forty to sixty thousand range all bull this berries but eroticism or don't use was basically allowed to pick the cream of the army so you know way go all the bright feathers in exotic colors in stone tipped arrows in antelope horn things and you know you keep the immortals and the bogart cavalry in the troops who were in a persian related to know yes let's not forget the ski team central asian or charger types and with enough fifty thousand so those guys she should be able to take the greeks out we're going this is going to pursue a credible waiting strategy but to get agreed to fight the finding nice piece of ground just perfect for the way the persians fight and wait for the greeks to come to nominate they don't he's going to damage things until they do most notably after this we're told at our lasalle us eventually the athenians who'd been evacuated from athens to save their lives were turned in their home city star rebuilding things well when the campaigning sees an resumes after the winter and we're in for seventy nine b. c. you now up the persians from the northern greece simply swoop down take athens again basically the attitude is which is kinda keep destroying things are important to you until you come on fight our member was a good and butcher number so we want to do the only way to stop fifty or sixty thousand people working in concert anywhere is with an equally powerful force in the persians are controlling the whole part of greece which feeds isn't everything or so that thebes being good cavalry country about wine and traditionally as usual the greek states are fighting amongst themselves more to gain according to robert this involves whether or not the southern greeks wanna go north of that wall that they've built that the choke point b. s. has a korean twitchell to pretty good defensive position problem is some of the major greek states on north of it with the persians are the greeks were south of that wall once again having this debate about do we really wanna go to the wall the wall such great defensive that was to solve one the athenians war north of the wall on the persian side of things having to do crazy bargaining and threatening using the fleet as a bargaining chip them once again to mystic be spying and soul role at one point doubling the big take away maybe even saying we will go and sided with the persians if you'll come up here and fight them will take the fleet let them use our three against you if wrought desist to be believed domestically isn't the athenians several times or even offered that standard persian deal would be good for you to be good for us destroy the empire the deal according to the mystic least as he's telling the other greeks look at what the persian seraw for now says she can have your city i think he said you can have the government of your choice which is the typical persian offered longish are loyal to the king and pay your taxes that appear to be democracy or mark your whenever longish are quiet the domestic least you're right it has the same gossip and what did she lose one of the territories around which one would like the best of all for a wedding too great for everyone right we all gay so even at this time true the bias sources you're hearing the persians try to make a deal mostly really fight about this i don't care how much harm you've given us all we're city more women your hand is the same deal visible to offer the spartans of their monopoly they may not all be true all the time but you don't get this money mentions of it in history was a canoe was the policy the assyrian as the previous major empire coming from abhor the world would probably not have offered you would deal with this kind at any time certainly not displayed in the game with this many casualties aris africans many dead people and to have to atone for and in this case eventually the stickley zen maybe it's part of his genius by hook or by crook has by four seventy nine b. c. ia an army of combined greta how polite term in number diversity states heading on up to with the eerie with the ages they haven't out with the spider is it not been the web up there just waiting for him don't be sparta polite it'll be the new outlets there and the eventual encounter will happen the kind of a symbolic place when you think about it will happen but he but he was the city the little teeny city that helped the athenians the battle of marathon keep the persian stop the first time that she was the little city when the persians arrived in this latest encounter didn't submit to them so was destroyed so this is with the battle is going to happen and the parameters for this encounter as being in large part determined by the needs in the capabilities of the persian cavalry i mean bring the strategic place we are 'cause is good good calvary country increase that for the persians not a fight but the actual battle field would be chosen but with agreed to decide the stand they choose to spot revere in a better protected from the cavalry paying up here from the mountains to the mountain passes marching up from the south and when they run into the persians they do so from a position of high atop these hills and the persians were camped on the plane bolt which stretches out in the distance it's wonderful calvary country they're behind river they have a camp of built into the gutter pretty good defensive position the blood had agreed to dance on them the greeks to pick out a pretty strong defensive position other rolled up in the hills and they'd like to persia to come up to them thus begins the pre battle jockeying for position an advantage in the salon and goes on for days and no once again and it's a good time to mourn to target in the damn carlin version of the story because this is all argued out amongst historians we're recreating his best they can you know where things happened and so much has changed since in don't discuss the counsel of a broad view of this for clarity reasons and understand that there's a tama disagreement about everything basically the what happens is the greeks trusting in the high ground or the persians up there and the persians or the skirmish with the greek to get them to either break apart golf all your calm down the fight them and all through the narrative we have her rocket attacks the ancient screenwriter the color riser and this is his crowning glory moment he writes his whole history to talk about it of these events and this is the climactic battle it's also my favorite battle in the entire history the team in the persian empire because in color in her rockets in living color twenty five hundred years dead but you know what i mean we have really the only color rise story of the persian army and its height fighting i love this army after this pure evil changing not be the same as before this period you really don't have any no fuel for how top rated in this valley you get to see the sword remove and fight there's a lot of disagreement to about how the greeks for in this battle in the last discussion we have on this i mentioned in the summer the historians like hence families who suggest that the idea that we've always had about how the greeks for during this period is misplaced and that they don't fight that wait till after this period and one wherein she now is sort of like in a while they're in transition from an old style with the newly recognized in homer's iliad the style that will come to be known in the future after the street to bridget phalanx style were re station their ranks under penalty you know you move is a body because they're so many stories here after more than stories where people will spring forward from the ranks and do stuff or move backwards flow would lead back or their own lives which is much more like the fighting from the heroic creek iraq of palmer's time it would sure explain alive then we should write about this because peratis describes us all the time he begins to lay out i know what would become his version of like the saving private ryan type battle scene it's worth pointing out this is like the first battle scenes stuff that we have that that will set the stage for all the bad the movies and plays and bolted everything afterwards he starts by pointing out that the greeks and the persian jerk shrine to in a maneuver each other a position he talks about the skirmishing that's going on at one point the persian commander more don't you said is cavalry to go walking to the hills and try to mess with the greeks the don't know what foreign historians all disagree a lot of things up sometimes and general does something just to see what'll happen right how will they respond if i go up there shoot 'em maybe they'll start dying in large numbers which would be good or maybe their morale will suffer which would also be good or maybe bill just leave which we good too they can catch my calibrate see not only does the persian however we basically dominate this deal to do the best calvary in asia which is calvary country the greek temple cavalry all the only cavalry in greece really worth its salt or in places like feeds him personally up in the north and there on the persian side so there are greek cowboy women in this battle they just fighting on the persian side the one point rods starch the narrative in and the the greek line which is being put together sometimes no sounding like a bunch of petulant for your rules arguing about who gets to stand on this portal wanna know we get to stand on this portable one it's crazy howled here we have to remember him in strident lazenby never tire for mining us that it except in the spartans these greeks are militia troops their farmers for the most part they fight sometimes a lot of these guys and bad bal experience when they're not fighting they're not fighting we're back on the former live in their lives they are militia what's more there militia from the rose to the states and they consider themselves essentially to be a bad city stain as opposed to this larger concept of the greek idea angeles bart starr given a mortar didn't like the b. lot of grumbling at one point the group hungry to call mug arianna's to end up on the fly in this creek formation up in the hills is being hammered by the persian calvary the shooting and flare ups and all want to be hammered anymore and they send a message to the high command essentially sank to remove us we're leaving this is where we're artists ascribed to how relieved the the fighting begins to shape up here he talks about the greeks who mentions them as how leans any talks about how the persian commander margolies can't get these greeks out of the hills a direct quote settling is refused to come down onto the plane a more doria said begins to this entire course calgary canada commanded a musty seals lillian's called mackey steals and was very prominent among the persians he wrote in the sea in a hoarse with the golden gate and adorned by many other kinds of beautiful ornaments the horseman rode out against the liens and charged them by regiment one after another doing significant harm to them and salting them as they did by calling him women and co i remember peter green have a footnote were he said one wonders if they had asked the greek their own army the word for woman was so that the enemy could understand the taunt to the wrong that this is i know that the mcgarry into the ones getting hammered on by the weight that as we said earlier the way that these pershing power we seem to fall is a lot like horns and mongols and skip the ins and all these people that you know attacked you in little teeny packets of course archers and to break your formation up if you attack them to try to get back at them they just would drift away from you when you're formation breaks up in the can turn on you and the chuan part piecemeal if you don't she does episodes sit there and take the arrows until you lose so many people you're in trouble born to your more outbreaks we think no more of this maybe a combination of the two affected the guardians were being skirmish by this persian general of the cavalry musty seals and let the shreds quote now just by chance the mcgarry n.'s happen to be deployed in the most vulnerable position of the entire battlefield it was they who received the brunt of the cavalry is assaults because they were so hard pressed by these attacks the mcgarry inset day hair world cup to the generals of the filene's who conveyed this message to them court is quoting a message know the mcgarry n.'s have this to tell you we who are your allies cannot continue to confront the cavalry of the persians alone in this position that we occupied from the beginning so far we're resisting by tenacity and our though we are hard pressed but now you should know that we should abandon the spokes did you do not send others to replace us better and co so you can already see that yes yes yes the spartan is the commander in chief but all of the city state units are basically keeping their own freedom to make choices to themselves when at the spaniard to kill for all of you we've taken of casualties of somebody else's turn now mr spartan so what peratis sesno have to be careful 'cause sister wings for long time now that would have been wondering if there is some favoritism for the athenians in the upcoming part to the story goes all the sudden rock to starched a favorite the athenians quite a bit he even makes the clint eastwood spartans look a little wimpy next to them and one concern them maybe you should you guys should fight the persians in your view for low for ten years ago where we can all look we can fight the fetus were fighting with the persians we began many to jimmy so you have to be careful get a compass apparently the mcgarry and ask for help but the only people that say it will go over there help or some athenians also had the only arteries in the whole grigory so the the nearest some of them in these archers go over to the flag with mcgarry ins are hard pressed and now you get a feel for how chaotic is there in our ross's is colorizing is really good he's able to give you a sense now of the danger in the panic in the dust in the chaos go look at a video modern video over why it's so with the kids really at hand look at the chaotic element of that with the point of contact between the two sides is so intimate decisions athenians with their archers decide to go help the mcgarry and the flight he says quote these were the men who wander took this task and they stationed themselves in your thrive in front of the other helene to where they are taking along their archers for support the bowel they thought there went on for some time until it ended in the following way as the cavalry was attacking by regimens the horse a misty seals remember he's the persian general of the category which stood out in front of the rest was pure spinach ribs by an arrow in pain the horse reared up on it's hind legs and ruinous to see us to the ground as soon as he fell the athenians attacked him they took his horse and killed musty seals as he was struggling to defend himself but first they were unable to kill him because of the way he was armed since he was wearing a breast plate made of gold is pales next to his skin and over decrease in tunic to accomplish nothing is the straw convinced the brass plate is someone realize the reason for this and jabbed into idiotic which point he collapsed and died and co to get real feeling they are all of this guy struggling for his life in me comes a little too close to the greek lines unisource frozen mummy gets hit by a narrow you fall down in this are relatively heavy armor that might hurt him when he hit the ground in a bunch of athenians spring towards you as you try toward them all off the jabbing your chest as far as the candidate can see the fishkill style or because you got under your tunic and dungeons and realize isn't he then she through the eye we're told that the unit that he was commanding didn't realize that they've lost him right away her radha to cisco the rest of the cavalry was at first they get wind of all this because as they had turned around we're riding away in retreat no one had seen how we fell from his horse has subsequently died fighting but they immediately missed him after they stopped for no one was there to commend them once they realized what happened they cried out a rally one another and in charged back to retrieve the corpse in a coup so apparently what happened is this portion calvary was attacking you will dribs and drabs news they realize they've lost their general we're told for me to adopt a solid jewett charged the flight to go get the body back in a giant conflict you rocks over the body which is crazy did you see the salon in ancient warfare you know likes to lose a body of anybody obviously but in this period first of all when you lose these officers it's dramatic sometimes and it's never good the endangered war for sometimes the best plan you can have as kelli officer or kill the king all armies of the known to disintegrate if you killed leader in this case if you buy water rod this is saying he really gives the impression that these little kind of left blind unable to know what to do without the commander to go get the body seems to be the default position how many people are you going to lose to recover cadaver apparently what the greeks and the persians by quite a while over this body degree to end up with the body and they don't put on display for morale purposes of course rabbit is rich coke bylines gained much courage from the fact that they've stood up to the attack of the counter we had repelled at the first thing they did was to place the corpse on the wagon and added drawn past the army's various units in their assigned positions they displayed in this way because the body of misty steals was worth seeing for it's size and beauty and the men left their ranks in order to see it in a coup making it real feel for the ancient we're doing things right will bear we're told that after this happens the greeks decide to dance little closer to the purchase come down here from the real hills into the foothills and see if maybe something else doesn't begin to happen the companies try and ed see if he can get the other guy who attacked in a position of weakness this again those were the persian cavalry comes in the begins to go around the greek flanks begins to go after the water supplies and we're begins to go behind them and start to attack some of the supply columns are coming through the mountain passes behind the reposition both sides are probably pressed you buy a lot of meets mean getting richer story jubilee the parade may only have a few days' worth of food here before they have to retreat but we don't know they also have friendly greek studies right behind them the greeks who should have towns of food are now having a intercepted by persian to our read in there we are so who knows what the actual needs to attack war that degree to dance for the down toward the foothills we're told that they get into some trouble and need to change their positions over birch ritual more defensible place with water supply was better defend or whatnot andy says when things get weepy because how the heck does infantry retreat with invisible range of the enemy well the greeks decide to do it by night which make some sense if you think about may also decided it would apparently in stages your given away right to the persians that we're moving so the greeks begin withdrawing backward to more defensible positions of the stories which betrayed by morning time when light comes up and you can see what's going on the hills above you persians see that some of the greeks and gone away some of the greeks are in the process of still leaving some of them were still there but the entire battle lines disrupted now if you're looking edition the persian point of view i knew the meanest face off with the greeks for almost two weeks in the hot july so on and you been doing damage to each other through skirmishing and coming off a detachment of all kinds of other things and you're receiving reports of dissension in the ranks of corwin amongst the greeks radha to synthesize is a lot of us even the spartans on the day of the in a change in location are arguing should we stay or should we go in different people on different sides of me in the greeks look like they're a mess and some historians think that's what the persians were expecting that eventually the pressure recall this would dissolve a rather ad hoc cannot altogether solid coalition in greek states some of whom disliked others what this means on the battlefield hours nearly two weeks a tactical constipation moreover in the space of a morning and everything starts moving again the persian commander martone us he said to have ordered his persian troops including his own guard gallery maybe a thousand strong across the river at double speed to catch the spleen greeks reduce dennis says that all of the subject people to suzy zeke the general on the persian troops in on the double moving forward across the river they put their standards and fall on riotous and shouting jostling maintaining know sort of formation or discipline of all why they're ronna why we're chasing like the animal kingdom feel when you two new predators facing off one of the room swiping here in berlin a big if wanna punch runs around and moved to the opposite direction so was this primeval need to chase on the part of the other animal that's what this feels like a little bit blow with the proper response beat in a cold sober situation if you saw the enemy moving off broken in front of you pursue right so the first to you no i can help once again looking at the slick eroticism movie and it's a little buddy film hearing he's got three groups greeks the greeks of split into three separate columns are moving in three separate directions one of the greek group so one in the middle the sword made up of all of the law miner sooty stage going to do so was the peratis is now focusing much of the story did the extras if you will the big players but the other two columns they're retreating in