Episode: Show 55 - Blueprint for Armageddon VI


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Show 55 - Blueprint for Armageddon VI
The Americans are coming, but will the war be over by the time they get there? Germany throws everything into a last series of stupendous attacks in the West while hoping to avoid getting burned by a fire in the East they helped fan.

Dan Carlin's Hardcore History
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Dan Carlin's Hardcore History > Show 50 - Blueprint for Armageddon I

The planet hadn't seen a major war between all the Great Powers since the downfall of Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815. But 99 years later the dam breaks and a Pandora's Box of violence engulfs the planet.
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Automated Transcript (Why is this transcription so bad?)
they show sponsored by square space the easiest way to create a beautiful website blogger online store the score is based on common entered the offer code hardcore and check out to get ten percent off oh sure but here's the sixth and final part of the six part series on the first world war traditionally we see just people listen to them in order by relies on everyone's traditional there may be a few historical dyslexic stop there and if that's the case it might not matter to you the order you listening and if that's the case please feel free to jump right in that those of you for the previous episodes welcome back to part six as we said the final part not counting an extra show of blueprint for armageddon i'm not big government neither am i going on the in with a low ebb given in coming weeks and telephone well have her gone i'm bernard have about the yield changed what i had had a combat unit at how bout how the street outside one tried to build more than that had all but don't let while that i'm laying pipes and loses the meantime do huh and hit a home that one to hook that that he had why why will lose and examination and those what rural little bit received an question and that we could be the martyrdom of dog and their who's in that event i'm phil coleman back beach florida coleridge history what's the most dangerous weapon in the world i've had this discussion many times with many people and i've seen it go all over the place but generally you focus on nuclear weapons because that's an obvious thing to put you in the number one spot for most dangerous weapon in the world but there are some that are little bit more insidious and potentially works take for example biological weapons think about some of the worst playing to that ever infested mankind now imagine human ingenuity a laboratory used to make such plagues worse now imagine releasing those upon your enemy the reason is so extra dangerous is because of the way they spread and the fact that one shoe opened a pandora's box of biological warfare is generally lose the ability to shock the box again you make stranger few nuclear weapons with an appalling can decide to stop want you open up that box unleash super smallpox or what have you you can't turn that off again another reason is very dangerous is that super smallpox as undifferentiated when the people here targeted and everyone else but it may spread to it's a bit of the doomsday device when you think about how something like that to backfire on the very people who decide to use it it's a little like deciding to get rid of your next door neighbor in your apartment complex by burning down his place the potential for the fire there for you is very real but sometimes if you run out of options gambling like that might make sense late nineteen seventeen where we are in the story even though we've been using sliding time scale that's about where we are in late nineteen seventeen the germans are desperate enough to try all sorts of things including the equivalent of biological warfare but instead of using some sort of contagious disease they're using contagious ideas but you might be able to make the case and the situation an actual disease with him for for paul whenever i think about this idea think about napoleon the famous french emperor from late seventeen hundreds early eighteen hundreds was such a force in europe napoleon was someone who spread an intellectual contagion remember professors in college suggesting that this was the thing that scared the teens and czars and emperors of europe the most about napoleon because napoleon rose in the wake of the french revolution the arrow where frenchmen were infused with these ideas of revolution of the quality of republicanism all these things that scene in a relatively moderate to people today even beneficial but those were the scariest things on earth to people who were kings and emperors and czars and many of them figured they would eventually be able to throw the french out of these territories and get their throws back but they were less sure about their ability to cleanse their population of these dangerous radical ideas that french occupying troops had spread to them in fact many historians believe that the famous revolutionary period in the middle eighteen hundred's was the blossoming of seeds that were planted by napoleon's troops as they occupied all these countries talk to the locals in splendid the equivalent of an intellectual contagion of course if you wanna those types who would view the ideas of the american revolution or the french revolution or the ideas of the thinkers who helped prompt those revolutions as a negative thing that perhaps you would view the eighteen hundreds is an example not the seed flowering into some wonderful plant but as a virus beginning to morph and mutate an evolving to new one may be more dangerous for us the eighteen hundreds years up until that time period almost certainly degree is pure read for intellectual examination and forms a government that's ever existed a part of it is because of the increase in communication at how people all over europe can begin to have conferences and discussions and wait for magazines and newspapers that each of the region have all sorts all of attempts at trying to apply a rationality and logic to the idea of government as most of the government in a place like europe at this time period are things that have existed in one form or another for centuries there was some one in the distant past was a great military leader was stabbed wishes of dynasty pools for hundreds of years and no one ever really asks whether or not that's the right thing to do or they were not smart or eating out in the eighteen hundred's people began to think along with it changes in science all kinds of different things that maybe people could come up with smarter approach us but it was wide disagreement on what that smart approach might be as some of the great figures of the eighteen hundreds who played roles in his would become extremely important figures in the nineteen hundreds in fact someone who was involved in trying to come up with the system that seemed to be an improvement over what your purse living within the eighteen hundred's explodes in importance in nineteen seventeen exactly where we are in this first world war story he was renowned in his own day with his own circles but he certainly wasn't household name he becomes a historical superstar in nineteen seventy and there's a little bit of irony did that because in nineteen seventeen disfigured and did thirty four thirty five years what are the best or one of the worst aspects of an idea depending on where you can see three gooder dangerous is the fact that it doesn't die the originator in nineteen seventeen all of us and a boisterous renamed karl marx marx is often credited with being the originator of modern communism or marxism i think that's probably giving him all little too much credit afterall very few people come up with ideas are nowhere remarks like most people stood on the shoulders of giants with his ideas he was reading guys like the german philosopher hey gold lot of other people but if a guy like hey eagles an example of the intellectual contagion the march is an example of someone who mutated further of course perhaps the ironic tragedy of marks is that marks didn't get to be the implement jurors his ideas his ideas were adapted and morphed into different forms like many figure sure history if you could go back and show karl marx how he's treated in the history books and things he's associated with i think you might jump off a bridge a lot of figures like that or remembered for things that are almost a hundred and eighty degrees different but they devoted their lives to working for march thought he was doing a good bit any today we think about his role in the deaths of tens of millions of people and the creation of some of the worst slave states in all human history if you read marx and find out what he was all about that's exactly what he was hoping to for phantom stop and eliminate did you bring karl marx back from the dead and have him analyze where things when walnut don't be surprised at all if he blamed the botched implementation for the way things turned out we might argue that marches ideas from the get go work work but i think he would probably say to you never got a chance to see what he wanted because he wasn't the guy to build the house he was the architect maybe or maybe the last guy did design blueprints the guy you actually built the dwelling a guy named vladimir lenin and i'm reminded of a cool by the writer aldous huxley about how ideas and up influencing people and it's not so much a question always on how many people who they are huxley world quote it is possible to argue with that really influential book is not that which converts ten millions of casual readers but rather that which converts the very few would any given moment succeed in seizing power marxists oral have been influential modern world not so much because they were bestsellers but because among their few readers were two men called respectively lenin in mussolini and quo vladimir lenin is the change point between theory and application when it comes to modern day communism dc implement earth marches the originator than lenin's the implement earth and he's a figure that combines some rather unusual qualities in one human being often times the intellectual on the deep thinker and a philosopher is a different sort of human being than the person of action writer for the man of action and oftentimes to two different kinds of people when an islamic the strange individuals the possesses the qualities of both an intellectual and a person of action and his dynamic abilities were recognized even by the people who were his opponents take for example the description lloyd george the man who is the prime minister of britain during really the second half of the first world war george will write his memoirs nineteen thirties and he will say b. s. vladimir lenin quote it was a communist but we'll stop analysis to does not always in doubt which possess or with green administrative ability it is not incompatible with a genius for government and no one can doubt that lenin was one of the greatest leaders of men ever thrown up in any epic and co he then goes on to compare him to what he calls a plague bacillus lennon was certainly a fanatic most revolutionaries are people who tend to not see too many shades of gray things tend to be black and white winston churchill famously to find a fanatic is someone who can change their mind and won't change the subject and churchill had his own opinion of london once again evoked in this idea of an intellectual contagion he also compared blend into some sort of bacteria and he blamed the germans for unleashing it on europe playing an active role in implementing a form of germ warfare that would have horrible effect down the road sure sure world called lenin was sent ginger russia by the germans in the same way that you might send a file containing a culture of typhoid or colorado to be poured in the water supply of a great city i worked with amazing accuracy and co that brings us to the third person who was very important in implementing this intellectual contagion warfare kind of approach facilitator marches the originator and lenin is be implemented lenny needed some help to get to the point where he could in fact if you will anyone in the beginning of nineteen seventeen vladimir lenin is in exile he's living in switzerland next to us sausage factory on the second floor over rented flat with his wife trying to make a living but in what you might call the professional revolutionary business he'd like to get back to russia in nineteen seventeen because it's apparent that huge things are happening in russia bazaars been overthrown a provisional government is taken over but when you can get for more use to russia is a war going on and there's a lot of territory in between switzerland in russia to deal with and then he gets some help from the facilitator the leader of germany's military and for the most part by this time civilian government derek luton door little dwarf and germans have long been associated with linens rise to power the exact amount of responsibility to germany has that story is debatable one has been debated since nineteen seventy one of the reasons historians have a hard time nailing down definitive answers is because it's a lot of those things that falls under the category of all would call today a covert operation us or black ops top secret stop both sides in the war were trying to undermine the cohesiveness and stability of their opponents and a potentially wonderful way to do that was to give money or arms or sometimes military advisers to revolutionaries an insurrection asks a breakaway groups and ethnic separatist and people who lived in countries that were colonies of some of the great power toward their independence and both sides as i said we're doing this there's a lot of allegations about german involvement for example in the famous easter rising in nineteen sixteen in ireland how much germans aboard that's questionable to barter reason why use nobody was exactly advertising in these top-secret affairs most of the stories traced german involvement at least as far back as nineteen fifteen most of those stories suggested he was contacts with leftist individuals who pointed out to the german government that there were shared goals on the part of germany and some of these russian revolutionary figures take for example lenin and his particular offshoot of the communist in a mainstream known as the bolsheviks one of the things lenin was calling for was peace that's exactly what the germans want from the russians by nineteen seventeen they want the russians out of the war the russians were tying down millions of german troops on the eastern front that the germans would love to be able to switch over to the western front to fight the exhausted french and british before the americans arrived in any sort of decisive numbers now the big gamble here of course is that the bolsheviks while they may share a common goal in giving russia to leave the war i'm not germany's friends london dorf deciding to use them as a tool is it can be adding another boxer into the world war one boxing match we use an analogy throughout the series the idea to boxers fighting each other part of london door scandal here izzy he's talking about introducing a third boxer into the ring one that wants to fight both the other two boxers but little dwarf has a pretty good idea but he'll go after the war loads door from the germans are fighting first the bolsheviks in laminar preaching the equivalent of a global civil war the american president woodrow wilson is calling the first world war the war to end all wars lenin nazism idea of the war to end all wars or she story we're mulligan points out lenin's idea of the war in all wars is revolutionary war the bolsheviks are calling for the pork and working classes of all nations to rise up and overthrow their rulers germany is only a little less vulnerable but that's a message that russia is this is white linen dwarf is playing with fire when this case plate he stands really good chance of getting burned this very same weapon the heat in nineteen seventeen decides to help use against russia the actual means to get lenin from switzerland back to russia is provided by the germans in april nineteen seventies we're going backwards a little bit in the story the germans provide a single sealed train car for lenin and his cohorts historians have disagreed over who would demanded to be sealed some say the germans what this train car sealed so that when lenin is cole porter going to germany the intellectually in fact the germans on the way through others say was lenin in the bolsheviks who demanded it the last thing that they one was to have people in russia find out that they were accepting help from the country russia was fighting all we have had the people who happen to be capitalist to you unless whomever it was to make the decision as the train car goes through germany is a famous incident were lemon or what his cohorts looked out the window and happened to notice there are no mature men that anywhere to be seen it's children and women and old people germany's which are male population is seated dead wounded or at the fronds lenin in his party been warm bath tub warfare region go buy a boat for little bit the money back on another train the train will then arrived in the pack for grad formerly saint petersburg the russian capital just before midnight on a per sixteenth nineteen seventy they will be a cloud waiting to welcome him because like many other dangerous radicals lenin is coming home from exile those are for decades and in exile in always very formidable intellectual contagion is and those are the ones he wasn't executing by the way linens brother had been executed by the tsar now all these people were coming back to russia at roughly the same time creating the seditious soup politically speaking in russia during this time period and believe me russia was ready for it they're in this precarious situation after the tsar falls were you have sort of a mile moderate government bombed knows the provisional government sharing power with these groups of soldiers and peasants and workers who've gotten together recollected leaders and we're short of trying to lead from the bottom in their sharing power ring and not very comfortable sort of an arrangement with the provincial government it is absolutely a set up for problems and yet she kind of an act if you look for them and think about what these people are trying to do they are trying to run the country after toppling the regime that'd been in power for centuries this is a towel thing to do with the best of times but this isn't the best of times this is the equivalent of a bus passenger train to hold the wheel when the boss is already careening off a cliff they needed a guy like lenin arriving any gets off the platform panel little before midnight and tells us enthusiastic rodham supporters quote but the radical imperialist war is the beginning of the civil war throughout europe the world wide socialist revolution has already dawned germany's seizing the day now the whole of european capitalism a clash sailors comrades we have to fight for socialist revolution to fight until the proletariat we this bowl victory long live the world wide socialist revolution end quote even lenin's friends thought this way too optimistic in fact at that very moment the current russian government power sharing arrangement was trying to put together in the offensive against the germans scheduled for july first with an army that was a sketchy at best at this point if you're russia's provisional government you're between our walk unharmed place in nineteen seventeen you were barely holding on to power you have strikes you have on rest of all kinds of problems and now you have remaining here are taking the already kind of each train bolsheviks and pushing them into greater or extremism he's calling for three main things every possible for the provisional government to really contend with he's calling for peace bread and land the triple threat of a message that would be effective across much of europe in nineteen seventeen during the provisional government owns get hasta proved to the british and the french that it still a viable partnering this war there darling towns of subsidies to this government infecting me to convince the germans and the sun for powers of the same fact that you can't just assume we're donnan the best way to do that is to launch an attack the problem is that this army might have been willing to stay and defend mother russia soil but most of them are not willing to go on the offensive and run into the machine guns in the artillery barrages of the germans they may not give a hoot about bolshevism hill communism or any of that but they understand peace brandon lyon on july first the koreans the offensive as it's sometimes called the day july offensive led by the great russian general bir selloff launches an attack on a wide front against the germans and the oscar and aliens it becomes a disaster this is the way historian peter hart describes a cold after today bombardment the second parcel of offensive attack began with a flourish with the attack of the russian seventh them eleven barney's alma southwest rod when the infantry win over the top on first july or early results were promising but then everything started to go wrong the best the most loyal unit to be chosen as the assault troops although follow up and reserve formations were far less committed indeed we came to moving forwards many regimen simply refused the attack petered out and ignominy and further planned attacks reader canceled or band and then a vigorous austro endearing tower offensive was launched that are not all in glitzy on nineteenth july russians broken retreated in chaos this disaster triggered the replacement of bruce law this commander in chief by general cornwall on the first of august the russian army was falling apart and such attacks as had been carried out only serve to call the few remaining loyalist unit's still willing to actively prosecutor war the vast majority of russian soldiers were now content to be passive observers abashed indeed by the autumn it was estimated that some two million had deserted and cool for while the german high command of the austrian during high command in korea to do your troops to fraternize with russian troops to sort of undermine their willingness to fight they stop doing that when they found out that the russian troops were spreading socialist and bolshevik propaganda back to the german austrian carrying troops nonetheless with that disaster at the crispy offensive did was essentially prove that russia's army was don knapp and open the door even more to the bolshevik message calling for peace writer g. j. meyer describes a letter fromm rudolf hess to win the next world war we want of hitler's henchmen bring back to his parents about what the russians are doing the opposite the german lines they're basically fighting amongst themselves the great court yesterday we saw a heavy fighting but only among the russians themselves russian officer came over and gave himself up he spoke perfect german he was born in bogdan that is russian citizen he told us the whole battles are going on behind their lines their officers are shooting each other and the soldiers are doing the same he found it all too ridiculous they can all get lost as far as he's concerned we invited to meet with us in the tank that he ate well and drank plenty of chiba for going off there was a lot of noise coming from the russian side yesterday they were fighting each other in the trenches we also heard shots coming from their infantry but they were firing at each other charming end quote lenin said that the russian soldiers were voting for peace with your feet the failure of the july offensive was another nail in the costume for the provisional government and added to the support of lenin in the bolsheviks you or able to portray themselves as the real alternative to the provisional government to one party that didn't have any responsibility what was going on in the more russians didn't like what was going on the more the only choice to change that seemed to be the bolsheviks in over the months between the february revolution to topple bizarre and just about november the bolsheviks increased their support in these councils and peasants and soldiers and workers know miss the soviets and on november seventh nineteen seventeen they moved in a triumph of superior organization they were able to take over the most important government buildings in the russian capital in a coup the most russians awoke to find a fait accompli already finished and the most radical government in power in a major state since the french revolution also in lenin in the bolsheviks ring charge of russia and it marks and the other nineteenth century thinkers we're about to have their ideas updated evolved more skin changed put into practice in what was about to become a giant human experiment but to most of old europe this look like a human experiment conducted by a mad scientist to them it looked like second coming of the french revolution in london and the bolsheviks might as well up in jack ovens how long before the guillotine sir brought out never want start getting their head chopped off within twenty four or so hours of taking power lenin's starts to make good on some of his promises understand the lenin's promises had a tactical purpose in mind they would end up in his mind helping to spread revolution other countries the fire caused by a german general mood in dorset tend to burn down his neighbor's apartment we're beginning to fan the flames to a degree when many other countries were likely to get burned lenin's decree on land said among other things court private ownership of land shall be abolished forever all land shall become the property of the whole people and passing to the use of those who cultivate it pinnacle then when it started spreading the sort of propaganda the most horrifying the powers who would be fighting the first world war for more than three years by this point he said quote we shall offer peace for the peoples of all the belligerent countries upon the basis of the soviet terms no annexation must know indemnities and the right of self determination people's at the same time according to our promise we shall publish in repudiate the secret treaties and cool the secret treaties were the treaty's amongst to be allied powers that were in the files of the winter palace of the bolsheviks it just taken over by making the war was in those files public bolsheviks we're pulling the wiki leaks menu for or the n. word snowden disclosure of their day by the way another similarity to the release of the secret treaties and the wiki leaks and lord snowdon revelations of all the more modern era are the newspaper in britain the release the information to breach readers was the manchester guardian that published in britain the secret treaty information that leon trotsky in the bolsheviks released to the world that's the same newspaper in britain that took the lead almost a hundred years later in revealing the n. word snowden revelations as historians michael neiberg and david jordan right in their history of the eastern front of the first world war quote the bolshevik leaders had little interest in working with the capitalist western allies they soon published the text of the secret treaties and diplomatic understandings that they found in the winter palace and the government are god's peace agreement showed french and british support for russian territorial gains especially a turkey six bench with regard to constantinople the seemingly revealed what the bolsheviks been arguing all namely that the war had been for break your real interest not out of self-defense the publication of these terms embarrassed allied diplomats would claimed him public that no such agreement existed this also angered the americans would advocated a peace without annexation and co the new bolshevik government began to do tell generals all along the entire firm with the germans and all stronger rings and turks that they should start making local peace treaties they called for an armistice for thirty days along the entire front all the sudden russia was in the process of dropping out of the war leninism postma said the famous cooled the aptly describes the situation in november nineteen seventeen he said called there are decades when nothing happens an error weeks when decades happen end quote and look at the change in fortune for him personally six or seven months ago he's living in a rented the flat on the second floor next to a sausage factory in switzerland now by november nineteen seventeen he's basically the guy in charge of the largest nation on earth but this leadership is not on contested the russians civil war starts almost immediately with the people who oppose lenin in the bolsheviks in it'll go on for several years and be terribly bloody intro in the great powers as well it also will not include fifty million or more people who were counted as to say this is a bold russia as some of these territories began to break away for russia again one of the really dangerous things that the new bolshevik government professes his belief in self determination there are lots of different peoples who didn't wanna be a part of the russian government perhaps the fans the polls the ukrainians and others who were starting to think maybe they would just leave they were far from the only peoples were members of a larger state and duties around the world who thought that they would like to crack it self determination all these european countries that had colonies were in the same position and it was no message more dangerous than the idea that the time it comes to perhaps allow all these people to decide for themselves whether they want to stay colonies already the plague bacillus begins to spread and threatened not just the allies in the on taunt hours but soon the powers that made it possible for lenin to get back and start the fire in russia to begin what this is the point in the story where russia and communism you're off into their own entail a very long complex tale that impacts the rest of the twentieth century you can easily make the case but perhaps the most or good long term effect of the first world war is the collapse of the russians are an eventual replacement by the bolsheviks it will eventually lead to joseph stalin and the horrors of the gulag and the cold war there was a wonderfully prophetic line around the time of karl marx and to see how long before this time period that revolutionary thinkers like the crewmen were saying it court if you took the most ardent revolutionary bested him in absolute power within the year he would be worse than the tsar himself and cool and for all his high minded rhetoric very quickly vladimir lenin was proving that come in right but in late nineteen seventies early nineteen eighteen that side of the bolsheviks in the communist regime in russia was still debatable an unknown if you actually read your public pronouncements