different directions or repositioning themselves if you were voted that way are the two stars in this rod his body picture if you will one in my mind is little michael caine jumpstart on allergies and metaphors there can help the debate but athens is is that guy with the sensation or the funny guy in the clever guy nice beach real well and michael danish at a younger age the spartans or clint eastwood is loose and the two of them together that the slicks lie in all the girls love him clever michael caine mixed with clint eastwood who gets a lot of trouble with that in all the magnum at the last minute ron asylum run deep end and it to the justice or a buddy film industry said robert is maybe a little bit biased towards the athenians at this point but he says that when the spartans realize that they are the principal target of the persian pursuit that became wanted them up they send a message to the athenians basically saying listen i've told persian army wrapping who we come and help you were something like that we know you'll come and opel's at a great defender for greece and right to secede feeding is just as close davis barnes and around their way intercepted what other greeks the band's people who are fighting for the great came the ship beads is probably the great great state that sided with the greeting card was another member of the leaders of the saline also been but that the bellhop lighter great if you're making a top three list of great hop whites in greek history there's only three to the states that are on the switch places all the time spartan athens and feeds and sometimes beans is number one in the athenians get waylaid before they can come to the aid of the spartans we're facing the porsche's themselves when at the bend phalanx smashes into them they will conductor own private battle now and that's what this battle the putting it turns into separate battles the main one noble woman gets the lion's share of the screen time is when you have that in a climactic battle between the spartans in the persian part of the persian army the core including the gentle immortal east there on his horse fighting in the combat it for military history not like yours truly it's awesome and when you read about how it works once again you're me show you one of the things that blow my mind and end you can take whichever side you think is more likely interim shivering chirp occasion it doesn't matter but still amazingly cool whichever side you pick when the spartans for mop your realize is gonna be a fight here and they're ready for this combat they began to hold religious sacrifices somewhere or near the babylon right we're already going into an what the hell knows how these troops formed up in the sense of wooster open space in the middle with the priest took over the sacrificial lamb what do the deed or should that happen behind the battle line was a relatively safety and places of the byline anyway we're told that throughout this entire almost two weeks both sides regard sacrificing in and looking at the enforceability should be doing their magic eight ball tests all the time this is a good across the river attack sources say he'd not eroticism reasonable side sat there for so long as the both sides were both getting omens that said listen the side to win this battle was the one that stays on the defensive doesn't advance first right george all that the spartans are back here not just consulting the magic eight ball for big decisions right when you were the oracle adelphia's issue we attract read the people or go stop the big strategic decision but the minor tactical want to quickly to let go to see if we can charge the persians or a hundred yards in front of us right now what still can charge i'm okay will sit here this is one one has to say as happens it's fascinating to speculate whether these leaders who are engaging in maybe which you could call prophecy haunt kia by slaughtering animals i'm asking for my interpretation please put us on inside we do they buy into that themselves was just wonderfully clever manipulation of things like religious beliefs that help them do something that's very terrestrial in nature and historian to disagree about this forever mean in the back a hundred years in a very logical buried in the u. most expect the monocle that in his eye on still brooks is of course they knew what they were doing these leaders that they were manipulating the rooms there's a lot of other marnie histories for example doesn't look good on the evidence all other major things that these people refuse to do with the signs seem to be against it so it might be a little bit in letting our modern lenses look at this and and and collared the way we see things may be to really pious greeks and the spartans are often considered to be very pious maybe they really want using this as a tool to which you james maybe they were really waiting in chile and trolls said it was okay we're told that the persians come running up nothing after think thousands and thousands and thousands of these guys running up the fire wakes carrying wicker shield this is the modern interpretation for robbed us bodily action at the front rank have these almost manheim signs but not very heavy kerzner made a wicker shields that they would the front ranks would would for maligned when you put these things on the ground almost polemical wall all the way up and down the line and behind him thousands and thousands of marchers were running up and getting into why close formation the short archer said raymond hecht impact in a way around and acted like skirmishes before guy's got into basically chemical so we're and lined up behind the shield distorted bringing his nor do we put arrows down the creature member does two things the dispersion army really does well the cavalry which we talked about at length in the archery the volume of parisian archery as high as any army in history in a basic leave you to have it in your head images of what about wabash uncork like with the english long ball was raining arrows down the french this is that and more and we're told that the greeks new meaning the spartans in there with the whistle of the greeks they're working with them or connor friendly with him called a to g. m.'s are told that to get the stars in the city and searches standing there taking this arrow fire which is we had talked about earlier to get the do the math we are potentially talking about you know high hundreds of thousands maybe into the millions of there arose a very short period of time or is it take to get people to stand and back an arrow fire leaving maybe what would you say a hundred yard who knows no man's land in between when you're armed with the kind of weapons that are really only useful if you get right up next to somebody takes a lot of discipline doesn't that the sport is it near waiting for the interest read right we're told that they are friends to use to jeanne moos the information one would guess right next to them can't wait any longer not to put up with the casualties stoically any longer i'm sure the story we talk about in the sponsors clint eastwood but clint eastwood point that man will be stingy and play the role of robin in the story they can wait they lose their temper it saw report frenette any charge toward this line the persians the guys hold on a shield up and went after rank of archer high in the pouring euro fire and they charge down there we're gonna get slaughtered our day robin skinner die all the sudden eroticism you mulder drama has that sport we're opposing yes you're raising his hand to the heaven calling on your local deity or close by schreiner something like that he's give us who designed only to look outside a great go once barnes charge down at the persian by the following the g. g. m.'s here's the way the screenwriter in his own words from the distant and we're translation puts it cool once more as they were about to engage with mordor using his men they mean to spartans perform the ritual sacrifice the omens were not favorable and meanwhile many of their men were killed and many more wounded but the persians had made a barricade of their wicker shield them from the protection of it were shooting arrows in such numbers but the spartan troops were in serious distress this added to the unfavorable results of the sacrifice that last cause pausing used to turn his eyes to the temple of iraq and a call upon the goddess for her aid praying or not to allow the greeks to be robbed of their hope of victory and while the words were still upon his lips the sacrificial victims promise success at this the spartans too would last move forward against the enemy who stopped shooting their arrows are prepared to meet come face to face and co now what this meant is that the persians you're putting aside the weapon that their best act and pulling out hand and weapons they ran a disadvantage not just that it seems in this becomes we're currently which you're bound for ever afterwards it seems that the missile weapons of the persians were singularly ineffective against agree cop lights that archery fire doesn't seem to do very well against close ordered troops would be shields were armored that to the domestic issue right is keep saying that they're suffering will be gives the casualty numbers at the end of the battle the greeks of suffered very few casualties mr rings like richard gabriel i've been involved in testimonies were they try to figure out a mathematical calculations and destinies and penetration surveys all kind things to try to figure out how affected things like arch we firewood and he says against greek top white in close formation not very effective does the world will penetrate the arm or the shield enough of the most part to looking for a little teeny gaps and artery many of those the greek playwright and the contemporaries during this period will continually refer to the victory of the speeder over the ball but the easily could've talked about in the damage of the armor to they didn't reduce mentions that and think about yes something is solvable it is there no weapons involved as having an nfl game and mandating the one team can't wear helmets your shoulder pads in this game we seek it could not look like it the into the game if one team gets to have helmets and shoulder pads any other doesn't i'm a colleague able dire their deaths in this game he began to see the difference your new damaging and for me to stiffen the persians are shooting at you which is their style no big deal was the spartans clothes that gap that no man's land between them very big deal indeed and this is the sort moment i've i've said this is i think since i began talking about history this is one of those moments that just fascinating were asked in there i'd try to figure out you're persian you're in this long i knew be shooting at these people for a long time and now they rob richie we made johnny a block of man but just play with a nice round number and say ten thousand but it seems to be more than that and peter green says the sport line was three quarters of a mile wall so will hang him and maybe a week went deep with ten foot merciless be usual from seven to twelve foot be yours charges that she when they're basically shoulder to shoulder when you stand there by the time of blood the napoleonic wars in the u. s. so boring stuff almost nobody will stand there during a bayonet attacked the middle of the big big enough to do things about the period in the real historians will say nowadays and of the evidence seems to show that most around for bayonet attack nobody nobody would face cold steel yeah but in this period facing called steals war it's all about and even that a lot of people didn't there are a wire stories about hold no almost whole armies running away sometimes before contact think about what's involved to think about what you have to have happen to make it won't work is because you are brave and just the treasure freezer brave spinning around you what happens if the ten thousands partners in a way to ten foot be reflected giant pin cushion start charging a u. and half the people around you run away what's the other half do it for the greeks thought that the god of the your foul balls ruled the battlefield said that before because panic could take over any time ago heard creature as the spartans charge you paddy stand there and except the charge especially if you're mad at least on so you can pull lecture low short sword eleven ebony armor few standard persian country behind the front line back and have any helmet maybe a cool to jerk and if you're lucky you can get steam roll the front rank of the skirmishes we talked about earlier the current in line of thinking is that this is all block of man maybe ten in winks deep but it's the first blank that actually is kind of acquitted away that might allow them to give a good account of themselves in hand in combat all those big shield their curing our wicker should be kind of war for the persians usually engage in you're hoping to keep their formation safe from the missile fire a degree to come in and she would be gold in the spearheaded you know with the impetus that they charge provides behind it all the spartans sometimes advance nice and cool into combat some of those and once that front rank is dead the sponsor broken into formation that is not prepared for this kind of fighting in all of one nfl team with helmets and pads and all yeah big goals be yours facing another an adult human element no pads and short swords nevertheless if you read between the lines if you try to look at this from the persian perspective you have to iraq to suggest that these persians us he said we're not inferior in courage they were not inferior in fowler let's remember they're fighting not just read to fighting spartans in they're not just by eating it and as we said some sport is they're fighting sparta this is the military strength obesity status part in these persians are not inferior robinson says in valor but he says that they lack are he basically says they're not equipped for this kind fine but you get a sense of the desperation the other greek states are petrified spartans now the persians are finding out why when the spartan formation smashes into the persian to remember the skiers which are only about two inches wide so that ten feet long and two inches wide you can see how likely they are to breaking all the greek sources talk about breaking spears all the time even if you go into a nice soft human body with your spirit try to get out and bodies likely to break the spears of this beers or gone three quickly butchers or artist describes a moment of impact from the dissembling court for inflation cool first there was a struggle with the barricaded shields in the barricade down there was a bitter and protracted fight and enclosed by the temple of the meter for the persians would lay hold of the spartans spears and break from the courage and strength they were as good as they're on the series that they were deficient in armor on training greatly in theory rings skill i'm time singly sometimes in groups of ten men perhaps fewer perhaps more they fell upon the spartan line and were cut down they pressed hard as he rides at the point where martone us the general forty percent writing his white charger when surrounded by his pals and parisian troops the flower of the army wal-mart all yours was alive they continue drug resistant to defend themselves and struck down many of the lack of the moaning it but after his death and destruction of his personal guard the finest of the persian troops the remainder yielded to blockade the moaning in central to flight the chief cause of their discomfort church was their lack of armor fighting without it begins heavily armed infantry and co truthfully if you read that maybe from the persian clone of you you see that the persians stood up to the spartans desperately breaking in their spears with their bare hands it would you do what she ruled if the ten thousand or fifteen thousand hop white bear down on you you do since you get to move for something okay since the spear comes forward and our break it and what i mean do you really have an opportunity you're facing fifteen is spiel heads in this is a giant pin cushion coming at two hundred oak which your plan i don't even know how you begin to process okay we're going to do now they're ten feet away okay we're you do now to five feet away i mean is gonna be account in your hand you can see how the pressure would build it out it's like the torpedo coming up the ship and the dodo sixty yards away fifty yards away forty yards away boehme arm human beings are amazed that anybody could stand up to that and what's interesting is rotten to set the persians danger stand up to admit they were putting up with the death and destruction in the slaughtering that many unequal pods of of the lack of armored everything until the general was killed their donors is fighting right out there in the thick of things and as we said earlier there something about these ancient battles where both another something expected about that son he's he's not there because he's a he's a warlock or otherwise to be back in awarding on the maps in the back room doesn't work like that is pure either often out for hunt and when they die it's often catastrophic in this case the story traditionally is alone control on time afterwards the sporting in the formation while the combat is going on lazenby describes it as what must be it is incomprehensible chaos and picks up unlocked and four was at more don't ears and praxis gallen kills him i mean i've been thinking about this if you think about the formation of men like that how close did anybody get without towns of stuff being thrown out the money very soon there must've been every walk that was nearby every stick anything they could be picked up and thrown at the enemy must've been gone in this case it's not so hard to imagine at times of stopped being thrown if mortal news came too close to the start line to the south which he was fighting in the thick of things so he meets his end and we're told that his thousand man cavalry bodyguards for product is called a couple are worthy armies wiped out to a man all that together collapses but we're out of the persian troops fighting the spartans and you begin to wear out now the rest of the army remember these are people who might have chosen to be there they had any choice but they're not persians dear subject peoples all the persians what's more there are also people were defeated by these portions were now running it the people who defeated them up for coming your way would you do they turned around and ran too headed back to the safety of their fortified camp on the other side of the river all all this is going on the athenians him a hard fought battle beat the fee been used the allies of the persians send them back to feed to go running back to the needs the greek it for me led by the spartan at ashley joined by the athenian surrounded this fortified care but eventually blinking and massacre or the persians in there relatives ne other sources basically say it was the walls were basically torn down the people inside resign themselves to die maybe it is to get somebody to put almost no resistance up at that point which is interesting that in terms of human psychology to if you're in that situation with the right move new york bureau emissaries have you surrounded baby can you win the battle your stock in that stockade in them when they break in it the plan to sell your wife dearly taken as many of the enemy's you can you just try to figure out the easiest way to get this death over with so that it's not our respect would you don't entertain fantasies of capture maybe i'll live through this think of harmony people in human history had been in that situation before the battle of putting it was such a monumental ferencz rooms of sizes had to be so much bigger than anything that the greeks could conceive of money in their barrels a month fighting was on a much smaller scale than this but the carnage must've been unbelievable no one knows how many persons were killed because nobody knows really persians even for the battle don't all the numbers of fought hard to determine casualties traditionally the persians are portrayed as losing the majority of their men in the fighting than losing most of the rest in peace or at the four vacation than losing some more on the way home disintegration tribes in the ambush them and finally be stored in tattered remnants go stumbling into the provincial capital with stardust like napoleon's grand army leaving russia global numbers for the persian forces up but you were under retired decent ridiculously low the mind i'm qualified them eyes but about ten to twelve thousand men of course the high number circle roberts is three hundred thousand and they really are three hundred thousand men walden hundreds of thousands of persian corpses littered the battlefield it seems unlikely but the estimate range those anywhere from like fifty thousand two hundred and twenty thousand some were in there's probably a good number on the greek side of the largest army they've ever put together in malls multiple city states fifty thousand eighty thousand and is the range that people for what they're not properly at his numbers to say you know it screws up the casualties to is that you have people or and servants and he looks enslaved people whose job it is it to carry the soldier stop and cookies food mckenna think but on the day of the battle oftentimes especially endeavour desperate situation there and the spirit he owns a mostly go find someone to get into is that all was suddenly que of fighting and you get counting on the overall numbers did a town but radha to some others get casualty numbers for the greeks they seem ridiculously low but some history to poured out that they might not be counting some of those other people ross isn't were seventy felix forever spartan tens of thousands of people that maybe nobody decided to count again trying to adding up the important people who diagnosed the old what's more um they will be another battle that will happen traditionally happens at the exact same time thirty years going on probably up into little bit afterwards probably don't know maybe even little bit before they don't know but they do think it was around the same time called the bottleneck away and basically happens is the remnants of the greek fleet but were victorious of the battle salameh's go find the remnants of the persian fleet of lost the battle selma son didn't have this naval battle persian c. come on fight the greeks disembark the himalayan battle instead the persians it feed it again if you actually read the rundown of it it sounds very much like the bottle uppity up all over again the complex charging tearing down the wall of wicker shields an absolute be ripping apart the lightly armored archers in the middle of these archer blocks and calgary monty mysteriously missing the persians going very well until the officer dies basically it axis total last cake in the real and plenty of throws the persians out of european greece and to the biochemical he takes an interim away out of that it's an exclamation point basically saying it'll come back one thing it's really does go is answer the question that the battle of marathon continues before this jury did not which is question of the tactical superiority of the greeks in these battles and when we pointed out earlier that you know most of the time history is a bunch of giant forces and things that that involved a very high level stuffy the decisions were twins are but sometimes they can boil down two things that scene but they should be minor tactical battlefields up your your questions and sometimes people think of it really the thing you say listen how big a big deal was it in the age of discovery that was signed have firearms in the other didn't machine guns or taylor real mean there are times when it one side superiority on the day of the bottle or the year of the war drums are everything else goes these two encounters cut yet amicably show that the persians can handle the greeks for some reason at least not in these situations and historians ever since to be trying get answered a question you indiscreet giant upset in history without a doubt the greatest even dean european related military history up until this time right now in maybe for a long time afterwards had agreed to acquire the we inhabit the persians lose there are several theories on this and they are it's wonderful to watch the historians who put forward their debating point of why they think it's one of the other tenants very possibly could be several of them working together al gore like for her and some of these to you we started with the greeks themselves and still have the ridge hearings today the first was one of those bisbee your versus the ball the idea that the greeks had won his dream still to the the look at the equipment difference peratis tried to bow to one side how are the other didn't one side had these long spears the other dude mwanza i had been heavy shield the other really didn't the greeks also soda have some text to this sometimes it was unjust the one side and spears in the other had both but the different kinds of men that are created it no when you're an archer versus when you're in close combat infantryman right and when it came time to an actual clash of spears the greeks were mainly fighters in the persians really worked you're not to the degree the greater the greeks can't win without doing that the persians can you get a different mentality were sold some people claim people who disagree with is the real point and quite rightly that the problem is if you wanna say it's equipment why can't she just make these people when you see how dominic they are the persians look agree cop like to say while they're really effective want to just go make their own because she can't for some reason just put a greek helmet and greek armor and the greeks beer in greek shield over persia soldier have been quite like european greeks this is a huge question which had my mind why to try to alter history of famously imitation legion eerie stirring interior roman period what what role is dominating the entire world of the mediterranean at that point it's only natural that somebody would say listen i want what they got go make me some of those nate grabber romans injury in the inner pain somalia equipped troops like rome of the train like romance but they don't fight like romans why not maybe the same reason to david and so the great military school go give their stuff and training two other countries military isn't yet when they have to fight to get the good stuff they got the top training the day off by the same lie we've talked to the past what is really hard to quantify in very scary in terms of the cameras in the areas we could you didn't have no centers and bigotry not the kitchen the question of toughness can you quantify toughness to honey your research it some people had reputations for being extra nasty in warfare and part of it was just reputation all right intimidating roger says the persian general one point we doesn't think the sport underperforming particularly scary jersey would regard as maybe you're just afraid of despair only good compared edo something like that but there are people all for history who's neighbors were terrified of because of what they could do the question is why why why could they do what they did apache zulus greeks in this period so the rachel's forcible haven't seen only ever one of the greeks are great fighters what a great fighter how'd you make a great fighter that combination them how much of it is something in trouble what about societies like the spartan one which is supposedly morning were the cultural characteristics raul designed to make somebody you know more of that way top a better fighter would've related to the three we're dead thing beecher mind around his neck toughness or whatever word is a better word for what makes one side great warrior in the other not got some historians will say that this is a cultural question some cultures have the military tradition designed around physical contact with the enemy right the greek culture is designed to have a military care our duty to his terrific victor davis hanson who is not without controversy but who called western way of war this decisive battle we walk right up the slug the other guy them out on the good part about the disappearance somebody wins somebody loses that is the east which has a different military tradition much more songs soon learned kung fool when and we're gonna look for for open flanks and get round you were gonna we're you get with missile fire a gun attack the supply lines with vinegar with warfare you ever been issued two from a distance with the missile weapons we're you down what that means is the persians could lean against the greeks on the battlefield as long as they never come in contact with them because until they do you there is fighting had to their strengths the greeks can't win without coming into contact with the purchase but the minute they do they look or word for it you're cooked for the train for it they may be hardened by generations of people cool promote the very thing is it takes to wean him and an encounter in other words these great to have a culture may lay him once malay fighting happens during their element but then there's much less controversial and we're done hard to qualify reasons that are thrown out for why the persians may have lost also new york times razor was poor decisions court decisions at every level from the cane decided to do things you know let's go we're here to the tactical battle fields for the moment was made by the general on site and everything in between so mr researching it flies in the rundown all the ways in which the persians how does sting one it was all over in the morning you wake up at the battle but to get at all those greeks are moving off in other directions and airlines broken in the running away dates don't write lazenby makes it sound like the blow that but again the story may come right after this jury he's going to be you some of the great stupidity is to cities he basically says and i'm paraphrasing you the barbarians bullet the hat support decisions often have thrown out there is reason that the persians fell victim to one of the great military upsets all tight now the next possible theory that was one that could explain some of the poor decisions some of 'em are guys cock will submit a good example of talk about supply brando's to the question of trying to supply an army over these distances this must've been the edge of the broader range of persian power projection trying to keep an army of tens of thousands of people that supplied all the work with me being repaired and everything that takes for more than a year difficult to do peratis tells a story out of the king who happens to be direct ancestor of alexander the great who supposedly comes to the greeks before the battle but he insisted partially have three days are filled laughed if anything like that were true think about how that would impact the decisions by the persian generally my thought was in the best thing to do here to wait filling up three days of the food can't wait so maybe do something that otherwise would be considered a poor decision unless the people who were judging you knew what the supply constrains workin' on you might've been supply a news an extremely likely thing absurdly impacted every level of the campaign clearly there's a school of thought and this one goes all the way back to ancient greece to win still has it's if you're into law the people think certainly even if it wasn't the main reason upright whirlwind what about the idea that the greeks just wanted it more uses sports for ages in the persian sir sit here trying to add a relatively small one quarter tortured or rejoin your miss empire how motivated are you the professionals i mean it of the king reward people who do well in this whole lot of good reasons and characteristics operate on to perform while the begrudge are fighting for their lives and their freedom and akita families potentially from being enslaved oleg kalugin of the persian supreme as people have to live under threat to live under someone else nonetheless lot of people don't do that and i freedom inward least one to be ruled by you're really people is important to you you probably feel more strongly about it than having this poor little territory in the fringes of the known world you're returning as impartially idea that the greeks were fighting for more certainly the rings true when you look a lot of other conflicts around history where one side seemingly should steam roll the other they don't there are lots of other reasons and tactics is even thrown out there and maybe as we said it's a conjunction of several these things working together the bottom line now is that you know what i was growing up it was long tradition in four years ago the histories were written about portraying these victories shattering victories and persian history is having his watershed moment in the year for seventy nine right before for seventy nine trauma rinas after four seventy nine when the decline for seventy nine thirty years you're at the top of the latter right wooden shoes are going up the ladder the soap support coming down the road catawba lottery for something i read before the fall in the greek married now you're going to see the greeks go on the counter offensive and take the war to persia go in what's now turkey in the islands in the aegean in and raised the flag of revolt and free all these greek people from portion control here's the thing now this war is only over if the persians wanted to be mean that the camera said okay we're not gonna fight anymore because the greeks have a problem that the persians didn't have we said how amazing it was at the persians could feed in supply the storm is over these long distances walk as an example how amazing is the greeks get to that they can go in the launch an attack and send an athenian army into mesopotamia and feeding them they just can't do that so the ability to destroy the persian empire militarily is not in the greeks not must now what they can to theoretically he's starting rolling chain of revolts maybe the next what that line of dominoes and begins to get the persian empire dissolution of shape itself apart like an earthquake and there or were faults that happened your server history to rid the pink it's logical to assume the persian losses against the greeks encouraged places like babylon egypt and all the usual suspects to revolt and that would've been something that the persian king and the generals and the money that that would concern greatly stuff on the periphery is to look more like nibbling and here's the thing you know if you look at it over the long haul you could make a case that they would try and look addition the persian viewpoint of the persians will end up winning this whole thing that to declare victory now his little like declaring victory in the second world war in nineteen forty cheerleaders going home i mean sure the persians lost these battles because of these tactical damages of the greek so what are they gonna do the comeback and fight differently when you look the persian strategy here you can really see some of the damages to the persians have that the greeks don't agree to a tactical damages on the battlefield the persians have the damage is a much higher level when appeal the reason you've been treated to compete with greek hop lights have gone but they have a much more powerful and versatile what that their disposal gold and lots of that and maybe you can make your own hop lights out of your own people but she sure did hire the originals in the greeks begin to play a large role in the persian military much more this is really an explosion in helena some were we begin to see the mixture and i'm much higher rate should always been going on but agreed to the persian persian things into greece because you get these mercenaries double syrup and then come home the other thing the persians do with his gold is they begin to encourage the greeks to kill each other two things now go when the story that will change the story greatly the first in the gaza ways greek cooperation now the terrible threat of darth vader rate in greece having courage to bush's city states that word that friendly with each other to drop their antagonisms and work together when darth vader leaves the antagonisms come right back most famously between sparta and athens this begins to be something that persian gold will figure out a way to explain in courage persians might not be able to kill greeks and the battlefield very effectively if the t. a n. we were any the laboratory test but they sure do good job kilometer other the persian gold encourage that the other thing that goes away to scorn the story in you could argue he's the most important person in the story bizarre story teller this is worker we're honored to says history and his movies over and you miss him terribly earlier we said history of your brioche had said something to the effect of that ross's get all this criticism for not being more factually accurate and yet is all you haven't you really miss him when he's gone now we it is this person of the beutel polarizes stories of the very beginning but he's gone out on the collar goes with him and we're left with some of the old ways of putting the story there's the opposite of the wizard of oz that went from black and white to color in the middle of the picture we've had a collar the whole way all the sudden he goes back to black and white without prerogatives now when you're talking about teenage impasse black and white generally means to sort things out archaeologists confined what you're talking about carvings or or work or to use or records or letters war where have you but there was always something missing from the equation when i was all you had to sort things that you realize once riotous appears on the scene you get his father's side of history does won't work you really get teach human parts and dialogue and and themes in and drama police don't you miss it when you're left with wholly inadequate replacements which make appreciate route to see the more they fall into a couple of broad categories one category allied to call the portable leaves t. c. is falls into this category to see us was agreed doctor work for the persian kings lived in persia went to the dinner parties had persian friends says he saw all the persian historical record himself should be the best of the best in terms of helping us understand no the workings you're working son and purchased one of you things my copy of a t. c. s which is the little woman jones and james robson version on those two right the prologue and this is what they say about t. c. says history quote his history of persia was completed at a time when the greeks were fascinated by persia and c. news on one level to cater to a contemporary greek interest in persian wealth and opulence powerful parisian women the institution of the hair rum kings and queens unix and secret plots end quote that's why perhaps a lot of the rest of the history of each in the persian empire looks like that as the people telling you the story we're giving you the story that way but in all fairness to that guy that's the level he was having contact with the portion of our that's the level he saw that if rodgers is giving you a geopolitically focus history do a film on the epic grand scale about i. t. c. says giving you more but john cassavetes film it's all going on in one room and black and white and dark in a restricted want wine and confessing you know what he really would two each other it's history is seen two very different lines now both of these guys who wrote the piece he spoke i read the book wannamaker case that they think this is a legitimate attempt by t. c. is to write the persian history from the inside nonetheless this is a guy you know what the honest and he makes it hard to believe you're right story for example about how the events that led up to the persians taking over egypt originally couple things before this time happen because the king of persia heard the egyptian women with the best at having sex in the world so he won and won and johnny on the island itself facto halls and in all the portions of taken over egypt so you have to take this stuff of the grain assault ride but sometimes this is all you're left with not a different category people when the carter believes the people who are writing about a completely different subject they just happen to was part of their story include some facts that are relevant to yours or the best historians of the ancient world a guy whose church running right after peratis big cities with getting these he's one of those guys he's writing a story about the greeks fighting with each other but there is in a sidebar information about the persians occasionally so the stories go in and grab every little nugget became the beep they try to put an assembly discord jigsaw puzzle and he's considered with the good historians about each was also faxing throws out there's a cold dishes covering much because he's not really waiting operation the final category also include some great historical writers it's those were writing from a longtime leader take to talk for example but there's a bunch of other ones he's writing from five to six hundred years after the persian wars and the antenna forget that because you think all in ancient greek writer yes but he's bringing in the second century see you the modern era mi fretting about events happening in the fifth century b. c. it is far enough in his past it's farther his past and the europeans discovering the americas easy in ours how much does a person in the ancient world somebody we would consider having lived a very very very long time ago how much did he know about his ancient pastime i marvel that they knew anything and that there was somewhere the sky to goad to read primary sources which is why histories pay attention these people as well the was working from the original work a ball blah blah relieved that original work is still available on the data that's world and we copy over the arabs how fascinating is that these ancient people had an ancient history of their own and some method of preserving and transmitting it while to me nonetheless five hundred six hundred years old long time for story to get legends built up around or nymphs or shall we use all those wonderful were richard mccabe knew we'd been throwing out motifs troops stereotypes but you know even the motifs and the stereotypes the literary conventions all those days can tell you something about the events of the person who's writing them is close enough to the more the great things about her rotten says he comes a generation after the benches reading on heaping abuse people were they are we'll have some calls in connection time wise to them and so when he gives you some sort of theme for the story whether or not the theme is true the way he uses it is one thing but tell issue something about the people living in that area and the way they portrayed or thought about or remember these events radha to see him as his movie if you will with a little story in the story is about the guy of the legendary king arthur type figure who follows the persian empire and stories about the persians coming to him early on basically saying now that we won this great empire we should move from the pour concrete we come from trouble he's more luxurious aliens with no good food and wine and you know and in other words when upon the world look straight up to a bigger the house and property and silas gives him a moral lesson and in two ways is intended to be conveyed is the story that ron it is just told you shall issue how they went from an empire who reviewed these kind of values the one that had forgotten them and paid the price he just related to you he says in response to the proposal by his people