they look like an almost n. n. you know it being in hindsight the sounds terrible for almost a refreshing it group of idealist to refuse to play by the old cynical hard bitten rules of the european powers andy get an idea of how difficult it is to figure route to what's going on there what these people are like you cannot be dire reach written during that time period where people try to make sense of what they're seeing in russia take for example evelyn princes luxury we talked about for before she's in english are wife of the german nobleman living in germany she kept a diary it's often referred to to give sort of impression of what's going on in germany in the feelings that they haven't she writes about this new government in russia while the peace negotiations to end the war in the easter going all those negotiations will end up with what the most one sided treaties and all his street called rascal tosca annually reason it's so one sided as did the bolsheviks were in such danger of getting overthrown before they had consolidated power that eventually they just agree to what the worst deals all time in assuming that the communist revolution assumed in the commons we all these western european governments in central european governments away anyway so who cares what they agreed to during the negotiations leon trotsky i'm coming we've also quarterly your key figure in the bolshevik government is negotiating this deal publisher writes in her diary in january nineteen eighteen quote the breast looked osgood go she haitians seem likely to come to nothing as trotsky seems to be applying a double parked at people say he's only toying with the central powers to be better able to sow the seeds of sedition and rebellion amongst the west european peoples they say that already the german prisoners had been set free in russia hamad kama soldiers are being placed in command over their former officers she continues quote there are many different opinions about trotsky here are some calling him a dreamer and idealist others abusing him as a bloodthirsty tyrant will's there is a whole class of admirers who declare him to be the greatest man since christ lived upon the earth and the profit of the new religion which is to regenerate mankind and creating a paradise after the delusional bore who knows what part this man may be going to play in the future fate of europe soma hundred twenty years ago people were saying almost the same things of a certain on no little officer or a lot of the reign of terror and bloodshed developed into the vampire ramp or who almost succeeded in bringing the blood of all europe end quote she is courses referencing napoleon who grew out of the french revolution to people at the time period that's what the revolution in russia kind of resembled an iroquois few similarities there pointed out by various histories between the french revolution and the napoleonic iraq and the air when the bolsheviks take charge in russia take for example one of the stipulations that the bolsheviks were making during the peace negotiations a brush look tosca they wanted their troops have the right during the negotiations to fracturing i was with the german and austrian during soldiers on the other side of no man's land why did they want that because they felt that just like napoleon's troops spreading the ideas the intellectual contagion this edition of the french revolutionary ideas to the lands of the kings and czars and emperors in the eighteenth and early nineteenth century europe the bolsheviks assumed that their troops would do the same thing to the german sonja stronger rings in early twentieth century your combine that with the impact that the release of the secret treaty agreement was having and the russian government the new russian government the idealistic at least on the surface new russian government was doing the amazing damage the allied war effort by undercutting all the propaganda and they had helped by the way the other really idealistic power that destroyed have an impact on the world scene was across the atlantic it was the united states and to the hard bitten cynical bismarck the reale polity to europe of that day it it would've been hard for them to decide who was more idealistic the new russian bolshevik government or the american government of woodrow wilson in a sense tell it's hard to blame it on britain and france in these other european powers for the fact that they had gone into the war making agreements with each other and their allies for carving up his territory reached changing that territory because that was standard operating procedure when the war started and had been ill for ever the nineteen centuries full of those kinds of conflicts the problem isn't just a couple of years things had changed so many ways the first world war two transition yuri period from nineteen to the twentieth century and that includes things like the proper and moral justifications for war i'm part of the problem is that for three years now the allies to name just one example the sun for by which were doing similar things had made the war aims out to be these high minded ideals right toward end all wars or making the world safe for democracy or fighting young sherman militarism a meaner world is very high minded ideals so when you sell people mozart years when they find out that really what those soldiers are dying for is much more pedestrian in the sorts of things it's hard to square those two realities in fact there were nations involved in the first world war that essentially had joined sides would kill the the alliance to promise them the best outcome italy bulgaria romania to name just three countries got into this war for no other reason than one side of the other promised them some territorial gains that was more than the other side promised them that was a very common reality from the nineteenth century part of it would change that unmade an acceptable was the price to europe was being forced to pay for these territorial acquisitions i'm ina pervaded temple is twenty years before this time period where we are now scud of nineteen seventeen meekly nineteen seventy imagine you're in eighteen ninety eight and you're the british army bomb in an area that kind of become part of it all your colonial the territory to chew at directory in direct control over in the modern nation of sued on as a very big battle called alderman fought in eighteen ninety eight winston churchill which there is a very young man's first real exposure to violence and he killed a couple of people in the battle on on the run had about eight thousand or so british troops in and they had the budget allies of their shirt egypt and places like that bombed done in eight years is not the right word does she think of like tribesmen but but but troops from egypt all men they were fighting people who were kind of tribesmen unconscious sudanese under i'm a leader in that country more than fifty thousand of them show up to this battle against the small group of rubber nation bree shall oz when using modern weaponry including basically machine guns more rifles and it's essentially in the beta version of the first four or me to britain goes to war with an air fighting guys who have like mosque it's practically and in one afternoon a they inflict some thirty thousand or more casualties on the tribesmen and i'm told that they're facing ten thousand dead five thousand captured the rest wounded and british lose forty five to fifty british soldiers in the endeavor forty five to fifty but i just um wallace's native force we're only losing that number of people up for such great games sometimes you don't always think too much about the deeper questions involved in the cost to the cost is a bad grade and let's be honest in this era if those british soldiers had been wiping out frenchmen or germans or swedes are people like themselves there might have been more from our rage she was an error where sometimes the killing of native peoples bomb in other places was not given the same sort of sense of horror now raged and killing people who look like yourself my engender we all understand how that might work and so instead of a battle of alderman where the changing of territory was relatively small affair with relatively few casualties the only nineteen seventeen the germans in the briefing just one battle in this war suffer between two hundred and five hundred thousand casualties each you think of deeper different more fundamental questions when you not only suffer casualties like that to do so over and over and over again with no appreciable change nothing certainly worth all that any began asking fundamental questions about these treaties you wrote an earlier time in this war how many frenchmen is worth losing to regain lost territories of alsace lorraine among the german young people is it worth to hold on to belgium how many austro hungarian troops or conversely italian troops there was that particular area near tree est morris how many dominion lines in indian was a british lives is post war grecian hallman to the middle east for it well if it's the battle of aldermen were talking tiny numbers is certainly worth it there's a number of injured going to get to but it's not the first world war challenges a lot of people to ask those kinds of questions and the people that we're operating under the same so the mentality that would've been present in the battle of aldermen are red faced when the street ye shall walk showing that that's just what they're like they haven't changed and the treaties are going to have to be for filling me why meanwhile if he didn't feel about an hour off in late nineteen seventeen when the bolsheviks release this information in january nineteen eighteen in part because the bolsheviks did release this information the wood for wilson money that's been true be something called fourteen points double fourteen point if it is the bolshevik move that makes the rest of the world look like a bunch of capital was warmonger is what the left hawk the american movie nineteen eighteen in january is like a right cross right afterwards to all these european all power to the united states hitting from just to make other side of the idealism scale are suggesting that you should have a war based on things like mutual respect woodrow wilson says nice things reasonable and the germans about the americans in the rush to the world of begrudge the germans are shot a german greatness of all this chemist up in other words conciliatory stuff if you try and have a deal maker buddy come to the table can lucky as we can work together but if you're the french you've already suffered more than a million casualties against these people yeah no war against the generation that has a ringer not really in a mood to be very conciliatory and will soon start talking about stuff that says idealistic is anything the bolsheviks are putting out a lot of it sounds very similar for example here zhao wilson leads into his fourteen point to notice how often he talks about change in you know we get maybe call today global public opinion or international morality and values he says from the beginning of his statement it's gone down in history is to fourteen point corp it would be our wish on purpose but the process the zip peace will there be gonna shall be absolutely all been an issue involving permit henceforth no secret understandings of any car at the day of conquest in aggrandizement is gone by so was also the day of sacred covenant entered into in the interest of the ticket or government's unlikely it some on looked for moment to accept the peace of the world is this happy fact narrow cleared the view of every public man whose thoughts do not still lingered in an age that he's dead meat on which makes it possible for every nation whose purposes are consistent with justice in the peace of the world to one of our nord any other time the object it has in view anything goes into the other kinds of things he's talking about here that will make a difference in the post war world everybody should start to agree to he says as the number one fourteen in number one point in the fourteen point called open covenants apiece openly arrived at after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy sharper seed always frankly and in the public view and the court you imagine even the governments of our world today even talking about doing that the idea the jihad treaties with other countries and all the agreement should be public unopened everyone can mean that's radical stuff even today it sounded every bit like what the bolsheviks are calling for an all of a sudden you have all europe that three four five years ago was sitting at the height of its claim everything was fine and now they've got this on both sides of the loop from powerful nations it's a real change in attitude as i said don't look it's not going to be allowed to change agreements the countries have between each other on the juiciest off that came out of the secret treaty released that the n. word snowden like adopted a manchester guardian another's was the treaty is the dean signed some of them as late as nineteen sixty most famous is known as the site peak of agreement that there are others that catalog the great powers plan for ripping apart the ottoman empire to the great powers on the allied side won the war they were gonna go totally imperial on the old empire the russians were gonna finally after hundreds of years of wanting to get constantinople this campbell later byzantium once upon a time this great city the controls of the dart nelson the boss personally in only the access to the black sea would be huge to the russians were prevented from doing this by the very british and french that they were now negotiating with the get in the eighteen fifties and the crimean war which prop up the ottoman empire for another generation but now the russians were on the same size as the french and british they have all decided that the almonds had to go in there we're all going to agree on what he says they got now the patio off for the russians getting constantinople and regions around that was that the french and british would get to carve up much of what is now the modern middle east not just don't like me the e-mail i know that even saying that her middle east is reference to the colonial past in that region because really if you were going to announce it probably should call the west asia or something like that that doesn't really do know gigs at the theory you're talking about the beginning of the the debate areas of educated about bond or anatoly up or mesopotamia bubbles are all just pieces of the charm middle east encompasses so i apologize i know it's not the right phrase nonetheless we all know what we mean answered me from going to talk about the error were middle east becomes the colonial term for the air up why not start with the error work becomes a colonial possession for non islamic powers the psych speak to agreement and others have france carving up large chunks of the modern are more old and the british taking northerner walk and i mean did he do it and have that they're breathtaking they really are and when the bolsheviks release the secret treaties and the autumn in government receives the secret treaties to their own in a group of farm nobles is the wrong word about governmental ministers bombed eugene oregon says in his book that this is all audible gasp as they hear the plans that france and britain and russia have for the future of the ottoman to attack could be a slap on the wrist it's been a b. dismemberment in the dismemberment of the