that they trade up to some better property russia since his movie with this paragraph quote cyrus did not think much of the suggestion he replied that they might act upon it as they pleased but added that morning that if they did so they must prepare themselves to rule no longer but to be ruled by others soft countries he said breed soft man is not the property of anyone soil to produce fine fruits and good soldiers to the persians had to admit her right is right that this was true that cyrus was wiser than that is so they left him and chose rather to live in a rugged land and rule to call the big rich planes and be subject to others and co well bob the time promises wrote that the persians lived an occupied country which planes indeed and the theme of the growing persian decadence starts with search seas amber comes to more of the most dominant parts of the entire narrative and not just decadence but also declined what the weir's metrics i think it's ever developed but it's natural to see how and not ironic is this idea that you could trace the rise and fall of civilizations to how they're doing in terms of territorial acquisition and retention is the roman empire rising while they still conquering territory expanding you show them they're rising the minute that they stop expanding start the contract their fall under in decline of course that ignores them empires did like the stock market expanding contract based on their fortune as i'm thinking of china and the byzantine three sample anomalous the persians in that sense to shore follow the roman empire a model to expand like the blob in the science fiction movie that we talked about earlier to a certain point and once they stop it's all about trying to hold on to what you have any old especially nineteenth century we're doing things that's a sign of an empire in decline and the idea that this decadence and decline of reached a point where are we no longer have the wooden shoes ascending the staircase we're well into the social bush going down that i thought about that from him in contrast to the to this idea that no we should be judging empires on territorial acquisitions if you were living in some time to read in ancient persia would you rather live in the wooden shoes either or the soap slippers are is it seems to me we probably live and be some version any with the silk slippers there right in our own civilization life cycle i would say and if i asked if you would go back to what the wooden shoes you're with things were more sport in the food was more simple and the new rules may be more strict i see two ends of the specter media like viking like you could be one level of the wooden shoes or we're so tall figure just you know it's like a darwinian nightmare good existence or or like something like the spartans were the puritans where life is just one long in our effort in spartan denial but it didn't create stop people not so much fun maybe live that life especially if you were born and raised the soaks up or arrow like to think we probably were the funny part of the persian empire is history coming up is really talking about and he ate an impact traditionally thought to be on the downhill slope if you lived there rather than some inflation some higher prices may need my nodded in a very bad time in fact my name in a decent amount of peace and stability in some of these places which is why some lilies kings were common up accountable or in a can you can run through thirty or forty year reign you're pretty quickly ironically the first of these kings to suffer from sort of the darkness drug intrudes on the narrative one product is is gone is the star antagonistic his movie read the darth vader character search ceased to star observes is loudly the end of peratis is movie by darn near fifteen years if you believe the ancient greek sources like the playwrights of the often portrayed him sort of like the broken man broken by the defeat in grecian never quite the same the salon a building projects the archaeologist a surly sure what to what building afterwards e-mail concord or general to conquer more territory in the east not really walk alone it's pretty certain that the persians were told a completely different story about the greek situation in the greeks would've known about three and intend to me of both court a much later account by an up an ancient historian dainty young crusoe storm and freon says court the official persian version of the events is probably close to what do yo crystals to reports much later he's talking about how the persians probably spot in the hill the war they just ended in greece in this dump tales all boy back when we began this conversation you're much much earlier talk about how odious you're into the babylonians have written about in a blast and the spartans us to mop away all this is an injustice to rebuke for so stunned kenny giving what pierre bree on things might've been the spin that the persian people were told that may be distorted after was turk she's told himself the inched story and writes quote during his expedition in greece sorties achieved victory over the lack of damone into their mop away and kill the king leah magnus they are then he took him laid waste to athens of which he sold into slavery all the inhabitants who would not succeeded in escaping that that these successes he imposed tribute on the greeks and return to asia and co that's out of the guide if that's true that's basically saying mission accomplished never mind all that revolutionary activity those opinions and their little alliance are stirring up on my coastline also both on the principle collins's irk sees in those great battles domestically is our hands old character and posing as the spartan commander but yet both of them will end up either taking persian gold or in persian employee or imitating persians were marrying persians george he's probably got to see pausing is goal persian which is something they did the persians were great cultural imperialist to you came from a backwater of ancient greece like boxing used to be that korbel spartan cruel and then go over and see how they're dressed and wined and dined and the unsophisticated parisian women and a lot of people went all persian housing is one of 'em the mystic leaves you showed up in the corps work she's warp right after your jesus on takes over either way and a victory for the dad new chief opponent shows up and coming goes that when your team no so from the persian to view i mean you might enable silence and this new look we win told anaya spin it sometimes ride nonetheless desert she's historical reputation as had to live with it no the way he's been portrayed for so long the first to the juror king's at they called him somewhat less lenient than as foreigners would actually back a policy of tolerance what now probably not true historians say but good luck changing that image also often portrayed as the first to shore the silver spoon generation of persian kings the ones that are raised is rich kids and not quite the same metal as their forebears as colonel what the end of the road to spooky in cars here's the way m. hey dan demi have describes toward the image could come down it was absurd she's quote the works of other greek authors deserted is depicted as being surrounded by stupid unix plato wrote that sorties was excessively spoiled in asia is that starting with him the persian kings were great in name only but not in reality contemporary historians often regards irk sees in accordance with greek writer is as a man of weak character anatolian hands of these units the official persian sources he writes however to pigs are cheeses why statesman in that tried warrior and co this idea observed she's being the first of the persian kings to shorten on the rate the decadence and decline erin persian histories longstanding common until the nineteen fifties at least one law books even a good time after that will the ranch where course love about writing in nineteen thirty five and was different view these things look at the same so the idea going in an extremely satisfying for most storyteller an old time historian standpoint he writes quote the empire of gary has lasted hardly a century more or less what was the physical backbone of persia was broken by marathon solemn isn't it yeah the emperor's exchange to mars or venus in the nation descended into corruption and apathy the decline of persia anticipated almost in detail the decline of well you more morality and degeneration among the people accompanied violence in negligence on the throne the persians like the meads before them passed from stoicism to epicurean isn't a few generations eating became the principal occupation of the aristocracy these men the wood was made a rule to eat but once a day now which reported the rule to allow them one meal prolonged from noon to night they stopped their larder is with a thousand delicacies any officer and entire animals to their guests they stop themselves with which we're meats and spend their genius upon new sauces and desserts the corrupting corrupting multitude of meals build houses of the wealthy while drunkenness became the common vice of every class fire were say dear re is created persia thirties inherited it is successors destroyed it end quote as a history than that so wonderfully satisfying piece of storytelling right there and there are two things that are wonderful about what seems to teach you some wonderful cosmic lesson doesn't it about the decay of society is based on civilization standards of all this and that satisfying to real-world yoke blessing in wisdom acquired wisdom from the past the other things wonderfully is thus the surety of at the certitude it's a very satisfying piece of writing compare that to something like here bring ons giant almonte or zhou were so much of it especially make sure you were coming up to his comparing this ancient authored a distinction author and basically finding promise with all the what they say the wonderful irony of this period history were in our everything is so much more documented in careful unscientific is we know less than we ever did instead of illuminating the timer things that were dark all boulders been quite a bit of that accountable modern history is done is to balk we thought we knew in the past just don't hills right with the way the only mentioned earlier pierre brill started his whole book which is the signal mean you have it you a thousand pages are more stop talking about this is how it was then you start to retire broke off with a phrase that says quote you must believe ancient history even if it's not true and quo that's because the basic structure he is real the details are completely unknown any idea going all the way from ancient greek times to the nineteen fifties at least you can see here part of an arbor recurring pattern of civilization is declining and calling because they're people start in eating richer food in concentrated genius on sauces instead of weapons or whatever the implication is there that's fascinating to because everybody understands how ridiculous it is to blame enough something like an entire cultures fall on the fact that people are getting slovenly of butter slouching towards disaster at the same time one could perhaps be convinced that something like that has some sort of role in the grand scheme of things but try to walk a fine and try it diagram in the top six to the brings down the roman empire in deciding exactly what percentage of responsibility which would be to the fact that women are a lot less virtuous and we're back on the empire was right easy listening it's possible that that plays a role when you read his history cdc playing a role in the spring b. roll i mean look back on an outing to say okay something like that actually ridiculous and even if once or twice in history something like that can be said to be the oldest in this case that really is what it was to use it is also the general rule that applies to rise and fall of tableau dishes ron history is ridiculous and everybody knows it now but it's college away the story's been told that so so much about the way it's collared now is trying to look through the week to a grown up over a two thousand five hundred years including such things as well sir seizure hang on the harem drinking too much wine enough to have been a victim of harem intrigues which brings us to the other problem with all this is one to be great if we could just as i said earlier when all this office ain't all be asked harem intrigue is a wonderful example traditionally served she says assassinated in keeping with the rest of this history of persia we don't know how you have multiple differing accounts the traditional overby it also is it's a victim of harem intrigues all these women fighting amongst the feed your honor we're eyeballs and and that the quest for power when the unix all the stuff and as we said earlier when you get these sources from people like to see us he may be a little gossipy so maybe the whole history of persia comes down to a princess di in a prince charles ruff love triangle deal a historian going to ellen jones whose want to know pouring us to see us translation i have to get it he writes a very good defense of the idea of harem intrigues that sort of gives up pretty darn good historical justification for something a lot of this drawer inside this is just a motif there's no such thing as old as a great idea romantic ideal o'hare record all the sex and love and drinking in any it's like a greek fantasy but here's what the whelan jones has to say about the so what this does when he defends this idea is once more made us realize that when it comes to the history ancient persian empire a lot of this ancient stuff we don't own anything for sure practically you can make a case or an argument for multiple interpretations of most things go well in john's right quote so what then do we make a t. c. this is being yet so powerful queens in unix it is clear that the royal women of the kingdom in persia did not live in card out nor did they inhabit and oriental this world of salt free sensuality but they did for part of the strict hierarchical chord structure or they moved in close proximity to the king the compiling that is hare rama they followed the peripatetic lifestyle of the great king the royal remains importance lay in their allegiance to the maintenance of dynastic power beauty many dynasty was after all essentially as centrally run family business at the heart of the operation lay their hair ram the king's domestic inner sure globe women offspring siblings and slaves t. c. is the stories of female power and agency he writes always operate around the safeguarding of the throne the preservation of partial power stories of sexual shenanigans the stuff of oriental was dreams are kept to a minimum and even when they do appear they serve the bigger picture royal women for over wink imposition privilege when you mix overreach the ramada positions and aim for the throne at the queen's act swiftly and punish them for the women men and unique slaves of the royal family prestige and access to power lay in their proximity to the king he then says quote the squabbles rivalries double dealings murders in executions must be seen in the context of dynastic politics partial was controlled by an absolute ruler that is not oriental list cliche is a fact absolute monarchy zero been to a particular form of political tension which usually focuses on the royal family but on the noble family sits around the king within such institutions women of the dynastic family authorized to positions of political agency not through anything i want to power by other less qualified all means cross cultural across tempore comparisons with other court societies radio this to be the truth and quote in other words what well angela just to do was take over the things that historians the most comfortable with blaming on greek stereotypes it makes a darn good historical scientific defense of it and what is that do just muddy the waters even more this is my excuse now for moving through several of the succeeding kings quickly when i decided to deal with the each persian king in succession is my structural framework for the story i knew i was going to be from loading events because they're so much known so much written about the first ever kings gimmickry to the empire and then the most people tend based on the evidence to scream through the succeeding kings apart the reason why is to succeeding kings to have as much to do with the greek some regular basis so there's less written about them up but you'll get a whole range like or dessert she's the first to arrange for like four decades any city person that normally you see a few of the events of this life put on a timeline listen to the way that same will direct reading in nineteen thirty five the paragraph or two sums up the rest of the history of the kings of persia after sir cheeses time quote only the records of rome after tide be re us could rival in bloody nest the royal annals of persia the murderer absurdities was murdered by our dessert she's the first west roll all you wayne was succeeded by asserting is the second was murdered a few weeks later by his half brother soggy honest who was murdered six months later by daily is the second was suppressed the revolt of terror attack knees by having a nice lying in his white cut into pieces and his mother brothers and sisters buried alive there is the second was followed by his son are deserting suspect and with the battle of two knocks out had to fight to the death his own brother the younger cyrus when they used to try to seize the royal power ours or cheese the second enjoyed along elaine killed his son terry is for conspiracy and died of a broken heart on finding that another cell and focus was planning to assassinate him o. k. is ruled for twenty years and was poisoned by his general battle us this fire limburg warwick placed our since some of oak is on the throne assassinated our sisters brothers to make our says secure than assassinated arsonist and his infant children and gave the sceptre to call romance as safely at them and threatened and co in other words highlight of most of the reins of the rest the kings of persia seemed to be the remarkable bloodied we fake incest cerullo assassination lead the way they died but it's worth pointing out that of all those cans that well to ranches gave you almost none of them can be confirmed these are traditions and you have to decide to the nevada sources and sometimes the sources differ for example take the death of the anti hero in that rogers productions are cheese the sources that are out there have different stories t. c. this is the one that she usually cited in the t. c. is version the search she says assassinated by his bodyguard which could be a camera bodyguard or general or counsellor are busier the position is interesting his bodyguard person is working with the unit what else is new the two of them were supposed to kill so she's now leader fragment of d. c. is actually talked about how search she started it says the dynamo shameful way man can die by having a stroke caught while he sleeps by his son and then the story gets interesting this attack this is when the disease has the two conspirators the bodyguard the unit going to want to search the summons in the u. can be people who inherit the throne which may be the bodyguard want and telling the sauna these brothers the one who killed us father dad's didn't get to deter or brother so that kid we're told goes to his brother's house and accuses him of killing their father the older brother says i killed that the younger brother is a leader mitchell's him and then it seems he had made their their wild wild in the court between who which you don't know then that the conspirators try to get rid of this alderson says maybe the throne schooner for that one of those innocent acres of ours told actually turned the tables any killed a bodyguard in the unit to munich supposedly by that wonderful torture method of the belts and that he it comes orders are to ease the first the arctic she's the first is wonderful example of how the rest of the story to go till the very last king of the persian empire or maybe the second last depending on how you chronicle that but that's the issues and i who were old from four sixty five b. c. to four twenty four b. c. it's an enormous rain for decades boss right if you look at our reserve sees the first wife it's like a few bullet points on the timeline that's how all the rest of the schemes are gonna be to open till the last one or two it's tempting to say maybe that's just because there was an awful lot record may be our desert seized the first is a great manager maybe like in and areas was a great ceo persia corny so great that you know that that steady hand on the wheel keeps here for being nice and warm as flare ups of things that make great historical stories although probably had more connected to the fact that names work in our part to the persian empire remember there's an entire persian empire on the other side of the persian capital the degree to know very little about it's like the dark side of the moon to them but there's a lot going on there a lot more modern history and point out that that's probably the more important part of the empire to the persians themselves so who knows what our search she's doing he's a famous though in the greek story for being the guy who caught of pfizer practice of the persians were already doing that sort of makes it a foreign policy of persia when dealing with the greeks ours are cheese is the one who decides to make it the policy of persia to use diplomacy is a weapon this is something i think a lot of modern day people forget that diplomacy is really good that we think of it is we be sometime toward best defensive lot of the great civilizations in history were fabulous accusing diplomacy like a sword we'll be going really deconstruct your adversaries using it persians were so skilled up is that some of the modern history there was real good and they can help but say why didn't the persians do this from the very beginning we need to fight any of those battles but we just recounted to you they could just on this 'cause look how effective it was and the four nineties and the forty these persian is finding and mostly losing land and sea battles against these greek city states a hundred years later the persians of essentially emasculated them by paying for them to a mass killing each other and if so much your family in about a dead one side seems to be doing too well up till flaunted the other side and the other side will continually change sometimes the persians refunding the spartans to bring down the kenyan power but then for example though be a time when the spartans will invade modern day turkey in asia minor and look like they're maybe even thinking about marching on the persian cities of the persians final budget gold back to greece and have spartan enemies attack them history chester starr said that essentially the parisian empire was like the puppet masters in greece by the end of this time and they had managed to do that simply by using money to prolong in deep in the natural disagreements agree should always had with each other the same time or by the means to continue fighting until everyone was exhausted the one point the peloponnesian war for example one of these wars that were spawned in a in directly in part by persian gold the spartans will lose a fleet to the athenians or most of the lawn and feel like captain maybe drop on abortion the persian sublime of the fleet they don't have to go degree can sometimes what the set traps in the local area will pay for national brought maglaj in if we just keep fighting now our dessert seizes water these kings you may have brokerage actual official maybe end of the war peace agreement in for forty nine but even that is argued about my historian to wonder if there ever was one of the terms of comedown was were real so who knows but our resort sees is supposed to die gingold while he died either but he supposed to have a good death tuesday o'sullivan better natural what have you beneath the water west greedy of his son is so declared together that they're gonna be king in that that turn out well what will be killed supposedly drunken only after forty five days of being proclaimed king another wyoming and it's a little longer until eventually he gets killed i begin a close relative these raul brothers the last brother will take the name teri hatcher darius the second you rule from for twenty three b. c. you to four row for b. c. yes well the coolest while this week is wind in the world she will be it and and i am looking at the top worst mother in law's all time or best to affirm my standpoint lauding the story she's one of the bash your alexander great mom you won't have the usual mother-in-law but cautioned the story to come under wonderful to soak up as of course but just to make matters more persian uninteresting and find an ancient to rise to set his wife was his sister your kid is ours george c. is the second truce famous because he has a civil war with his little brother most are worse the younger cyrus the younger as these persians all through this period do hire sake han of greek mercenaries to fight for him what was in dining santa fonda who happens to write in whose work has come down to us await famous cyrus the younger led by his greek mercenaries triumph at the battle to knock stopped well to a certain point is whether by design upon says that the persians run away before they even cross beers with his creature pursue them long distance and it was already won except cyrus the younger d. rebel qing they were fighting for manages to get himself killed in the battle and that privilege and sat became really you know like your brother for the throne if you'll survive the bottle so the story that set off on tells us famous in western literature these greek soldiers between ten and thirteen thousand of them have to manage to get out all of persian empire all the way back to greek ron territory and do so you know with a persian army essentially chasing them harassing the whole way the long story short this whole thing is they manage it and this has all sorts of overtones including this idea of how vulnerable the persian empire must be if they get wiped out ten to thirteen thousand hop lights so in your own territory unsupported of course my favorite stories in the fall and i recount all the time is the moment we're he and his troops camped out near these giant gauche cities he has no build them and they're bigger than anything the grease would've had to tie me ask the locals and they don't all the big maybe the meads of course we all nobody's camping out and roll winds of the great assyrian cities may be the syrian capital for my two or three hundred years before the persians were the ones we ever did that old world and they ruled it for law and they made the transition from that black and white arrow to the fully colorized error of xylophone and we know we sin the flea collar right directors reading his staff are we the persian to the bridge they sort of explain how we got from the very very old world demurely the very old world one's enough on asks who built the city's budget disintegrating around him he's looking back to his ancient past and it seems to stone him as i said there's gonna be a very weird feeling when you look back on something that is clearly from long time ago in some way looks bigger or better the more you currently have we don't have that experience room with a peck of the passive looks primitive imagine coming from or those time periods may be living in fifth century europe somewhere you look at things that were built at the height of the roman empire use it turned out how did they build that and how sophisticated must've been remembered the human civilization progress has only been storied opt for the last five hundred or so your sister renaissance before that time it was more like the stock market and sometimes you measure hot water more options and then he went down from your highness some of farms iraq he's coming up to the high is of the very height of the previous year it will be long before they are building see these grigory grander than the one disintegrating iran's enough on what he looks it he's looking at something that hasn't quite been replicated yet in the world he comes from to the church to feeling when she think right there was something that great-grandfather it to happen to any of us it will happen to xenophobic people and shortly afterwards to the kings of persia too but once again after we lose the xylophone in terms of you know his story about his retreat from persia hands we don't hear all lagardere cheese the second body rules for forty six years does that show you how the sources to sky completely overshadowed the rings of these later kings have you ruled for six years and there's not much that happens is warranted and that happened over one you're the one greek writer wrote about this huge the rest of the guys rain practically unknown he supposed to have hundreds of lives pondered to kids one of whom will become the next came there in the year four point five b. c. and this cane traditionally you sort of the one that takes an already bloody history of the persian royal family and takes it off into collegial avail east owners are reserved seats the third there are people can get a job to know what the brothers had been murdered another one committed suicide another bomb was executed at what our research is the third test of the throne is taking no chances he starts to almost to the royal family if you say something like well like it was brothers that sounds terrible we realize are reserved to third had more than a hundred and fifty brothers probably he struck at easter to realize what wiping out the royal family might mean wendy a guy who sire you had three hundred and fifty lives nonetheless are his urges to third come to power in a time where greek warfare is changing and once again it's very tempting to get down to the tactical level and say that there are little teeny tweaks on the battlefield they will end up involving themselves in contests the end result of which will change the course of history in this case the persians and the greeks over the last century or so the branch to weaken each other greatly the persians of fond athenians fighting spartans fighting stevens in any strange combination many years three seventy one enough in a famous battle called looked for the fee bins begin the process on demolishing spartan military power and within ten years on another wannabes bowels it does and so many spartans guy sport is never the same many different innovations in greek warfare were displayed in these battles and it's often seen as a step towards a higher level of military sophistication to the greek state often tied to prolonged contact with sophisticated military but the persian trying rubs off on you fifty bins especially or her different increase because they are the one major greek city state that has always had cavalry in a good cavalry tradition may come from cavalry country and the list is covering the spouse augustus born to me you so well they also swing corporate sunlight troops interesting tactics to end something that's been growing importance especially amongst the ben's that he was always kind of like to fight in greater depth than the hoblit from other greek city states but they just total maximizing that during the reign of the last couple of military leaders and at the battle of look for the even hop lighter fighting fifty ranks deep and the smashing into a formation of spartan hot lights that is lined up well frank steep an outfit they only recently gone to twelve francs to use to be less than that so you were on haiti formation house people a block of minutes fifty ranks deep into won the twelve francs deep what happens not just that but the feeble is almost all other greeks to be stated began to have professional military units greek warfare was always such an amateurish affair and always was talk that way why wish unger but now understood that a lot of the city states now i'd totally professional units that were maybe like the tip of the speaker for the rest of their work army which was still farmers and artisans and most common people in the case of the feedings they had one called the sacred day and three hundred professional soldiers maybe maybe homosexual lovers to that so we've been thrown into something involved in the interesting thing agreed to the state me and you nonetheless spartans great damage over the other greeks and the persians to all the time was that they were the only professional warriors in greece but not me more so some of the things that always made spartans extra special our lesher leaked by this time period to you throw a force led by three hundred professional phoebe ms back to buy a phalanx it's fifty shields deep instead of going after the week or the spartan line goes after the best bargain trooping crushes as he'd been generally pam ramon de says the head of the serpent you will in sparta there is somebody observing this military revolution in greece hostage hostage for mama country and for long times holding on by the skin of its teeth to survival and sometimes not even that his name still up he will be the greatest military leader in the most dangerous man that you're produces up until his life is over and he's learning it how to fight in the new style by watching that the bins to look like he's a hostage and deeds what then go back to his own country and based on a lot of what he learned while observing the band military innovations build the most nasty letter read world had ever seen the army did philip built was one that took all sorts of influences from athens and feeds and took macedonia's natural strengths and combine them macedonia as great you're cool calvary aristocratic calvary think of them as knights and maybe that's not too far wrong the greek sources portrayed no macedonian infantry is being like a barbarian rabble before philip philip turns him into the kind of soldier read he would've seen it beeps people who stood shoulder to shoulder caring very long spears and philip length and i'm quite a bit shot at the longest beers anywhere and he made their formation sixteen ranks deep it created an entirely new trip type information on the battlefield the phalange i hate with this forming his bottle wine he used the cavalry on the wings is a strike force he incorporated archers unlike truth with it to make a flexible he drilled them relentlessly and he used them almost every year of his reign to find somebody which an amazingly clever treacherous interesting fantastic died fifty cold histories always portrayed as a drunken barbieri white boys but like women better the kind of greek quiche viking character if you will and by the time he's in his mid forties the physical effects of his lifestyle our apparent he's lost an eye he's broken collarbone news he may be fractured his hands may maybe being brought back rate that's not for sure and his leg ease dragging behind him the result of either being skier in the honey maybe we're having it crushed by a barbarian club up but philip's phase akel woody on the battlefield it was clearly represented in his body the macedonians have us over the homeric kind of eat those that the southern greeks who kind of outgrown by this time that they're more like the chili's in homer's heroes the ancient greeks down south of become much more cultured and philosophical and in the sense you know if you only get back to that idea the silk slipper in the wooden shoes life cycle thing no it's the greeks who in corrupted by softness of luxury in the contact with the persians all this time didn't help and now the people with the wooden shoes of the ones who have some of the barbarian virtues of strength and rootless innocent well that's the macedonians maybe so funny old historians of slipper syndrome approach the macedonians are just the next in line more than modern history to portray philip as a much more cultured person have often portrayed the dynamics of the macedonian royal family is akin to a mafia crime family without a lot of alcoholism homosexuality but you also have to add aristotle and people like that philip was absolutely committed it seems to pop greeting the cultural level of his courtroom when creek contemporaries met him they talk about a person who supposed to really create a great speaker and charming and clever in it's a fascinating into the julin that he would be hard to imagine macedonia going from nothing to greet the power without him but the battle of cara mia we will defeat on early hey an alliance of the bins and athenians to as the old saying goes and the independence of the greek city states his son alexander leading the cavalry charge to destroy is that the bins sacred band toolmaker nan in one famous story after one of these battles philip is portrayed as limping around the battlefield amongst the goren corpses drunken lead perhaps making fun of the nickname that they gave him down in the south the cultured so clipper regions of greece now with a call in front of the barbarian you may ask with the spark as our during this time period now the topaz essentially conquered probably put grecian to leak it may look like we're all here as we want to be an going to call up the warsaw pact been something like that it's bartow was left out what the best stories of the spartans my name mentioned this earlier comes out of the note that supposedly philip sans to the spartans menaced by the way is been told multiple ways and translated that upon a different ways but the general just to get his court your advice to submit without further delay or if i bring my army on your land i will destroy your farms slay your people and ranger city and and reply from start to show said the f. while most historians i've read seem to think you wouldn't even be much of a contest between macedonia does period was part of sporting his way past her prime and macedonia has way more people in a larger of the economic base in everything but the macedonians get their hands on sparta for what it's worth all this time it seems clear as philip consolidates greece he's planning on invading kershaw philip has a wonderful siege trainees greeted taking cities he's got good logistics he's learned very well how to fight and keep warm use in the field for long treated time he doesn't have a budget amateur farmers in his army he has a professional military force if he can keep in the field he's taken over gold mine to get towns of money if persia really was a rickety old house that some agreed to the time and some historians afterwards kind of portray him as all the sudden something comes along the kimball it down by the year three thirty six b. c. philip has established a bridgehead on occasion soil just over the boss first hello spot his army ten thousand men there are a macedonian general the stage is set and then while walking hewn two and a retainer along the column showing the greek gods including a statue of himself amongst them supposedly walking without his normal bodyguard to show as a propaganda tool supposedly this is all the tradition to the other greeks that he is a ruler of greece no by consensus that is a benevolent guy he's not some heavy handed tyrant that maintains his control by military force on the body goddamn loved any walks out there alone yes to imagine what i did philip with his terrible leg limping garland around his head supposedly a crowd shearing at alexander the great in attendance with his wonderful mother olympia us who hates her husband supposedly and someone from the body to warp runs out to the kenya and slams a knife between israel burst the assassination is like a kennedy assassination in this time period hold down it and why the assassin runs off some waiting horses bodies killed by other members of the bodyguard before he can get there alexander the great's mother supposedly rizzo was slammed into goes on in history to take this with a grain of salt puts emotional remembrances on the assassins gray is a people always want about alexander is that to get the job next so it had to go back to war game of clue from the earlier part of the story alexander's the guy you really benefit to this assassination think about it so do the persians a little persian gold on the right pocket to get rid of an extraordinary man especially after that extraordinary man has just landed ten thousand men on your coastline who knows who killed all the second but if you're one of the higher up to persia you probably have to go give an extra large sacrifice at the religious temple those things just seem to have turned out your way alexander supposed to follow the persians behind his father's murder but if it was the case that they were kind of looks like a good move if you're looking at this like you're playing some saw the strategy game right if you're confronted with an extraordinary individual and are causing you tyler problems what's easiest way to fix that problem baby just get rid of the extraordinary individual i'm retired histories that happened and i just amongst these warlord tied to me a lot enemies and you'd expect them to have people willing to stick the knife in the ribs but even amongst people but the other end of the violet spectrum the martin luther king or gandhi both of whom were sasha made it both reached for healing people and both huge de stabilizers they caused a lot of people are proms and if you're an ordinary person sometimes dealing with extraordinary people difficult which you can always get rid of 'em and of course sure playing the odds on she would you do that the ideas how often do you get extraordinary newbie joseph i get rid of filibuster in this extraordinary european certainly i will end up with someone not as good as he is at the persians were behind the assassination of it would only meaner what parisian saw happening in their own royal family mean this was a pure you were sasha nations always a possibility really took center stage the famous or intrigues as we said i mean our research seized a third the contemporary of philip this guy we mentioned earlier was the woman supposedly took the royal family to the league heel of the old israel the nasty ruler he's gonna need is in the same leave the lookout she's gotta be stabbed it he's famously going to be poisoned by one of the great poison ears of the ancient world now there are some cuneiform tablet that seemed to suggest that our reserve she's the third man died a natural death and lord knows she was supposedly in his mid eighties so that's not on the question but the ancient sources place his death at the hands of his busy or his counselor maybe his general degree to which call them you're next whether they were were not castrated is unknown this guy's name is they don't spell nice famous the king and he poisoned was supposedly uses one that we were talking about earlier that is vicious enough so you think of him almost like an assyrian king rather than more tolerant wing in persian king but when you look at his accomplishments she looks like the restorer of the persian empire mean it throughout long and absolutely are jewish courier he's smashing revolts we conquering lost territory in however repudiate may be in trouble he on paper by the time this guy dies he is restored persia to someone commits former lustre released if you look at a map it's a remarkable achievement this late in the game it's like a map we decided the gamut competed the olympics like they did when they were twenty when they're fifty and they get into great shape than they look pretty good they just been opened to all but the fun for me if you're fenner persia zionist toronto star appeared to shutting up an encounter an encounter between two extraordinary man philip the second in macedonia but to lead the greek invasion of persia probably certainly after or is it she's the third dies but maybe even before in our research is the third obviously a