ottoman empire is what creates a modern middle eastern world distill such a part of our lives today i've said earlier that the bolshevik revolution was probably the top you long lasting aftershock and the first word maybe it's better to say that there's a list of three or four possible claimants to the throne if you will and maybe no one is the changes that are created in the middle east because the ottoman empire is broken up to us remember this is a six hundred year old empire it's hard to overstate how long the structures and the type of rule by the autumn in impacted that area first of all it was a large area that was under muslim control with a pal of fate on paper at least emily juror the religion at least the sunni bridget in turkey the turks ruled that region with an iron fist thing in the same time he was in the process of having huge debate over modernization keeping up with the rest to world and they were just a few years from finding out that they sat atop some of the world's greatest deposits of oil on the planet some more conspiratorial historians will we even knew the story i'm point out that it wasn't an accident that the french and british for example we're deciding that it was worth tearing up the ottoman empire at this point but if they hadn't and somehow the ottoman empire existed another ten or twenty years think about the inheritance it was about to come into as a jarring aunt mall type ethnic islamic state with oil wealth coming into the totally just it's fascinating to ponder how different the world might be but if you're a member of the government of ottoman turkey when you wish you the news about how you're gonna be dismembered as part of the secret agreements to become public you're getting any information about a week maybe even a little less than a week on the heels of some other information as sort of should've warned you that this was coming because everybody awoke to a declaration that was published on november second nineteen seventeen but if you're in the budget newspapers in kind of went viral i guess you could say by the standards of the early twentieth century and statements of this school to his majesty's government view with favorite establishment in palestine and national home for the jewish people that we used their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil religious rites of existing non jewish communities in palestine or the right to political status enjoyed by jews in any other countries and co to get that on november second to get the news on the gate to the night you know about the psychic equilibrium in egypt is that they don't just harrop your empire and give it to the victorious powers if they're going to be victorious but still open here but also look gives it to people's war currently in your empire now most notably there are people in a very similar move to what the germans had done the same vladimir lenin to go into russia and de stabilize that country the british have been working with subjects of the ottoman empire an encouraging them to rebel they were couple of important arab tribal leaders that were already sort of thinking along he was blinded may have had contact with the british even before war broke out who by nineteen fifty nine to sixteen were convinced to rebel against the on overboard they have a lot british help they eventually went from a bunch of ragtag guerrillas too well for relatively nasty guerrilla force in the region although the impact that they have on the war has been argued about forever with historians it's a very colorful story involves this person it's called lawrence of arabia they made a movie about him but there's a lot more to that including the most important people which released to tribal family is that the british were able to convince too rebel wiggins the altman's both of whom were important one controlled arm of the area round match at the other haven't named it now grace is the front of the country that occupies the arabian peninsula of saudi any other family put chains on the throne news on multiple most were forewarned middle eastern nation is the kings of iraq came from this family the kings of places by jordan the current king of jordan is a descendant of this family and that power emanated from this first for war throwing their lot in with the allies and then the reaping the reward now which should be pointed out that the reward was not what they plan on the british after the war famine seldom rather uncomfortable position when they realize that they had promised multiple things to multiple people and often times it was the same stop this will lead to some embarrassing moments after the war are over questions about fine print and what was released an meant now sir henry wilson who's the chief of the imperial general staff in nineteen ninety will tell another british general quote we've made so many promises to everybody yeah contradictory sense that i cannot for the life of me see how we can get out of our present mass without breaking our word to somebody and go and it's easy to see why the arabs had been promised things above what was hope that they would do the rebellion what's been more argue bowden is more interesting for his stories is trying to figure out in the wall was what was to be achieved by the balfour declaration and there are so many different rationales other been put forward that to be a study in interesting show in and of itself at the run the gamut two from people who were suggesting that the reason the british throw their weight behind it would jewish homeland in palestine has to do it personally teacher but the jewish yeah take a poll helped you know make it easier create a weapon there's another theory that it was hoped that they could have a bid to bridgewater friendly people to occupy the support may react to some help guard britain's impure real possessions in places like india my favorite of the many many theories out there for why the balfour declaration is important benchmark moment in history of modern zionism happened my favorite is the anti semantic reason that it might happen that some people put forward which is that they were both a combination of real anti semite out there and people who were pretty educated in pretty sure that was just a canard when people said the jews were old world but just in case it was it wouldn't be worth it just to be on the safe side if we made sure the jewish public interest the world over was our side and back the british or even worried about rumors that the germans were cut off or the jews a homeland accused sort of signed on with the german cars and so in an effort to make sure that if the jews control the world and we're on our side of the good we're going to have the statement made that simply supported the return to palestine for jewish vote i love that without that just that's the most perverse of all the excuses but nonetheless what it did was kirk most fantasy that later on we all understand will grow into in the modern middle east we have today there's also fell on all other little element of course please role in the story we mentioned a little bit ago that turns this region from what you easily could've suggested might be a backwater in the middle of nowhere after the war was over with some important really just a sacred sites and whatnot but not much going on the way resources are value or anything where the great powers in the world stage we care much for this area and instead transforms this region in two perhaps the most strategically invaluable spot on the planet it's because all the sudden the world realizes the importance that ordeal and petroleum is going to play in the twentieth century world and everybody sort of realizes it at the same time it's one of my favorite part of the first world war story to it so hard to figure out what people knew when there had been visionaries all throughout the development of the twentieth century realization that loyalties could be huge may start pompano stuff the eighteen forty seeking fifty to sixty two by two different places and refining it and the main reason it's important in the eighteen hundreds remember the eighteen hundreds is part of the industrial revolution the industrial revolution was revolution that function mostly with call as the energy source almost team was also used the people that are making the decisions in the first world war gonna be men in each grinch who gras picking a warmer old powered by color scheme oil was becoming quite valuable but for different reasons than energy well i guess you can still say was that she was in was an old when he shows source a lot of places to use it for light they also used it for lubrication oil but people did not for seed or maybe you could call the vehicular or revolution that the first world war would so plainly so i put on steroids was coming anyway begin our wharton's to speed up technological progress because while it's life or death but the famous stories of the first world wars be the famous battle of the more news story of the taxicabs of paris lining up to ferry troops to the very hot spot on the battle front of the senior danger breaking says all romantic story that helps illustrate what it really early transmit for four more the yourselves vehicles enough to change the situation on the battlefield for all human history man have either been walking themselves or utilizing in natural animal power in this battle they were starting to use things that were powered by gasoline and you would go from carson taxicabs two trucks to tanks you'd have aircraft i don't imagine i'm sure leonardo da vinci to do great sketch of it in the renaissance the trial imagine aircraft that will call for sneaking coward you kind of needed this dance portable energy source to became part of internal combustion engines at all this stuff sort of happened during the war the visionaries had been people like churchill who once said converted british fleet to oil burning instead of coal he was ahead of time unlike nineteen await the british government was making deals with a coil company in iran and got the anglo persian oil company was very powerful very important for want of a once again shows that some people were on top of this or some historians who suggested they may just been doing this for the lubrication and illumination biting me another foreseen the vehicular revolution either but once it strikes you know even people who are dahlman visionary can see all my gosh no boy old is the call of the twentieth century and i often think to myself you know if you found the ordeal of the twenty first century some clean burning immensely one wonderful replacement away old they could do all these fantastic things but only up here it if you separate isolated regions around the globe you think the governments of the world would do today about that and your i've been critical of the great powers for some of the horse trading that was apparent in all their war aims and that probably over emphasize that led to a degree considering how much geopolitics did play a role in economics to play a role the first world war had a lot of reasons and we're uses the country's got into it had a lot of different causes and one says as well but it's the horse trading nature territories that seems to stand out so much to modern sensibilities it does make me think however that if that twenty first century version of oil found tomorrow but in limited amounts in limited areas what i do wonder whether our government with acting e. differently in terms of the way they would approach it in that first world war leadership if anything i would imagine that what they learn from the first world wars not what to do or what not to do but perhaps have a better sense of how you justify what you do in the first world war two or modern sensibilities and to the changing sensibilities of the time it all seemed a little too naked sometimes once was exposed to the light of day and it's hard to blaming you these powers for doing what ever get talk to see to it that you could get yourself some of this new twentieth century version of cold because he could literally be a matter of life or death in terms of remaining a great power and is normally happens in the lottery for natural resources some places were blessed with lots of the stuff in other places with almost non the united states is one of the first places where the first great units to saudi arabia and the first great oil boom in united states decline in pennsylvania initially and in that time of other places or the united states is one degree or producing nations of all time emmy really come into their own right when the oil really takes off very very late eighteen hundreds early nineteen hundreds russia also has calmed somewhat report reserves did been under development from very early on in baku in places in what's now i am part of azerbaijan and the problem they were having of course is this bolshevik revolution lot of these palm out of the way places on the russian periphery were deciding maybe to go bomb on their own and take the wheel with them so temporary problems for the russians and the kouba what that does is create a situation which is a giant one wonderful supply of oil sitting there with no big government controlling it temporarily 'cause the bolsheviks below their whole thing is in disorder trying to get him on things in there preaching self determination people are taking them up on the offer and baku was all the sudden the breakaway of the cumbersome maybe azerbaijani state that is just too much of a temptation for about two great powers to look at it and think i bet i could get there with an army if i tried hard enough and what we can see use the oil fields of baku the only having good source in your own york was in romania and about nineteen seventeen all the great powers realize we get a better sell some oil and the british and french and the germans three of the great powers on the world stage of the first world war started none of them i could access to large amounts of oil it's hard to suggest that there is any bigger national security concern for those nations at this point and secured themselves to supply it i'll get centuries great energy source and what's needed to power the most cutting-edge weapons that you'd need to we need any war she should be critical of these people pursuing these kinds of policies but look at what the stakes are and from a purely reale polity cut down and dirty standard the arguments for imperialism in this case make a certain kind of sense what they're saying for example amongst british politicians some of whom do not wanna go when and control these areas the prime minister before the current prime minister in nineteen seventeen harbor as with it he didn't want anything to do with this region and all those problems and factionalism and the arab tribes that we're fighting the fighting on britain's side is part of the arab revolt were only part of the arabs on to the war lot of other errors were very loyal to the autumn in government you had a sunni and shiite the issues to deal with the mean to to pass with a book like a hornet's nest but he had a hard time fighting against the people on the other side of the argument were making the point that you were then going to simply seeded whatever could be taken from the autumn's was they were gone to your great power rivals in the french will go in and take the wheel perhaps and then their strength renewed war you wore weekend and you don't have any access to the cold the twentieth century as ass with eventually said you know he said quote if we would leave the other nations to scramble for turkey without taking anything ourselves we should not be doing our duty end quote well if not having access to your own oil men teacher country would fall to a second class status i think you would've been a lot of people in britain the a democratic government who would've said they was their politicians to the to see that that didn't happen now the last time we checked in with the story in the middle east and all that area concerning the autumn in spreading instability should've french and the british dominion true true places like india in south africa to australia and new zealand of places like that that the war hadn't been going particularly well the turks worked out they put up a pretty darn good resistance for a country that was supposed to be basically don knapp having just bought a couple of wars previously economics we're in a disaster and everything and instead the church put up a pretty darned security resistance to get the germans and they're helping them to you modernize the little here in there and the british simply were not prepared and who could be for the logistical challenges that trying to maintain large armies which the british team tend to maintain the field anyway throughout their history in the middle of the desert the challenges were huge the turks were taught the british essentially had to retreat from glibly they got trapped in a place called cook like we told you in an earlier up son had to surrender it was not exactly their finest hour but in their defense most of their effort is in the meat grinder area on the western front this is an area that some people refer to as a side show when this gets back to the argument we've mentioned earlier between those of the allied camp they call themselves for war called westerners in the others who were called easterners people whose idea said that the western from the meat grinder is used the focal point of the war it's going to be decided they're so we're taking troops and sending them to any other part of the war is it to work against what you need to be doing which is breaking through the key point the other group the easterners believed that throwing troops into the meat grinder were things were stalemate was a p. how was wasted lives when there were all marble points all my rest of the map that could be exploited easier places to go to winston churchill the second world war was always looking for the soft underbelly of europe was the way the phrase was turned the first world war they were easterners looking to the soft underbelly of europe and the best argument i've ever heard of who was right because i was looking at lloyd george's nemours the other day and you're twenty years after the war he still justifying in wagging finger in the face of the westerners and we were right in the western ushers and that they were right the german general ludwig or should point out the gas the west and the western from meat grinder was where the war would be decided but there was a catastrophe on any of the other fronts in the war that that would be to pack german power when the western front leading to a loss they are so that they were interconnected all these non western front battles our side shows unless those fronts collapse and then it's a disaster in nineteen seventeen the british would change the generals and who went now put a meticulous effort into just slowly but surely building up the infrastructure the need to maintain an army in the field him just think of the pipeline is all that water that they build for miles upon miles upon miles to go what to wear the troops are going to have to be in trench lines mean the amount of effort to trick wired the buildup of troops and everything else but by nineteen seventeen that they begin to push the trucks back everywhere your nineteen seventeen and especially the latter half of the year seized multiple victories i'm a part of the british led allied forces in places like mesopotamia and house on lots of out flanking some wonderfully clever spine maneuvers in some fantastic pray for him audacity on the part of some of these dominion mounted infantry forces for example end up creating a situation where the british high command can see jerusalem the holy city of holy cities right sacred to at least three major religions islam christianity and judaism bacon c. jerusalem within range and they know that they're gonna take it this year momentum continues but after dealing with passion dale mum on the blogger shot in the sense of never ending war which just wraps up in mid november lloyd george asks british general around the if he can manage to capture the holy city by christmas says will be a great christmas present for the british people a little picked me up if you will look after all the horrible mess lloyd george gets his wish granted on december eleventh with the british an allied forces already in the city they received a surrender notice from the turkish were presented enough rates quote jill agenda severity of the siege of the city on the suffering that this peaceful country has endured from your heavy guns n for fear that these deadly bombs will hit the holy places we are forced to hand over to you the city through same al husseini the mayor of jerusalem hoping that you'll protect jerusalem the way we have protected for more than five hundred years and co doesn't that note sort of bring in all home in terms of the immense keiichi of some of these asian states that we're dealing with here there's a time of irene is symbolism when the allied forces captured jerusalem start with the fact that christians in capturing jerusalem before in ten ninety nine during the first crusade was a very big deal of the time followed by a terrible massacre but the christians managed to hold the city for a couple hundred years the islamic general solidly in the great occurred by the way will retake the city during the third for satan only twelve hundred there will be a major crusade in the middle ages launched against the use of barry on a man is when there are a lot younger and more vigorous of an empire in our christian forces were once again moving into the city the propaganda possibilities of an event like the shirt huge but also has some real world post war implication gina level minded possession is nine tenths of the law well certainly be the case after the war when the birdie sure involved in not always wonderfully nice negotiations with the french and people for locals in that region over who gets whacked there'd been some agreements during the war the palestine jerusalem should be internationalized the british didn't like that idea as much after the war insist they were the ones governing there since december nineteen seventeen he owed him a unique ability to decide how things were going to counseling corner real-world sense to you the entire affair and it's importance of the entry into this holiest the city's was understood and stage managed to what degree the british government has some ideas on the way we would sit in the optics or the visual should go in eighteen ninety eight the german emperor the kaiser had visited jerusalem again and lots of visuals on optics and lots of photographs lot to propaganda on benefits for doing so and he kind of offended some of the religious books by the the seeming humble enough in the face of you know such intensity greatness for ya three in the top or legions of the planet there was even a story that the turks had to destroy your part of the ancient old u. is really part of the walls to make room for the kaiser's carson week to get bring the car in whether or not that's true it certainly made him look bad and before allen be becomes the first christian conqueror in more than five hundred years to walk into jerusalem he gets a little advice from british general robertson who tells him in a telegram quote in the event of jerusalem being occupied it would be a considerable political importance if you are officially entering the city dis mounted the city gate and enter wrongful act german emperor world in it and the same went round a better man than me you walked advantage of contrast in conduct will be obvious and co by december nineteen seventeen it looks as though you won't take a whole lot for the british and french and demeaning forces to strike the term changes sort of hoechst entire house of cards over in some ways the church of god doing themselves any good because when the russians blog award it leaves a time of territories that have lots of church and it in all but for turkish conquest and the trucks are standing armies that might be better used against the british and french gained this territory were places like armenia and azerbaijan all those places are in order to get new territory walter losing all territory nonetheless whether or not the french and british dangerous pushover the house of cards now becomes a bit of a moot point because very early into nineteen eighteen when the finishing touches on any idea to do that would have to be implying it all the sudden everything is you'd back on the western front alan keyes gun at his forces his best forces ripped from him and no reinforcement director forces added because all the sudden just when everything looked like the united states was gonna come in and turn the tide of the war the germans attempt to turn the tide of the war first and we mentioned before the real differences in sort of the field on the ebb and flow in the rhythm of the two world wars to first and second world wars in the second world war there was a certain cried work with the outcome of the war was no longer rigged out but was quite a ways between that moment in the end of the war that probably safe to say like late nineteen forty three everyone knows that the germans in their side are not winning at war no one knows how many people are gonna have to die before the outcome is finally settled everyone knows what the outcome could be you became caught some real real longshot scenarios where the germans for example the atomic weapons for stir something like that changed the course of history by and large it was a moot point past a certain impure reaper will eat forty three is observed the first world war to rhythm was completely on like that there were yet he want to say the who had the advantage mulch to the time he was the allied on tom forces you continually born underweight and the other side of wearing him down but the other side led by germany would strike out and lash out at certain times with huge blokes could easily could've knocked the other side out the last of the east germany throws in early nineteen eighteen even the members of germany's you know popper military caste we're calling it the last card now i have to send a few things up before we understand about this last card situation the first is understanding with the war is so does point germany's get some good stuff happening and some bad stuff happening we just mentioned one of the bad things the situation with the turkish ally in the middle east is starting to turn for the worst right the latter part nineteen seventeen not so great but that is offset by good things that have been happening in that same time jury we said is so important october november december nineteen seventeen the germans sand actually not that much but made a big difference and help to the rostrum yuri now once you've been fighting italians for ever in the region of the river is psalms oh they have had eleven battles abuse on so to this point no war to you can tell how much things are moving right to stalemate on these alpine peach and they're cutting it in oak hideouts into the ice it is crazy alpine were there fighting bubbles sides really tired in the italian troops are we lead tired of of the guy who's been running the show for them the general in charge of of their effort he's really sort of hostetler and they've had it with him on it and they've been like they're austro hungarian enemies putting up with a lot for years the water senseless deaths of dispense been terrible that although some the germans and in l. seven early division's been at the sort of the cutting edge of another offensive the twelfth i'm songs over buddy gets blown by a different name because it stands out from the other eleven battles abuse on so it's it's often called the battle of corp rattle the reason it stands out from the other battles of the hassan so is because this time something decisive happens the italians get smashed the milk and blamed on the germans are once again using an even more perfected version of new tactics and new artillery methods known as we said before with your quickly watching occurring four years ago for for warshaw watching these are nice transform for something more like in all the franco prussian war in the eighteen seventies to something more like the second world war you can see it as the tactics develop year after year from stupidly walking in a machine gun firing ordered rosa men to wear infiltration and tactics are taking over you're beginning to see a lot of the same methods being employed by these arms for the very first time that every army in the world still uses today involving firing movement in mutual support and new bypassing strong points and the germans do this to the board tie ins and the italians get i mean three hundred thousand people surrender that's how bad it is and yet the italians were able to move like sixty miles back reform their line is um keep from falling apart totally in the way to help the british and french about to take me out troops again from the western front to bolster this other area but what it means is by the end of nineteen seventeen the germans have been knocked out of anja their opponents in this war when you look at the store the war with all these enemies against them but it down in nineteen fifteen they knocked out serbia in nineteen sixteen they knocked out rumania in nineteen seventeen they just knocked out on russia no war and given in italy's such a bloody lip that nothing is going to happen down there for awhile and now in early nineteen eighteen for the first time in the war the germans facebook british and french without a whole lot of distractions don't have the russians on the other side and they have a small window of opportunity before millions of americans start arriving in europe to swamp them this is the way winston churchill describes the situation to set up will say and i'm going to contrast that with the way i got off hitler does and remember that both of these people are waiting to specific audiences churchill's writing the people who are indeed especially british american audiences and really can't the super patriotic romantic sort of an approach killer is writing this material for a bunch of bitter war veterans who still kate over what they experienced n. n. is stealing a betrayal and and the bitterness since the war ended so they have different audiences the writing for the contrasting their styles and the way they set this up is intriguing here's our churchill describes the situation room and remember the end of nineteen seventeen the british are still in shock from the battle that they still call passion dale church also school as the passion dale struggle died away in the storms in modern when jerk the military rulers of germany addressed themselves to a new situation the collapse of russia had enabled them to transport a million men and three thousand guns from the eastern to the western front for the first time therefore since the invasion they found themselves possessed of the definite superiority over the allies in france but the superiority was pleading the