competent as hell going to resist him for the heavyweight championship of the ancient world right when the representatives of the very very old world persia or the representatives of the merely very old world agrees and then assassination were moved to both of these extraordinary men within two years of each other and the problem if you're looking at this is a giant championship match is it we get the standings from both the people we just lost in one corner we have a guy named darius the third person that the poison or the illicit the killing a lot of other people are having a little to your papa king in the interim puts on the throne maybe mediocre may be worse than mediocre rangers of replacement in the other corner replacing philip the second alexander the great this is a show about the persian empire but alexander the great easy instrument of its staff there are some modest range like to think of alexander is really the last king of persia but he's the guy who will eventually bowing down at the royal palace to me that's where it ends up alexander's the guy will end it he's a historical arsonist in my book him and that's a termite you should these people who come in the history periodically and sword burned down the dead wood of an old world so you want to crop up it's a very simplistic historical approach beauty these people off the history alexander's the prototypical example so most like to do what they have to do with another play their role on the home is to record station and the guy wants their job is over and alexander falls under one of two categories cease historical parsons seem to fall into tears the self made man in the eyes like genghis khan who create the instrument first and then go on kill people with it that's what alexander the great father philip was right he was sort of a historical arsonist his own way especially few been allowed to continue his career us off maybe i alexander the great falls and the other category fist or abortionist so little guy like frederick the great we're he's born and the father has sort of set the historical table for him build the instrument to go comparable world with ride created the weapon in the names into the salon who doesn't have to spend years of his wife creating the conditions for his greatness he can just go on to ground running he would be tempting to suggest that alexander had made in anybody would've been able to do what he did given what he inherited this year is nothing think about the uniqueness to the sky first all understand he probably the most propagandize figure in the ancient world especially if you were moved religious figures from the quaking he is the elvis presley of ancient history he's taking they were so much stuff built around him any news was storing says the jungle of alexander myth out there that can go on forever we have all the same prom showed him that we have with the persian sources but add to that immense propagandize thing and call like your worship there were even history to suggest that alexander's life story in the sources have been purged and call them clipped over the years to maintain the sorting image for all sorts of domestic purposes of the time you know little stalinist little north korea like the point is getting to the real guy here who's next to impossible there were at least twenty contemporary accounts of alexander stuff written including stuff from his generals all that stuff is gone warwick ball in him actually shattering sentenced points out that the only actual contemporary thing that exist from alexander time talk about alexander is it one sentence dedication on a temple everything else is derivative which is typical for ancient history but does blow your mind when you think of how much stuff there was a one-time anomalous or she can she can say about this guy their mind blowing right away he's not just the son of the most interesting man in european history probably up until this point certainly the most powerful geo political figure he's also the some of the most interesting female his mother's fascinating and want to get like all women in ancient history she gets a combination of rocked and propagandize to so who knows the truth about this woman the runners are she's a malo scene which who sleeps with snakes and is an acolyte of diane isis the god of wine she comes from the people that the macedonians to the greeks think are barbarians the macedonia's think these people are barbaric chisholm los tin the most scenes were a powerful tribe that lived in the wilds of the ancient kingdom of empire russia which is located south of the modern day country of albania for what it's worth what you can say about her though is this is a woman who was so formidable the degree disfiguring european geo political history philip the second could not handle her not only that apparently he couldn't just filler reader she also proved after philip was gone philip's generals and alexander's generals after alexander couldn't deal with her review she continually outmaneuvered them murdered them killed people that got her way i mean protected the interest of her son she was formidable as hell and that's alexander's mother think that the dna in the sky to mix want our greatest many european geo political history with one part most impressive female in european history the most scene which ones make love in follower of dinosaurs have that dna diamond polished by the greatest leaders of the age including aristotle so the template designed for the guy's life as one korea but for my home or in the only add to your style supposedly annotated the copy for alexander who step and under his pillow while on a campaign teach him that he used the descendant of legend di re gods and he arose on both sides of his family achilles on his mom's side eric reasons you saw mr ads and then hand him the keys the angel world's equivalent of the nineteen forties germans earmarked and he's twenty years old i have to keep reminding myself of the hadn't even though the world has changed allotment for years old and might've been the new thirty if you will you still twenty years old i know guys were free to give in twenty year old son's the keys to the sports car because of what they might do alexander has d. most dangerous military in the world gassed up and ready to go earlier in the story we said that from the greek pointed viewing to write us to bring in concert caesar invading greece that they play the role of darth vader to the greeks but from the persian pointed to the story darth vader is played by alexander the great or is warwick ball suggests the iranian people spawn of him the demon king there are lot agree to would agree with the characterization when alexander the great takes over from his father proportion greeted the states to such a good time to rebel after all for the odds is twenty you're located going to be able to do it was what is extraordinary father did dancer turned out to be pretty darn good alexander spins the initial part of his there were in the first you're half two years or what have you proving to people that he is a chip off the whole block that they can use this army is was ill man good and in addition to pounding a bunch of barbarian tribes to decide to get uppity on his orders to destroy each thebes anita so brutal preserver histories to say what alexander did deeds was worse than anything the persians did the greeks each when they were occupying kresa hundred fifty plus years before but it sends the message increases once again how would it and as we said earlier in other little like the warsaw pact in this deal they get to go fight this war against persia made it to provide troops whether or not they want to mitchell lot of doubt as to how excited these greek forces that will accompany alexander on his crusade that far africa blisters and in london little more than glorified hostages to keep their people down on the farm wallowing center in the main army are gonna go rebelling dance may i have fifteen thousand of your citizens with me something like that in three thirty four b. c. alexander crosses from europe to asia to big deal of the time he brings were told historians and geographer isn't all kinds of people with him people to chronicle the ice advanced al modern press corps and propaganda course the way that it's often portrayed him as screwed up the sources ever since jimmy harnessed to divine the fact from fiction in history without having people that are deliberately trying to pull over your eyes for in a short term military effect but alexander is propaganda was fantastic probably she can't tell when you're reading something that propaganda insulting that's true just like all those other source trouble we have alexander supposed to have from all water as he crossed from europe to asia but short little span of liquid get thrown us b. you're off of these boat landing on the beach claiming all of asia by right of conquest historian pure breed and says that this is a novel position for the persian leadership to find themselves in because while persia had had all sorts of revolts over its history and certainly tribal barbarian incursions all over the place untroubled along the frontier in military breakaway situations and interference from foreign powers they had never had anyone that had both the stated intention of taking over the whole thing toppling the government in just assuming control and also the means to make better reality until the rind alexander now what alexander's attempting to do she really is much more than an ancient battle he's launching a full scale ancient war the ancient wars involved two things one is the old battles usually those are the big battles where everything to be decided in an afternoon it is between the field battles that the dirty grinding to a day or we're off the ongoing with like slow moving lava of the campaign goes taking walled cities for example is famously swallow and grinding so there will be field about rolls along with a bunch of grinding attrition most each type horror all in between alexander's first real battle will happen when he's confronted soon after crossing over into asia by the local persian forces all of our main sources for these advances that the king of persia had been given conflicting advice by different counselors on what to do about this alexander problem on their front here there was a famous greek general working for the candidate any man on of roads and supposedly man on recognizing this was the ancient world equivalent of the nineteen forties german vermont became stay away from that going to ajax are the crops destroyed everything started out army after all the long history to think of supply problems we're doomed the persian invasion greta hundred fifty years ago turnabout is fair play costs an army and make it a stranglehold in defeat and this time the people from europe to be like napoleon's soldiers strangling home for russia as you might imagine know the governors to set traps of those places whose farms and everything would have to remember we're not enthused by that idea cast aspersions on men on the greek heritage may be suggesting that she was working for the other side maybe somebody was questioned his manhood sullivan basically said you know we don't ron from people with the persian empire and so will pull forces shall want to confront this force and here's the thing at this point for that for the persians whose not that unusual deal they have been dealing with problems caused by the ogre those greet each peoples for lost two hundred years this is the fringes of their empire at the even lose battles to these people it happens it's not like forget whatever happens here as the source is continually poured out alexander gets no luxuries here he cannot lose one bottle he's in a situation where if he loses he goes all the persians on the other hand are on their home they can afford to lose some especially dispersed to which is sort of a throwaway about to them they lose no big deal just a local forces it the way in a hot hot you know macedonian problem sold about the king even having to show up wonderful right to take the gamble every day of the week i think now something happens in the story this point that is noticeable and that is that all the sudden book holler that has been missing since or screenwriter who were augustus left the scene returns in glorious technicolor and it looks like a nineteen fifties hollywood sword in sandals movie it jam packed with action that wonderful stop when asking all we know any of the twenty three hundred years later well we're using as a source another war these ancient greek writers who was riding in the roman empire four hundred years later and sold you tempted to say why pay attention to any of the stuff is just coming out of this guy's mind we pointed out earlier that all the contemporary counter rally sanders time period and because these were huge event a lot of people wrote about a little my time with alex ten thousand weeks on the bestseller list but those things are gonna house will have any of those but roland there were writers like to hear re in greek writer whose account is the best account alexander's military campaigns he did have access to that stuff he says he wrote from three main sources the number one source what alexander's best friends with his companions for the seven important bodyguard to guy you so close to being they have been half brother and after alexander's life was over this guy tore off a chunk of his empire started the dynasty it's energy in egypt and ruled for three hundred years not bad primer stores right even if you getting a second hand also what alexander's admiral's orders combat engineers in the arena basically says she took almost a scientific approach to when compared to sources to each other up it's about the bester gonna get right we're in swimming guy there reassess that the granted as river alexander's forces rain into the persian defenders and that they numbered about twenty thousand cavalry about twenty thousand infantry modernist raising those numbers are high but alexander's numbers are pretty darn well call also for the first time in a long time maybe we have reasonable number for least one side alexander's force is supposed to have had between thirty and thirty five thousand infantry men and about five thousand maybe one five thousand talcum so even having one member to fill in for a letter in the algebraic historical equation helps all these battles that are coming up in this campaign car argued about endlessly the exact locations are not even known to take everything with the grain assault the one thing you can say though but what's about to happen here repeat it's easy to see how this all contribute to the myth of alexander one wonders although i haven't heard anybody say this wasn't sure if any of this was true it theoretically possible that this is all made up about alexander that he would be portrayed in homeric terms and so in a superman all the sources seems very unlikely though he seems more on the other end of the spectrum which is somebody who really enjoyed this somebody who would've considered it a bad thing to have for any reason missed out on the killing it wasn't as leading his men does it was his duty if any of this stuff is true about alexander he got a kick out of it and the starfleet duty is frightful i don't mean in a sense of giving frightful overfly go kill almost a million schmuck city we just kept drawing it on a personal level what he did was frightful and you can't judge these people in modern cultural terms because that everybody your brown heel was doing similar frightful things that's how you thought frank what's more the society was built on encouraging the characteristics that made such activities cast in light of heroism or warrior olympic palm or defending your people or what have you in other words was completely supported by the culture alexander was increasing his glory fame on her and all those other things when all these killings and having him recording in homeric charms was the sort of stuff he wanted to read about and soft as it was so stuffy read about is on heroes go read the only added frightful when you read the accounts erin provided alexander's conduct in a hand to hand combat the battle of the granite kiss it sounds very similar move to read to say i'm fascinated and everybody is totally confused about how ancient combat worked when you read the source is it so hard to get past two or the literary devices with ahab people talking to each other in combat or were there ways that could actually have been in the dean of battle furious account alexander fighting at the grammy 'cause has taken the stuff going on in addition as we said earlier in ancient warfare the officers on the commanders are very important and they're when they're in harm's way in the larger battle to commanders might themselves be the head of state what happens if you take them out alexander is the head of state at this battle anyone be fighting in the front ranks according to your ian the persians massa bon jour troops together and just sort of from their side of the battlefield fall alexander as he moves in his bright magnificent armored and with the trapping she could always tell with these people were because they want to rome troops to know that is essentially a unit of persian calgary following alexander across the battlefield from the other side waiting for him to make his move in their jobs can be to take him out he's the head of the snickers bars they're concerned he's darth vader he's darth vader and the death star and the emperor all rolled into one kill him and maybe everybody goes home alexander sure spawns to that according to ariane and prematurely one else you've ever heard from nice to charge into the thick of the mass we had mentioned earlier we were talking about the persian army four hundred and fifty years ago they would change over time and when joe expect there to be some evolution what the criticisms historians long time ago and and all the way up to the time what was it you were making up the persians were here they get beaten all the spouse gets agreed to make the game really even change in any appreciably positive way of a modern history said yes they did it but it was right under your nose is you're always talking about things like sites chariots all these other things we think those are your attempt to come to grips with their weakness in the greek to damage in this case how do you break up those formations of heavy infantry that fight shoulder to shoulder with those long spears they are a pain the persians hired a lot of those greek mercenary hop likes to fill the gap for them is ten to twenty thousand of them at this bottle they also tried to figure out a strategy isn't ways to break up the greek formation because once those spearman were no longer hobble shoulder to shoulder they were vulnerable attack that's why this is called the battle of the river grandkids because the persian forces we're on the other side of the river and on the force on the river was a steep bank in top of that awaited a very long line of persian cat we were told the thought process seems to be in it seems pretty sound and for more we're lookin' at it that you're going to have to cross if you were the macedonian foot soldiers to give the persians historically such a hard time a body of water not that deep but to cross this body of water in your scramble up to the other side there's no way you're still maintaining your shoulder to shoulder cohesion anymore and you have a cavalry all we knew what the top of the right to charge down on you there's only two pretty good plan if you're looking at it from the persian cornfield for some reason they seem to station there came country too far back to take any part about why read some work because of a mile back to me it's a it's a big distance unless what a pretty good plan on paper if we're reading it correctly now the other thing that has changed over a hundred and fifty years apparently this is all very debate in bed but it's good story may become apparent the cavalry has changed in the hundred and fifty years since the early your greek war with the persians back then if you recall the persian she's to attack the missile weapons by squadron and so try to wear you down and they would attack you and in combat if he were like troops in scattered with the random were scattered they were gonna slam in your formation probably and fifty years later that's exactly what alexander's crack heavy cavalry dots and that's what the heavy cavalry units on the persians i'd do it too the study calorie evolution is a long train of thought going back to the idea that this all started in central asia with all those horse tribes that were always innovating and spread it by the time alexander is attacking the persian empire is spread indeed injuries malay cavalry on both sides and on like the greek warsaw hundred fifty years ago with the persian camp we really had no counterparts of the other side here persian and macedonia count we often face off against each other often these battles are going to involve the country in the center at rallies in for we supply says phalanx this giant block of human beings that took up the main battle line and in calgary amo wings were to do something it's often apollo's by persian calvary on the other side and a lot of these battles involve the persian macedonia cavalry fighting it out almost nightly fashion and that's what happens with alexander the front of this infantry charge to advance toward the persians alexander gets a sort of a faint underway worries able to get the persians to move in a different direction many slams into them at calvary battle and shoes were he almost diets here's the way his story and to you linden i read in a wonderful job synthesizing theory in is the way from the area in he describes what it's like for alexander the great the head of state and darth vader in the persians eyes in this battle he sounds like the guy who he thinks is his ancestor achilles bosnia quote alexander lead is macedonian cavalry through the riverbed and directly at the position of the set traps and the persian grandy is on the other side when the two lines struck alexander broke his lights in the fighting cried to groom for another but the grooms alliance was broken and he was defending himself greatly with the broken stop ask somebody else he shouted one other word is reduced by lee surrendered his lands to the king alexander supplied me three day she's a son-in-law a daring is the great king advancing writing out for me is guarded the macedonian drove his land straight through the persians face flinging into the ground now rose cities in the persian brother rather sad trap of lydia struck alexander rome ahead with the sword the blow wrecked the king's helmet yet the helmet save the king clearing maitre de says gore roth is lance alexander to grow state he's in the chest piercing his queer is an hurling into the ground as well from the malay behind the cane to set traps betrayed davies swung back to deliver a great blow to avenge us all and brother but alexander's companion cleanness was there first with his own sword and clover off at the shoulder the arm up ways to fell the king was from this point in the fighting this cascade abort your real blood the panic began to spread among the persians attila carried them fleeing from the field end quote that's a famous story in alexander's life as she's in the midst of the fighting the persian from behind is about to strike him maybe take his head off and as his arm is our police to bring the lowdown on alexander's headed his frantically does she use off the persians army no weapon in hand think about all that going on in the midst of battle how much of that is a good story of how much bitch really what happened it's hard to know what's hard genome it's also hard to know things really went that way some historians believe that there may be in need perverse initially at this battle but that alexander's propaganda which could not afford any suggestions off we're verses now covered up but nonetheless one way or another it seems that at some point alexander ish forces drive the persian calgary off the greek hop light infantry the rest of the country was too far away the impact in the battle we surrender hands of butchering a bunch of them in selling the rest to slaves and the battle of the grammy kisses over but remember this was something that involves local forces on the scene it's the persians see this now it's time to get serious recall when a royal army and that's a pain in the rear remember the persians treated their empire little like a company with subcontractors and their army hatter we will call or sort of that they could bring to must respond they would call for whatever district they needed forces from in this case most of them to come and bring troops to the same location you know bring your local forces of walpole mol lee gather in an all have this huge forced to deal with alexander to the call comes out in the persian king is gonna take the field himself and meanwhile alexander goes and does the stuff that you do you know between feel battles he takes the submission of local people in any area they're saying i always hated king i'm glad you're here and on with your friend interesting in charge of this region of always run i'm really good at a goddamn so it's so the jalalabad is also the people who resist and hide behind walls and alexander has to break those places down he's not nice usually does alexander comes up with an awful strategy to sort of eliminate the threat from the persian fleet he doesn't have a free to come fight the persian flee to the disclosure russert taking all the cities along the coastline so that there will be any place for the fleet to elsie comported me just takes all the ports not a bad strategy either meanwhile walt alexander's consolidating his conquest and running his portrait into the persian to funneling money into all the states in greece the water break away for macedonia ironically a bunch of them places but i'm in fifty years ago were fighting for their lives and freedom against these very persians all this is going on the king of kings in persia is mustering the royal army which which must take a long time the vast empire is getting from one place to inevitable water troops is not easy to must've don't believe it was in babylon in the head up towards modern day turkey in the fall three three three b. c. e. to give you an idea power reared this is all i think they had fought some major bottles in egypt not that long ago historic your brown says that the people in that part of the persian empire in turkey had not seen a royal army in a hundred and fifty years since york ceases time to the persians don't often have to bring out the big guns the fact that the king is there with the army now or is a sign that the taking alexander the great seriously our ancient greek writer aliens as the persian king is leading six hundred thousand men and not through syria and upward turkey to confront alexander that's pretty darn serious it's also pretty darn incredible as always with the personal wishes to wings know during credible they just can't agree on what is credible alexander's probably got about forty thousand guys with him below number she's here for the persians or equal to alexander most often though the number should give to the persian turk twice as large were to one half times as large generally it's thought that alexander significantly outnumbered in this battle and that's not hard to believe considering the jew or in the persian heartland but i would have for my myself opinion this is the value of a story four hundred years ago like hounds still broke from germany but they'll broker binds us in uses historical example to point out that just because she have a lot of people in a place doesn't you know the blur soldiers i knew we had this concept of every human being out there is a potential person you could throw into the ranks and still broke point out no any society shoot at people who were warriors and people who make pottery and things like that reform up and sometimes they can be militias but he points out in the persian army were lots more than you thought it up a vampire that's i should produce there are historical analogies all over the place for why that might be nonetheless however large disarming is that the persian king of kings is leading me personally that somehow manages to get behind alexander the great army cuts off his lawyer for treat blocks his supply and you know if you believe the story director for our says alexander must've been shocked to find the same hopped out of that happening historians argue over whether or not this was doubly burdened master stroke by the persian generals or was it sort of an accident and the kind of them themselves bogus want 'em on alexander supply line this fact that was why if you look at the battle but about to happen it looks like the man nice to be turned upside down the army's appear to be on the wrong side but that's because the positions that reversed and that's why alexander's coming north and abortions are going south and they need in this coastal plain so you have the ocean on one side one flight is guarded by the sea you have the mountains to maybe two and a half miles in the other direction to get this coastal plain that turned out to be your battlefield he will be critiques from the ancients about the persian decision to fight at the spot because they will say that the two miles or maybe a little bit longer it's not wide enough planes to the persians to really take it down into the ship your numbers to constraint there are handyman by the hills almanzar the ceiling other but remember these are the same people the puppet were six hundred thousand persians there maybe so maybe a little distorted view of how it really was for me though when you look at what's about to happen you're seeing in my opinion but a lot people feel this way alexander jarriel acid test first time maybe you could make a good case these not live in office dad's fields and that everything he done so far something that a lot of people probably could've done that having been handed one alexander was headed i mean my goodness she could have a pop the king with those generals of philips and stands if they didn't kill you they're murderers while guys mean you know you will survive in that setting we call a mafia crime family type dynamic unless some of those guys could run this whole thing probably on autopilot this to me is about where you see alexander stand out something really special they're people will say that even after this battle is still good bad or upon that that's how good this army was in that's how good the command structure was a mean which really it really quite a step up and yet in this battle as the duke of wellington supposedly said that how waterloo spells can be in your ron the thing which you don't normally associate with alexander who's got the sun god like quality in court the friend maybe by his own publicists and media staff we don't even think he comes close to losing but in this battle it's in your wrong thing both sides will line up on opposite sides of a small stream and string usually uncover to deploy as you know what the little known fun part about ancient battle will even up to napoleonic times and later that it takes a long time to deploy i think about how many people you're talking about it ought to be a specific position so both sides take hours at this in a place like ancient greece know why cultures i should have always sought a cultural gentleman's agreement and if you could call the more we say things like or don't go don't know we attacked anybody else blubber brief ready right now most ago we go out vikings do that ancient greeks didn't we're fighting cross culturally all the gentleman's agreement on the window so bull's eyes right opposite sides of the stream their own using light infantry cavalry to keep the other side for messing with him too much will they get the soldiers interest rates box we're told us last minute moves again at one side or another and countering this encounter ring and basically the persians line up a whole budget calgary on their right flank and their plan according to the abyss is argued about you but arthur farrow on he's a good ol' trees for the fall and and he goes with the general agreement that the portions are trying to do hammering handle tactic and souls alexander it just doing it on opposite sides of the battlefield to alexander it'll be the charge on his right flank and try to crush the persian laugh like it and sweep around and go attack the persian gulf from behind and the persian certain atrocity the exact same thing on the opposite side of the battlefield with the mast almost all their calgary now i can't help but think how much of a morale boost it has to beat your average persian soldiers there you may be facing this demon king guidice darth vader character all you have to do is look at your own battle line than a hundred two hundred three hundred yards down the line you see the sacred chariot of persians king of kings drawn by the sacred white horses and surrounded by the royal guard this guy is not quite a god king like us they were or something but is about one a tiny have step below that have to feel pretty confident if you're on the persian siding you look in kenya king's is right here we said earlier alexander the great is macedonians head of state fighting in hand hand combat in these battles this is the first time that the head of state for macedonia faces on the opposite side on the battlefield hundred two hundred yards away the start the head of state of the empire he's trying to take down and i love that i mean that's for my history of that video when i was a kid to assist in one word during the cold war that ronald reagan had the soviet union fighting hand in hand in a cage or in the minor something i try to come up with like a modern analogy under also ridiculous batista fawning imagine the second world war where you're fighting his way in one saw on the battlefield as winston churchill on the british forces of the look across no man's land hundred two hundred yards across the field and they're surrounded by you may be the mounted s. s. lifeguard is that all fiddler it you're on the other side and an unknown not you can get yourself if you want to you can go get them this is once again we're alexander looks very homeric in the sense that he almost did how strong the sources she wants to make this personal i'm not sure the king of persia dies not wanting to weigh in on the controversy of all the arguments over how these battles may have gone our lives porter for all motorist early in the college him do it after saying that the persians were using a hammer and anvil strategy he goes on to say that alexander reduced to pieces quote ironically alexander's plan was essentially the same as his opponents family can see clearly in this battle of the traditions of ancient near eastern and greco macedonian warfare and confused alexander hope to break through the area says left center in a cavalry charge into we'll round against the rear of the persian center in an identical hammer and anvil operation as alexander near the persian position he forced his army to advance of the slow pace just as the persian said donegan cy reception not the finally when the macedonians were well within beauchamp probably in about a distance of a hundred yards alexander ordered an attack on the double with the change and suckow the room is right supported by infantry close behind it he charged the river at a gallop persians killer sure son from other line probably fell back in panic creating confusion in the main infantry line on the persian left center and alexander smashed the window and for this bottle is often portrayed so that we sig install him because alexander is blowing away in the opponents that he had his cavalry are facing from them the problem is is he's having problems in all the other sectors of the battlefield in the center reese having problems against the greek mercenaries hired by the persians and is left flank is in real trouble does that for the persian version of the hammer naval tactics are hammering and they put all their cavalry on the right flank and now the poor macedonian calvary really greeted the ceiling fell for him there last flight is trying to hold their own without collapsing so alexander has to manage to finish this about old from the in the distant position he has someone flight before his center in his lap like collapses the sources say alexander in keeping with the original plan swings his cavalry to his laughed and begins attacking the rear of the persian line that is going to be able to win the battle the air before his old army collapses and then traditionally we're told he spots the alternative one way to destroy an ancient army is to destroy the ancient army know the way to destroy the interim you simply to kill the commander as always work of course but the commander's the head of state and in your garden king chances are better than normal traditionally alexander spies his counterpart not that far away and in true homeric fashion makes white for him with a few hundred of his closest companions historian peter green picks up the narrative court the moment you located the great king is chariot alexander charge straight for it in every macedonia warrior that they shared his ambition the defense was equally her role at gary's certainly knew i command loyalty among the wing in barons offering is his brother leading the royal household helper read fought desperately to protect him dying men and horses lay piled in while confusion alexander received a wound in the thigh for jerry is himself or so it was claimed that this is true it shows how close he came to attaining his objective the horses of dare resist chariot covered with wounds and terrified by the corpses lying all about them why he's been weird half those are for a moment there was real danger that they might carry the great king it had longed for well examiners lions theory is abandoning royal protocol in this emergency grab the wings with his own hands a second lighter cherry was somehow found and brought up gary is seeing himself in imminent danger of capture scrambled into it and fled the field and cool the king of kings of persia god in his chair religion in front of all these men whose morale was so hardened by the fact during your god again it was there with them sharing the risk to not afraid of the demon janus darth vader that guy was running away this fast as he could go can i make you think of all the wonders of fact the magic power of having the god keen your god king they are just a boomerang some time like this does that would be better had the king not even been there when all that is he in turn tail and flee his army which had been fighting pretty darn well maybe winning the sender certainly winning now the persian right flank against the macedonians other calvary wing it doesn't agree it's not an unusual thing and ancient battle by the way as we told you officers are important generals really important to generally sure head of state as well well if they run away or die it's not unusual for the army doesn't melt away in this case were told you know again if you body into numbers hundreds of thousands of people began a choking panicked retreat with the bodies become so fake alexander supposedly in pursuit of the persian king of kings been crossed rivers on the piles of corpses donald was that one of the key battles in ancient history because no matter what happens next is not a fluke anymore alexander used in the process of toppling the persian empire and the mood historically speaking seemed to change now we start getting correspondence we're told between the king of kings of persia and this macedonia warlord wallace on the controls a nice chunk of what was up until few months ago the persian empire very different tone between these two men now what's more love alexander generals people he inherited from his father restore him to think that what they've conquered to this point looks pretty good and maybe you might wanna walk away from the gambling table in las vegas at this point what would you come on rather than gamble anymore you know when overreach but they're not alexander and he is a fact continually likes to point out to them traditionally it to this point the story we're the persians began to offer alexander deals he supposed to get letters or envoys the ancient sources say from the persian king basically offering him territory and other things in exchange for deciding you have now off i think a little piece inside me died our rapier bransford modern history he suggested that all these traditional accounts which all the historian tiger breeding took as gospel are almost certainly nothing that macedonian propaganda from the time period as i said earlier you know it's hard not to try to figure out what's going on with the normal source problem she had the macedonian propaganda to terry confusing and unfortunately for us some of the best stuff then is stop the briana would have us believe is the direct fabrication for more real world purposes nonetheless you know you can actually tell quite a bit about other things by the propaganda and in this case we use to him but i still we she's actually like the official we'll from the desk of alexander the great type communication between alexander and areas is instead a piece of propaganda were the macedonia's twenty gave you a feel for certain relationship in the relationship is this new one at least in the eyes of king alexander as she calls and softens propagandistic note and the king of kings of the ancient and ran the persian empire he refers to nearly as for years this is from hillary and remember supposedly a source who was there with alexander and describes response two official know he's supposed to i gotta remember picking maybe or propaganda from the king of kings approaches sank you give me back my family which alexander seized as booty after is to stay where they are we doing bringing your family to the battlefield but the king of kings didn't alexander snatched him up that was his family back he's gonna make a deal he proposes a deal to alexander who's a shorter family back to watch white back to kids back darien as the rest of the note back to the area saying quote come to me therefore as you would come to the lord of the continent of asia did you fear to suffer any indignity at my hands then send some of your friends and i will give them the proper guarantees tom van and asked me for your mother your wife and your children anything else that you please bring shot album whenever beside you can persuade me to give you in future let any communication you wish to make with me the address to the king of all asia do not write to me years to unequal everything you possess is now mine so few should want anything to let me know when the proper terms right shall take steps to deal with you was a criminal if on the other and you wish to dispute your throne the stand and fight for it and do not run away or wherever you may hide yourself be sure i shall seek you out in school all how can you now want that to be true right there's another correspondence is supposed to have happened right before the big climactic battle were leading up to worry now the deal was supposed to be offered alexander won that basically gives them in everything beyond their wildest dreams until just called wore off at that point and alexander's general perry neo who's left over from is more conservative that it is supposed to say that's a great deal i'd take that deal of fire or alexander and in this great legendary mythical figure alexander's both the replied i would take it too if i were part menial boehme i had dropped him like a moment right there but the minute you start getting correspondence like this any king would know you gonna go get another army and so while alexander deals of the barges sieges including a terrible one of the phoenician city call