united states undeclared war and was our men but not yet arrived at once the great masses of american manhood could be trained equipped transported abroad in the line of battle all the numerical advantage germany again from the destruction of russia would be more than counterbalanced at the same time the german main headquarters to the grave losses the british army had suffered a passion to heal and help themselves entitled to count upon a marked decline in its strength in fighting quality last week the amazing character of the german austrian victory your buddy italians a corporal red oak glittered tempting lee end quote he then goes on to say it would've been a great time for the germans to open negotiations with us instead they chose to attack and before we get to hitler's view of the situation it's worth asking what would the germans fighting for henri de hope to achieve what was the best case scenario being any so that came into the war and this is another difference between the first to circle rewards in the second world war as soon as the americans and said that unconditional surrender it was supposed to be the victory conditions it made the war one of those conflicts where you're going to get what's called a car the genie in peace in reminiscent of how the romans in the third tunic wars treated the city of carthage total destruction and write total occupation total submission and domination unconditional surrender or the pieced her first world war like so much of the stuff that went on during this time period the surrender was going to everyone presumed to be some sort of negotiated the finance committee bargaining session and both sides are fighting to be the superior person at the bargaining table right the one who can insist on better terms as generally the dwarf the german military leader point out what they're fighting for and why they have to keep attacking he says quote germany could only make the enemy inclined to peace by fighting it was first of all necessary to shake the position of lloyd george and clemens self by military victory but for that was dotted peace was not to be thought of and quo now let's remember what little dwarf means is that he needs is military victory to get the kind of peace he wants write a piece that for example gives germany either director or de facto control places like belgium for example that's his bargaining position in any sort of agreement to end the war that's what they're fighting for him the other side is too although more more what are the conditions that the americans immigration french are insisting on is that the german form of government has to change they can't be a monarchy anymore well that may leave germany still alive but it means if you were the emperor or germany or any of these high ranking people that are part of the german monarchy it might as well be total war games to you germany may live on but you're going to be a part of it our loft hitler is a soldier in the first win wars we had mentioned earlier in his book mind conflict is waiting for this german veteran audience and composed for rabin's we mentioned a little earlier he talks about the sculptor is an usher person all these people that are beginning to sort of stabbed in german army in the back from the home front that's the way it's portrayed in your weekend doors are memoirs to britain during a similar time period he has the same thing going where are you know that the reason that the german troops are in danger is not because the enemy will hurt them because they're sort of this victorious entity on the battlefield is because the home front will let them down and before in a hitler sums up the situation that we're facing right here to begin in nineteen eighty he goes off on a some strikes you're taking place during this time drinking germany there's an able strike that happens in nineteen seventeen that gets disconcerting and then at several hundred thousand munitions workers who go on strike one at the beginning of the new your nineteen eighteen and and again when the german government punishes the ringleaders of the strikes they send them to the frauds astonishment but that means that the reasonable training of these military unit under infiltrating them with these ideas that blue dwarf and hitler time rate to bolshevism and hitler ties bolshevism by the way the jews the right to read you begin to see the origins of the stab in the back theory right and here's the way hitler in his penis now we're even the same bestselling book on iran contra describes the situation the germans found themselves in that to be given the italians a bloody nose accord ran up after that not only to people on board after finding out now that they're going to attack coke toward the end of nineteen seventeen at the low point of the army's did chechen seems to have passed the whole army took fresh hope and fresh courage after the russian collapse the conviction that the war would end up with the victory in germany after all began to seize the troops more more began singing could be heard in the calamity jane is became rare were again people believed in the future of the father why and go the calamity jane cities sculptors ensure person people who say it anti patriotic things work or negative things about the war effort he says quote especially the italian collapse of autumn nineteen seventeen and had the most wonderful look back in this big three we saw our proof of the possibility of breaking through the front even aside from the russian theater and wore a glorious day if floating came into the hearts of the millions enable them to await spring nineteen eighteen with relief and confidence buffalo was visibly depressed in this winter he remained quieter than usual this was the lol before the storm and co did hitler sums up his view of this moment and what the allies were facing now with a sort of germany unleashed he says quote the winter of nineteen seventeen to nineteen eighteen dark clouds appeared for the first time in the firm and to be allied world for nearly four years they had been assailing the german warrior and had been unable to encompass his downfall and all this while the german had only to shield arm free for defense wobble sort was obliged to strike now in the east now in the south now at last the giants back was free streams of blood and flown before he administered final defeat to want disposed now in the west the shield was going to be joined by his sword until then the enemy had been unable to break his defense and now he himself was facing attack the enemy cleared him and trembled for their victory and co now in one sense this is a post first world war hitler the row is the picture on this thing you know what you we were going to defeat them in then you know stabbed and aback by the jews and bolsheviks right but at the same time there's some truth to a couple of these things we are not the bolsheviks were having an influence on germany and that attempt by blood and dorf do you get rid of these nick store neighbor in the apartment complex by burning his apartment down is beginning to change germany little bit and gore for writes about this in his memoirs him away remember writing years later so we can pretend have hindsight he basically acts like he understood the risk was dangerous he thought they could contain it the bolshevik intellectual contagion buddy knew that there was a chance it would work out that why and there's something to that in terms of why the germans were all the sudden beginning to start to show real cracks in the facade of the home front and some of these people should be poured out the gallic wooden door for hitler thing sir bolsheviks are probably more like social democrats you know my old socialist but to a guy like in dorf anyone who's thinking that the war might've gone on too long or the germany instead of an emperor might do better with representative democracy or republicans and the back to the indies traitorous and radical so you might as well be a bolshevik nonetheless think about what these people are going through four years of war all these countries in the sense sacrificing their future with each generation of youngsters that they call up and throw into the mall and sacrificing their past to their cannibalizing their countries historical and long term assets which quoted the english wife of the german nobleman princes blue shirt the blue blue shirt riding in her diary she told the story that is just heartbreaking about is the fact that the germans don't have enough ammunition anymore and it's starting to go into the society in and take things to melt down a bomb on the store in iran said that during this period more than ten thousand church bells or melted down and princes blue shirt tells a story about that she says co there are other signs too pathetic in their way out of the increasing scarcity of metal for everywhere the old church bells and even the organ pipes are being dragged from the churches and trading day ammunition will stole into the scarcity of ollie old the sanctuary lamp such a d. you're familiar citing catholic churches may no longer she had tender like before the tabernacle in a small town near here are a sad little ceremony took place the other day the ancient church bell which it wrong the people from the cradle to the grave for three hundred years and more was requisitioned by the military authorities degree felt by the inhabitants was so great that they determined to do their ancient friend only already coed and after having performed a regular funeral service for the dead over it a procession was formed headed by the priest in his best man's as acolytes swinging their incense and the inhabitants follow won the battle which was covered with wreaths and flowers and handed over to the military authorities hundred two years in protestations end quote look at that story is kind of symbolic of what the greatness of old europe at the height and high water marks of the twelfth and civilization in the new hundreds of years of glorious past behind them sort of girding the whole society being ripped apart and thrown into the mall on the furnace to provide the implements that are needed to fight the war it is destroying it's high place on the world stage this is a source tragic irony that is ill defined germany by the way this is how britain and france and russia all these old line powers come if the other trapped in this conflict now these chewing up their wealth the stabilizing the structures of their society and once again taking the next class of draftees reach eighteen years old and thrown them into the meat grinder to think of the pressure on these people who were commanded all these armies on on both sides been looted or she can help but think about this guy 'cause he's the one who gets to decide how you play germany's last card the central powers was current think of the people they're counting on him but completely human experiment imagine the stress and responsibility that falls on this one guy shoulders more than anyone else on the outside obviously he's got help and staffs and in other people the console to have you but basically the number one person's responsibility is he is he's got to plan the biggest battle in world history and the stakes all our everything while this is the biggest encounter between you know the cutting edge militaries of the world has ever happened in that hoagland worth is planning an it's an immensely complicated affair with with details be a humble leaf and or we'll start moving troops from the eastern front who'd been fighting the russians on trains all the way over the west before the russians even sign a peace treaty by the spring of nineteen eighteen he's moved a million german soldiers who had been fighting the russians or to the west with the canal be used against the french and british and german army in the west numbers over three million soldiers by spring nineteen eighteen and lytton gore has a plan that he's going to put into place to the balls throwing a multiple ponchos but the french and british the five punch combinations that he's going to use about a million soldiers to form the fittest michael main after saint michel is the first of these punches but the entire affair were sometimes be called up the nineteen eighty spring offensive the german soldiers refer to which sometimes just a great battle in france that shows you how big it's going to be one part of the sometimes referred to as the peace offensive sometimes the entire for years called the kaiser shah the emperor's battle historians been fascinated by the sea region battles ever since for a couple of major reasons what is the scope any other mistakes this is the largest battle the world to bursting into complexity is unbelievable it's very hard battle follow or explain or talk about it the front will be miles long it will involve millions of men the complexity in terms of trying to plan and range and get ready for one of these big offenses in fiber six march which is reporting window is perhaps the most complex task human beings have ever attempted to do in a tackle but he could say that there are bigger things like try to create a new global society which run the process of doing right now that's a very hard but you can do that over time and build on the achievements of previous generations and so does involve towards a solution to a complex problem these people have the time window at short get the kaiser swapped them within five months blooms gonna be ready on the twenty first a mortal get is gonna mean just the attempts to keep the allies in the dark about where it's coming are complex as heck do move troops and equipment night they will cover up your chili gotten the wheels with claws see you can hear them they will arouse stop the civilian population all the towns in march around all the riches to confuse the allied observers they will scramble in use false radio messages in just because you know this is sort of transition period in history just to cover all the bases they will also pull up the carrier pigeons including carrier pigeons captured from the other side put false notes in the little compartment in elinor leg and send them off that call covering all your bases isn't it but the good the plan again complexity all the work that goes on the other fascinating aspect is storage of the stakes when you have staked like this the biggest war in human history as one historian put little from the germans have six months' to change the course of the war here after that the numerical advantage the americans will provide will be overwhelming to get this window of opportunity and it's an all or nothing thing for some historians of argued that the germans should just have gone on the defensive here dug in and made the allied forces fight until nineteen twenty your nineteen twenty one combo for the new mounting losses would force them into some sort of a favorable peace but that kind of ignores how bad things are on the homefront right even if the german army can withstand these allied attacks again lose the people back your home or your past the infamous turnip wonder what happens when the turner pointers to good old days right to lynn often the germans cultures put this attack together you're excited about the german troops are almost us ecstatic the morale is sky high they want a chance to win the war this is why this first punch operation michael us on board because this is du pont were all the optimism is in place right everybody drinking that kool aid you were assigned to an option is a gamble anti little bit more not only see gambling with this attack but he's going to you know ascension we pull out the rocket fuel for mom the great mass of troop she goes to an calms his army for the best minute ride the healthiest the strongest problems of the highest morale the veterans who were cynical yet all these people for better than the rest of the herd and pulled them out and put them in the special unit and gives them the best weapons begin pulled away from the great mass of people and the special training what they call special training for for war day we called standard training in a modern military they call them storm trooper tactics we call them firing move tactics in every move army in the world uses them now nonetheless one board is done here is create an initial advantage enough for himself because his best troops are going to go up against the great mass of french and british troops that they run into they will give out the lion's share of casualties to the french and british and the allies but they will also take the wind shear of casualties this is a gamble because when little dwarf uses these best troop she's going to use them all up and if they haven't won by that point he's going to be left with not massed troops the leftovers people who had the best weapon stripped from the moon given to the image that people haven't been trained in the latest tactics people who would expect either i'm going to simply move up an occupied the trenches that every been conquered it to campbell come on march twenty first to charlie gambled and our first to worry about because he's got all the storm trooper most all units we're waiting for the moment to jump off synchronizing their watches i'm waiting for what will be the largest can in need in history to kick off from more truly first operation michael begins the first punch of the german multiplied combination aimed primarily at the british some ten thousand artillery pieces will open fire but about dawn somewhere in the four o'clock hour they will only fire only to forever to under five golden fire for about four hours it's what's called a hurricane bombardment very different than what the allies were doing too emotional war with a will bombard for weeks on end sometimes riotous all my body ninety six teams bigger to rebound will fire one point seven million shells in the first week in its famous kiss on my gosh becoming shells that is but every first world war major reference and how does the earlier ones in the swamp they fire in the becomes a contest like a statistic in the guinness book of world records but the fire one point one million shells in four hours and it's conducted like a symphony of death the germans abroad in all of their big i guess you could call the military stars to this battle one of them is this artillery and doctor or on georg broke miller i think his name is but his nickname is breakthrough mueller three years ahold theory and each been perfecting on how to use the surgery garages and part of history involves the idea that you don't need to destroy the enemy positions which is what's always been done on need to do is neutralize i'm on the need to do with a machine gun nest to stop 'em from shooting long enough so that the infantry doesn't get killed on the way to taking out the machine gun nest themselves to use as a lot more gas first of all and he has a hold ordered that all this comes in the first to shoot the gas that doesn't kill you but it's like tear gas and make to gag and vomit and enemy to rip off your gas masks but then he should she would the fostering gaston if you're not wearing your gas mask kills you the waltons mustard gas which is a long lasting so to explain that the hand spring it will still kill the ants a week later you know try not to mustard gas is shot all these important crossroads in areas and heights an observation post so that the theory you get out we're so covered up and gas masks and to get hardly function in the german choose what should be impeded right you just have to be not functioning long enough for the waves of german soldiers to be free and clear to override your positions it also has the added benefit of not making the train in front of her dancing troops look like the cratered surface of the moon not lord shall creatures to become a barrier all its own previous battles in this one the german archery was in minimized that keep the way open for a quick in shocking advance the artillery opens fire on more twenty first the in a strange to say that their surprise 'cause everyone is was coming but the surprises in the intensity of the locations of what god the kaiser the emperor germany and the face of the german military kinda newberger purportedly at the battle to the kaiser was known to have this one tower that so that we injure station electors we could try to see a battle which was something that in the nineteenth century would've been a trained people came out with picnic baskets in the first major battle of the u. s. civil war to watch the kaiser in and it burned were supposedly at this battle to watch it unfold winston churchill was also there when they can aid opened up when you get this feeling at the sizzling like figure that it is not gonna miss him you be historical event if he can avoid that money was at this battle to win he gives one of the regional on much court account of what was like he said the bush walking around a firm was waiting for something to happen the wall cup from his sleep somewhere in the four o'clock hour and because relatively silent and then boom cool suddenly after what seemed about half an hour the silence was broken by six or seven very loud and very heavy explosions several miles away i thought they were twelve inch guns but they were probably moldings and then exactly is a pianist roses hand across the keyboard from trouble to base their rose in less than one minute the most tremendous can any dasher liver here and co he said that he called the weight in intensity of the bombardment surpassed anything which anyone ever known before and a coke russian and german soldier we talked about sometimes in the story is also at this battle he's on the opposite side of the shelling right to not even the side it's being shelled when he says they'd made every other even she'd been to his war look like a tea party and he was said many of the big battle stride a tea party he said that the shelling seem to suspend the laws of nature he should you be nikolai the match rating which is the shock waves even as far away is the german troops were with lord right out he says that if you looked over the enemy lines are you so is rolling clouds of flame and it looked like the way the desert looks really look in the distance in the heat the shimmering in nature will see mirages he said that that's what looks like you on the side of the people being shelled the effect on the british troops is almost like being punched drunk to private in the first west yorkshire regiment was mayor explained it this way cool nobody could stand more than three hours of sustain shelling before they start feeling sleepy and now i'm your hammered after three hours you there for the picking when he comes over to bed like being under an anesthetic you can put a lot resistance up on the other friends i'd been on the target is so much of our resistance that whenever je re opened up artillery opened up and quieted down there was no retaliation this time he had a free do with us and co i should point out that the germans called the british tommy and the british called the germans jelly office but about happens historian alexander watson court the german and italian doctor crunched the german who reported dead men reacted to shelling quarter for the most part with the feeling of enormous sleepiness and quo and then said that you get both emotional and physical changes in man or being shelled sold think about the people want receiving and what's about to be a ground attack after the experience something that does this to them when fuhrman says quote the eyes pop out of their sockets the expression becomes extinct glass eat the facial skin loses all of its red color the scheme that comes yellow the cheekbones gertrude the lips are shut tight and sticky spilled accept the tang to the roof of the mouth the hard-working short convulsive beats breathing becomes law or from time to time a cold shudder runs through the body in the teeth chatter every spoken word is delta's agony and the co auction goes to born out of service and shown that the troops would be to truly scared unfortunately an unsettled by it he writes quote not only did artillery cause more casualties than any other weapon on the western front but those injuries that it didn't sleep for often grievous contemporary psychiatrist agreed that man's primary fear was not death but mutilation wounds to the stomach jaw and allies were particularly dreaded is less significant artillery fire was more likely than any other weapon because had ones moreover shells were terrifying because it lieutenants and later somewhat coyly observed they could quote make such a mess of lawn and quo watson continues called the weapon a eviscerated maimed and disfigured body part could be scattered over why distances and legs and arms blown into trees by the force of explosions such sights were obviously extremely disturbing especially when the victims were friends were comrades as lieutenant yacht so remarked quote we use you shall fall into the midst of six men and pack three of them away in the sand bagged one wonders whether anything matters and co this is when you realize though these people are veterans in this combat and that this makes a huge difference these people have been hardened to their current state by degrees i've seen many horrible things in the past and living through situations that while they might not be as extreme as what about to go through our smaller version some away there's like lifting the smaller mon of wheat or your way up to lifting a greater mind when it's not like taking a week civilian like yours truly and throwing him into the kaiser schlock tomorrow and i'm expecting him to look into or under shell fire no longer certainly people that fell apart under shell fire broke and ran under shell fire lost their minds in it to shell shock to me one of those kinds of things get the amazing story here maybe this is what has a nice to people throughout history since it happened is that the vast vast vast majority people stayed there in those positions and took it having doboj a good part of their brain and self-control somehow all for writing or animal instinct that must've been screaming at them to simply flee but as as to these people had been hardened by what they've seen before you know the very day before march twenty first before the search your garage happens ernst young or is he in a shell hole in a relatively safe part of the lion king is an officer are you one and a whole bunch of manner in the big show home next to his it's like an amphitheatre he says an issue of having a meeting or respect their weapons and it's calm and their shelf are going on all the sadness of random stray shell falls into that big crater that lighting amphitheatre the camera hundred minute it's maybe the most gruesome upsetting part of the younger is gruesome and upsetting story he says after the explosion it so freaked him out and this is ernst junger reward that one of the veterans veterans he goes tearing off running in the soul of a panic before bench we'll stop and so for realizes he should go back and try to help some of those men but then i'd say marched yonder you know that next morning whatever is twelve fifteen hours afterwards is gonna be singing it is jumping off point synchronizing is watch watching the search hillary drop on the british in getting ready to go over the top an attack what's amazing is what he does so he does so in an almost get the fashion hard describe that the mood to the soldier's grove in the top you suggest during this battle i mean the courage to ours not necessarily representative but he says everybody else we're short of kind of on the edges sanity almost bizarre but the same time he says that they would talk to each other in a bubble economy will and fragments of sentences nice anybody was observing us would think we were incredibly happy the same time he's talking about this range that coming over him he squeezes designed in the tears are coming out an even break even hurt somebody i was twenty when you read it is he kind of remind juice something that may be in the back of your hating you already i think we look at these mars orders coming from nice backgrounds like ourselves and in a well trained and educated them all these kinds of things we somehow assumed that the very tendencies that we will freely admit that ancient peoples and vikings adam all these guys to people that could get up into a desert worried you know until they come and stand up and celebrating the joy being warrior that somehow because we have aircraft artillery machine guns and the nice can we need that it's all gone and some people again it's been in some people it's not an ernst junger goes looking for someone to kill when he jumps out of these jumping off points after the artillery barrage loosen the german army attacks on march twenty first to begin sweep an operation michael it's forty by the war and this'll be one of the things that looting or forget lucky with a couple of times in his multiplied combination board is not great for the german attackers it makes it difficult but it's a nightmare for the defenders the germans engine or sometimes called infiltration tactics and if it's foggy infiltration tactics are a lot more effective than thirty ships at applebee's defense owns with crossing machine gun fire only sons were always all these different defense we don't can help each other but because of the fog vacancy in effect and all the sudden the germans are jumping into the trenches with the british soldiers are catching on totally off guard history gearhart court captain charles miller who was on the line is the germans approach with your initial attack you know before nine a. m. on the morning of the twenty first through the fog and says quote the first attackers were into the trench long before the midst lifted i was so occupied with the flanks would barely saw them before they appeared out of the mist and leaped down into the trench in a moment we were all mixed up in hand and fighting i had too many coming at me with their bayonets one of whom i think i shall win my revolver while sergeant standing just behind me a shot the other replied blank range with his rifle barrel over my shoulder but almost the same second the germans bomb came whistling into the trench from the pair up it right into the bone chips and killed or wounded practically the whole lot of us english and german alike weather was actually this bomb or a bayonet stabbed again in the wound in my neck i don't know it might've been either for a moment we were clear that there was a nasty little shambles around us sergeant and talk we just saved my life having his head blown off i felt awfully we can discover the river of blood was flowing for my neck i tried to ban the gym but the bandage woodhall before they attacked us again they brought three trench mortars and not seven bells out of us then swarmed into the trench by that time there were only a handful of us left on our feet and all i suppose wounded i got another wound for mistake bomb which good to madeline the my thigh before i collapsed i tried to get the surrender signal and hope guys exceeded their buying saving a few lines we've done