tyre the king of persia put together an army mostly based around the peoples for his eastern territories in east l. y. old nasty warrior people most of the mounted most of the marchers many of the more work for miss eastern territories could all live together and in three thirty wannabe see you we're told alexander sort of making towards babylon as something the persians can have happened because that's the financial capital goods got all sorts of importance so the persian king takes his new army of his which is supposed to be extremely numerous extremely cavalry heavy finds a spot that alexander is gonna go through all the alderson tense moment sister were alexander's action going to go but eventually the finest battlefield we're told that the king it actually levels this battlefield to make sure all the little pieces of the rusher cleared away so it's a nice flat place where all of his troops could really operate well and you know in the soul of all wonderfully ironic so book and as whole piece here is this climactic battle with representative what we said of the very brutal world of ancients yuri and the glory of ancient mesopotamia take on the newcomers here the guy who's got a murder that old world where does it happen writing in the ruins of the glorious syrian capital of nineveh we're xylophone it's all his go see it we talked about the statue of liberty and a half submerged in the surf moment seems perfect spot to decide who's going to do to take all the marbles here we're told that the persian army and the hellenic league which is alexander and the greeks macedonians of the camp between four and seven miles from each other and the traditional story which is part of the phone is that alexander had his troops beaten sleep well on the persians were so afraid of a night attack that they kept their people like battle stations all my tugged by the time the battle happens we're all tired the ancient sources say alexander intercepts letters from the persians to his own troops inciting him to try to assassinate alexander says we said earlier if you're confronted with these disruptive extraordinary people when we do to level the playing field may be just kill 'em so maybe they were ought to do that maybe there's more macedonian propaganda it's on the first day of october three thirty one b. c. traditionally to teach armies deployed against each other the persian army is she huge of course you would expect nothing less from the ancient sources but this time developed on themselves mariana remember supposedly has a direct line to a guy who was there and what are known in so's the persians had a million infantry lined up on this field a million and forty thousand cavalry i'm still broke a hundred years ago road if you had twelve thousand cavalry that they would be impossible to manage nonetheless want again that we have no idea what the real numbers are alexander suppose to have forty seven thousand men that's a pretty specific number seven thousand of those cows or read it's probably safe to assume he was on number two three one maybe the sources say that the persian army so numerous it's battle line is much much longer than alexander's and overlaps it by a huge amount of stretches off into the distance it may have been almost three miles long and so alexander to account for this to so the plans for having people available to deal with being surrounded if that happened she angles both his flanks over backwards so the summit does attack from the side direction facing the right direction he stations and troops behind the main battle line with four to go get anybody gets around us an otherwise he sets up an pretty much standard macedonian template style he in the companion cameraman right flank the happiest lightning bolt hammer poor poor media when the rest of the cavalry left flank with orders to hold off the enemy attack until alexander can win the whole thing up and then the anvil this giant massive human beings in the middle sixteen ranks deep maybe an eighteen foot pike and stretching themselves in over a distance of like a half mile to mourn it's crazy to think about what wonderful platform of maneuver that is how do you deal with that if you're the persians isn't this the common standard probably have all along against us heavy greek macedonian styling country or member to battle the grudges to use train features the river in the high bank to break up the cohesion of these troops but on this flat plain you can ask to bring your own causes a disorder in the persians in contrast to what his stories when i was growing up is to say that they did learn anything they could never do any better than hire great stuff i greet they did have things to break up the greek formations and they brought them to this battle they were needed the first of these things it's fascinating for mr oracle standpoint 'cause it's probably the first time creeks ever saw this amber there must've been the number one talked about item is the macedonians soldiers looked across the battlefield and saw for the first time elephants indian elephants traditionally about fifteen of them that must've been something to talk your neighbor not in the ranks issue we need to come into contact and later evidence we shall the elephants are wonderful tool against the macedonian army because they're good against both the hammer and the anvil elements against that charging heavy cavalry elephants are fantastic cavalry using a commuter them if they ever do get caught by the elephant it's awful for the cavalry but against the densely packed phalanx they could be murderers you would think it would be easy to kill but later evidence shows not so easy and you did for five of those things stomping around unintentionally created crowd of people standing shoulder to shoulder and it could be very ugly indeed if you follow walk with foreign troops to take advantage of that carnage that's not a bad strategy or breaking up these clothes or troops is definitely a part the persian strategy doesn't look like the elephants were what they were relying upon to do it instead they have something right out like a mad max film role of those nineteen fifties been her movies they have outside it chariots and they have like two hundred of them station all along there from lines i've always thought this was an interesting weapon nobody knows what they look like everybody tries to recreate a visual image of it from the literary sources in everyone's take as little different to imagine some combination of heavy chariot with kind blades restore negative though any major you should run into as the equivalent of about three foot long swords one each sticking out from the end of the wheels of the chariot and yogurt something projecting forward from the cab of the chariot like this be your warplanes or blades facing downward underneath the cab so footage i human lawnmower they were stories earlier in history two or three of these things attack the greek phalanx that was forming up and created the time of carnage an incursion cavalry swooped in to take advantage of the chaos and disorder and destroyed the formation so he can see how the person to thinking and as two or three sides chariots were able to do that you know ten twenty thirty forty fifty years ago but my two hundred of them all on our front lines to it's not a bad idea is it certainly shows that they were thinking outside the box a little bit contrary to the historical but take on the side before i was growing up and then they had our me essentially deployed into long long lines each one composed of several ranks of troops to front line was almost entirely cavalry the line behind it mostly infantry and seemingly slightly useless infantry almost like cannon fodder that's the traditional view any why and in the midst of all in the senate the traditional place sacred sherrie dean surrounded by his royal guard again is the great king of kings of persia darius the third still able apparently to command the loyalty of enough people to raise an army has begun to here despite the events two years ago and as i look at this persian army on this field i think to myself you know not a bad set up i'd take that army if you told me i had to fight one side of the other but you know and i'm absolutely using twenty twenty hindsight here although i wonder what alexander the great was thinking if you're looking at that barney in trying to figure out we're each week accordions was she sought to the weak point might be sitting in the sacred chariot what if that armies weak point is the psychology of its cause i divine ruler maybe it's a sign that alexander thinks that this is a dangerous army in the ad is deployed well he doesn't just charge into some spot he can see can break through that would be standard operating procedure the sausage spot this case he goes to us typical plan b. which is to use tactical maneuvering on the battlefield to see if he can create that spot to get awfully or murder protected any can you give them to raise up there are men expose them vulnerable underbelly as soon as alexander she's that vulnerable spot he will launch himself like to re peering into the finals of the no enemies of allah rwanda belly as he always does in this palace will lot of the early maneuvers are about alexander start moving his army were told kind of forward but to the right to the right would take alexander's army into rough ground ross ground is worthless chariot couldn't operate in the king had had that land in front of his chariots level for region detail when alexander move the battlefield to be since our cavalry that had been in his front rank to stop alexander and igor on his flight did you get this a cavalry about a woman reply to develop footballs signed screening more troops into it but this is working for alexander because he's planned have cavalry defeat and there were the persians are taking there is from their front line denoting apart dear frontline at a certain point alexander with the exquisite timing is known for decides that they do need to do now so that that's a week spot and once again you know the activation darth vader in this case to demon king at the head of his troops charging in the way to look like a bad guy it in the two guys behind them and then four guys behind them i mean he used the tip of the spear literally and the head of state charges into the gap she's on the left center of the persian line just right near the royal guard and jerry us for it in the last bottle you sort of had the impression from the sources no way was redundant maybe alexander had never intended to go after the king that you did it he got into the back of the ranks it became the quickest way to achieve these goals this bout you get the impression that that was de gaulle maybe he decided that this guy was skittish with amy flynn shoes because alexander goaded him in the home air crash and again and this is when you get into the idea of this guy maybe being the weak link in the armory does point whoa whoa whoa of his predecessors and down in the situation it's about to occur to the situation it's about to occur is that this guy is going to relive what the scariest moment is on his life right now to rise to thirty has almost certainly when you imagine he's human being seen this in his dreams before alexander and his murderers macedonians smashing into the guard this round him which is like a human wall of people can be gaining two caught and hack and stabbed their way person by person your bodyguard towards him as he watches in his chariot there is a fragment of a mosaic that they found in campana which is a copy of what was thought to be near contemporary regional it's famous they probably shows the scene from the battle of guesses but it's the same scene we're seeing a reply must've seen what to reply to the king of persia two and in that scene you see alexander on his horse stabbing one of the royal guardsmen in front of the persian chariot and the king of persia with our eyes as big as saucers it's like the moma before he takes off at the battle of the essence i have to say hasn't been trying to look at this from the persian side the whole way through i have a lot of sympathy for wearing darius the third is right now in the sky wasn't really born bred to be king he's obviously braver member he's a guy who killed the rebel leader of the barbarian leader in single combat the decision to hire gets criticized for doing something i would think all but the most extraordinary if people would do because for the second time in a row he's going to look at alexander and the conning machine getting nearer to him as he watches his kinsman slaughtering from him and he's going to turn around and ron even the guy who will fight and kill a person with edged weapons mano mano might be forgiving you would think would instead of facing a single individually he's facing a crowd of mountain killers we're gonna roll over him michael way of how many people would stand there in the chariot and wait patiently is the cut their way towards you especially butare been through this once before this had to be the biggest nightmare this guy in pad for the last two years and he reduced to a shovel all over again issue either would say pick up the wanderlust again about the ability of a single person to impact history as we all know it's it's usually all kinds of things working together and coming off each other in giant trends unforeseen things like that we talked about how extraordinary individuals can so sometimes push the envelope and and make the difference and then came the meet your often a different direction and change the impetus myles connor things what's the opposite of an extraordinary person what if you give somebody a position that is blessed them what you could normally expect to having key ways sound systems based on call on your way the top enough theoretical merit based system to see this last of the time but sometimes inherited systems are systems like this around with this guy got a job about suppose employees inner who put him into the royal position 'cause he thought he could control them what if that guy just an ordinary person for the most part it winds up in this extraordinary role well sometimes you can get away with it after almost monarchies have all sorts of safeguards in things in place to keep some less than ten was a monarch from destroying the whole thing i will wanna make a stupid military decision that's why you got all those generals advisers when certain key ways there are no safeguards for what one single the law which you could have hoped for individual the opposite of extraordinary what they could do you sometimes history comes down to twins and forces in big stuff like that and sometimes it comes down to one guy deciding to run away for the second straight time we're sporting erupted the moment the king of persia does the unforgettable again things are gonna badly for the persians i would say they're losing but they still have a shot just like they still have a shot at the battle of this is when the king turned tail and run what she turned tail and run at the chances of an appalling upset upset go way way down and while we hear nothing about the elephants in this battle from the sources and while the ferocious looking scientist chariots turn out to be easily countered by the macedonians the persian gallery is living up to the height but foley and they have alexander in a good deal of difficulty the sources say that even as alexandra bring on the heels of the persian king pursuing him that he gets a message that his laugh line pore pore pore mean you'll use as usual fighting off huge numbers of people in the holding his own but starting to fall apart alexander as stop the pursuit come help the purchase of also broken through the middle of the formation a couple places were gaps appeared so it is far from a steamroller lazy and his party has to come back and help and their son ta fighting in one area and the bottom line is that for the moment the person who has the crown alexander wants has gotten away the bottom line is that never be able to raise another field army like this to contest the empire azinger may not have the crown for all intents and purposes even as the mopping up top of that bomb or going on disguise the king of persia the midst some on toehold numbers of corpses the continued to pile up as the fugitives from the spot or continually run down by pursuing cavalry for what must have been dates it's a holocaust to the persian side and alexander will spend literally years quarreling all of the hot spots in the persian empire that rise up against him either with all the wonderful propaganda does come down to us about alexander be welcomed flowers and rose again that was put in from among all these kinds of things if you got a murder rish european warlord coming to your town you'd be wise to do that to do that doesn't mean he wasn't better thought of as some cases on the persians although a lot of the recent history suggest persian rule was more popular than alexander's rule the has a wonderful little short of car make justice in this whole thing if you look at it from the persian corny view and the chinese did this all the time was conquerors when you are the great cultural power of your day as the persians were they were indian hair richards of this culture and the greeks were the rustic outsiders the macedonians even more so over time alexander would become more and more persian i just dressing like them acquiring his own people to act more like them in terms of treating him more like a persian king there are a lot of historians to consider it to the last king of kings in persia he's the guy who just destroyed the persian army the battle down to mellow out and when my mind the tomb exclamation point on the story where and eventually rides always the eastern part of the empire and captures the great city upper sample is supersedes too burn royal palace down either intentionally as a symbol of payback for all those wars the search is in darius for more than a century ago orson additions reporting sort of a drunken mistake i'm famous or suggests that alexander was told that he should not burned down his own stop with the realization that because of a sudden the demon king has gone native alexander's conquest put european dying nests in charge of these ancient civilizations had never been under the european he'll before anne rule banning some cases for centuries when the locals and the natives eventually get needed dynasties backing to control their own societies it will be precious little of that pre l. exam dream world that hadn't been bleached out laughed alexander's always considered to be the end of an era in western tradition is considered to be a good thing he spreading helen is i'm not always part of the planet that didn't happen creating this wonderful makes it will explode into a fantastic culture that's the way the conqueror would see it probably not the way it would be seen that on the concord archaeologist warwick a ball is one of a bone chip export to pour not that much of what alexander get historical credit for actually it should be attributed to the empire he brought down all quota story in j. a. m. roberts talking about the persian empire founded by cyrus the great a couple hundred years before alexander the great and he says about it to court right across the old world persia suddenly pulled people's into a common experience indians needs babylonians libyans greeks jews when the shuns egyptians were for the first time all administered by one empire whose equitas isn't showed how far civilization had already calm the idea of distinct units of history in the near east was over the base of the future world civilizations in the making end quote what are we so strange about hearing this line that alexander spread helen is was it makes it sound like he's bringing enlightenment to a barn shelf good natives when in fact the better analogy here for ancient persia is roman empire and the better analogy for alexander is not to bring your of light but something much more came to visit goff or to look aha now the empire that alexander's destroying is the greatest the world had ever seen and the way it's often portrayed in history the story in the stereotypes memo tea from the home team cheering for western civilization the city was somehow forcing a law of the jungle that made sense he's the line in the taking out the inner city antelope from the herd it's nature's way it strengthens everything i mean if you get into the wooden shoes and soak slippers the persian empire this point is like the roman empire the end to they have silk slippers for the silk slippers but let's not forget was wearing silk slippers blast and found out he really liked them as we said alexander really went all parisian maybe the last persian king of kings never mind the nave killed darius the theory that never stop the persian for being king of kings but while he may be a king of kings and while he may actually fit the motif exerts he's is supposed to fit absolute power corrupting alexander absolutely helped along by a terminal case about alcoholism probably his successors could see no such need to put on a persian or local facade they will later but initially this is a bunch of europeans openly ruling the series that it never been ruled by europeans before at warwick ball says the next seventy five years is going to be one of the darkest eras in terms of what life most unlike for the locals the people in west asia up until the time of the mongol conquests thank goodness they at least got a little helen is most part the deal life's all about trade offs rioting and don't forget even if it is not true you need to believe in ancient history i'm on record as saying that i think mostly on have a website and if you look what standing in your way we suggest that square space might be the answer to your problems swear space of course we all one platform that makes it fast and easy to create your own professional web site or portfolio or online store could 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