our best and co and what the things that happens with these modern battles is that the really turned into hundreds of smaller encounters that when you add them all together equal does big thing going on over forty miles when you read the account of these battles they all sound like you know me in ten guys took that machine gun nest a hundred yards away and it took us three hours we lost two men were killed every machine gun nest and we continue to move all that's an encounter when this war right so every time you read what's on such an isolated little incident in fact younger when he comes upon the first enemy soldier he sees on march twenty first it's this private encountered this moment where young years in this almost buzzer mood he just talked about guidi they'd been drinking alcohol there pal shrunk from bali artillery and as the sensory overload and he sees his enemy cases court then i saw my first enemy of figuring brown uniform wounded apparently crouch twenty paces away in the middle of the battery pack with his hands problem aground i turned the corner and we caught sight of each other i saw him jump as i approached in spirit me with gaping eyes will lie with my face behind my pistol stocked up to him slowly in coldly the bloody scene with no witnesses was about to happen it was a relief to me finely to have the fall in front of me within reach us at the mouth of the pistol up the man's temple he was too frightened to move while my nether fist grab hold of his tunic peeling medals and badges of rank an officer he must've held some command post in these trenches with a plaintive sounded he reached into his pocket not to pull on weapon the photograph which he held up to me i saw him on that surrounded by numerous family all standing on a terrorist it was a plea from another world later i thought it was blind shantz but i let him go and plunged on board that one man of all often appeared in my dreams i hope that mandy get to see his homeland again end quote so even the blind rage of the buzzer come moment that the younger had described earlier he was able to pull 'em so from the brink enhancer that thief i'm the world and let that soldier live mercy could be a dangerous commodity on the battlefield like this i was very normal for soldiers going past something like a bomb crater might have enemy troops in it to just simply throw grenades down the stairs into the bunker and not worry about it just keep on moving there were also a killings in the hot blood lot of the time it was normal for example of troops kept firing at you all the way up to you were almost on top of them and then tried to surrender good luck with that he was killing in cold blood to on all sides by and large when they could both sides like to take prisoners nobody's army surrendered in large numbers that was quite unusual but i'm more of what a great first day operation michael has is it sees a huge amount of british troops rendering in numbers that you never see twenty one thousand of them on the first day seventeen thousand of these people had been casualties to do that for our initial bombardment so you can see how their nerves are shot in some cases the deer infected by all those physical symptoms of the court earlier in the dirt just on and the stranger and cheek and tells a story of a british machine gunner must've been pre were presented to them the state was moline down german soldiers like arched yonder work as the approaches machine gun position and he can approach the soldier serving corp i thought we'd stop them up when i felt the bomb in the back i turned around and it was a german officer with a revolver in my back come along and tommy you've done enough turn around and then said thank you very much sir i know what i would've gone if i'd been held up by a machine gunner and had that revolt when my hand i finished him off he must've been a real gentleman it was twenty past ten i noted the many because i look to my watch and co if you actually had surrendered the germans you know while this offensive was going on to be a very near run thing british private golfer grow she's captured on the twenty second march of the next day with a boy is he describes him by the soldier nonetheless was badly hit in the head and is bleeding and roche right school the area we crosses swept by rifle and machine gun fire we crawl and escape it the boy is a pain in crying presently he jumps up here they come he cries i pulled him down who i ask jerry he said i looked cautiously on their ears right enough the first wave almost on top of us and corp roche's account continues quote leave it to me boyd were don we're prisoners now do whatever i'd tell you i wait a second and then up isay and take your helmet off we do so the german in front of me says half raises rifle and takes aim i'm honored to myself i hope to god he will hold a trigger for ten seconds we remain so benny lowers his rifle and says what i'd take to be wounded i nod and say yes yes he beckons him we approach we still have our equipment on the germans other shouts pointing to it slid off regretted the board doing it myself the german asparagus would we're spared him under the circumstances god knows perhaps not whoa but that same sort of gallantry you see on the german side in cases like this is present on the front side and bree started and the russians i mean this is is a human element coming forth in the midst of all this evil of course just as something to juxtaposition machold they use either killing of prisoners by all sides as well he in passing him calls more twenty first the day of the opening of the michael offensive the first punch 'em all die plunge combination right abudrahm signature or what most dramatic days of the whole war and he says quote in the event in despite numerous tales of heroic last dance and daring to the twenty first of march was a disastrous day for hades be enough being the british forces it was the bloodiest day of the first world war they were over seventy eight thousand casualties almost forty thousand on each side though the storm troops had advanced in water to places up to ten miles by the end of the day in the south overall twenty first the more twas a day of great sacrifice in confusion and cool seventy eight thousand casualties in one day thatcher new world record right there the horrible battle of waterloo wall hundred years previously had seen maybe sixty thousand casualties on the first day but there was no second day of the battle of waterloo operation my goal lead to seventy thousand casualties on the first day of the first one to bomb altay punch combination that would go on for months randall gray who wrote a piece on the kaiser schlock said it was called the greatest and most intense battle ever fought by the british army in the court he also said quote it certainly were presented the most awful non nuclear but chemical fighting more deal undergone by twentieth century soldiers with the possible exception of some nineteen forty one nineteen forty five eastern front battles and he ran iraq war end quote i know we straddling my myself the what the soldiers went through with these battles scarred them forever and in you know there's a difference we should understand that but there are a lot of people go to war who never seen a combat to booty with paperwork religious teacher supply they're all very important but the people who come home after this war and changed the psyche of the world the writers to thinkers distrust the everyday people whose attitude to been shocked into a different paradigm but with the experience in this combat go through things that have to haunt them i was particularly moody moody scattershot battles a german soldier hundred to libra shit talks about what happened to him don't you think about him having to live with his manly the rest of his wife and how it altered from a personal level and then imagine millions of people who had seen equally scarring of benson airlines to win on to help create his post war world and you can see how this war dug deeply into the psyche of twentieth century civilization gouged out a permanent moved the soldiers under french artillery fire in one of these battles me right quote french shells began the head to the right and left of us leaving human forms writhing in agony our advance can you was stopped after hesitating a few minutes we drew back wall the artillery fire followed us whipping large gashes in our formation soon the french drum firing golf thus the air was filled with gas and flying pieces of steel we automatically mounted machine guns for action and then like animals we borough des directors is trying to find protection deep in it's bosom something struck my back or i carried my gas mask but i did not pay attention to what the steals winter broke the handle of my spade and another not to the remains out of my hand i kept digging with my bare hands docking my head every time a shell exploded nearby boy to my side was hit in the arm and cried out for help i crawled over to him with this the use of this cauldron shirt open and started to bind the bleeding port the gas was now so thick that i can hardly discerned owes doing my eyes began to water i felt as if i would choke reached for my gas master pulling out of that container and unnoticed to my horror the splintered gone through it leaving the large hole francine get thousands of times stared into the face but never experienced with the rifle ban immediately or reverted to the primitive i felt like an animal court by hunters with the instinct of self preservation uppermost my eyes fell on the boy whose arm i'd bandage somehow he managed to put the gas mask on his face with his wife good arm i leaped out in the next moment it would be gas mask from the space with a feeble gestures each rider ranging from my grasp then fell back exhausted the last thing i saw before putting on the matter squeeze pleading eyes end quote that's really the peter hart wonderful book a great warrior such way of finding those incidents that when you read about them to aid the boggle your mind and then you can go forget about them but imagine the guy us to leave without the rest of his wife those kinds of moments that the extremes of human experience with these moral choices are thrust in your face like that ernst junger to why should this guy before he shows me the pictures family it's kind of what makes these war stress in aiding is how do people behave when innovator hundred this kind of intense pressure and strange extreme circumstances this is what's happening at the ground level at the big picture level this last card played by the germans here has been shockingly affected the british fifth army which let's be honest was in no position to be taking on german force like this at the moment they had been recovering from a previous bottle but we're holding two large part of the front page ad in the structuring defenses that needed some work and then they get hit with this force in the stands of violence and immediately shot him backwards the germans penetrate the first why their defenses in an hour to peer into the second line of their defenses by lunchtime this causes the first on several of like also will your underpants moments better part of the kaiser schlock i'm all time punch combinations wooden doors by the second day of the battle historian older herding says that the fighting is intensity and handed to get close combat with grenades in it's it's brutal any rights cocked after today's looted or some mobile an attack divisions and decimated golf's fifth army and driven the british almost forty miles behind the sauna and occurs at the national hey get lost two hundred thousand killed and wounded ninety thousand prisoners of war and thirteen hundred guns most importantly his defenses had been ruptured a fifty mile gap driven through his long lines open field that lay ahead of the germans and co this initial advance hasbro raul sky rocketing amongst the kaiser and some around him politicians court well on the second rushed congratulations to the troops and admonished them to push on this is the kaiser talking now quote much has been accomplished much more still remains to be conquered in court curving continues called the kaiser or schools closed in germany to mark the victory in court he presented him dannenberg with the iron cross with golden raised last given to prince blue sure for reading prussia of napoleon and wilhelm the second informed his entourage over champagne the quote if any english delegation came to sue for peace it must kneel before the germans standard for it was a question here of the victory of 'em monarchy over democracy and co looted or fisher is kaiser that the british army had been defeated end quote but many in the upper echelons of germany's military were much more sober about was happening here and realize that the pace they were getting chewed up it was good ear problem the question is who was going to break first this is like this boxing match which we've compared this entire war two tradition tire series we're too exhausted fighters here in the german high command sky thinking it we really don't have that much left and some of the german high command are countering with yeah beneath the day the fifth army will be forced to pull back when they pull back the army next to them has to pull back the third army otherwise to lose contact with each other the problem is that both these army zurich hatched two of french army and this is the first crisis that you were ops there's a breach about to open up between the british and french armies splitting those armies would be huge this brings us what the heck is going to we're trying to do right what his plan here in the skies are shocked well it it's one of the big controversies of the war theoretically he wants to punch a hole in the long line surround the british pushed the british up but the budget falling dominoes all the way back up to the english channel thereby changing the entire complexion of the war buddies flexible he has the saying that is often called afterwards 'cause this is one of the things too gets the most cryptic about races in terms of the strategy and tactics for this big multiplied combination court will upon to hold and then we will see did it that way in russia and the court any any any bird you can do that when they were coming in each confront they go in there the poncho whole big roll up our russian army to byzantine casualties needed that long enough to eventually they repudiate russian state falls apart but this is france and britain we really don't gambling the jurgen open up this whole majors can fall apart well the door's added to the list but i'm not going to fall for the mistakes of my predecessors those people who you have this one place they will attack in the run into a brick wall only just keep throwing more troops into the meat grinder for the brick wall were not to do that we break through somewhere where reinforced success this is supposed to be part of the latest german ideas about the war what happens if the breakthrough come to the spot when there's not that much of a war with the quality the new goals anywhere nearby because the ball we should so i didn't even call it a breakthrough that the germans have against the british fifth army happens in the place with is not anything close minded school and we knew the war all those places had been you know extra specially defended by the best return the best defense is the reason that the germans breakthrough here is because it was in some very important object nearby but the germans are moving so far but eventually they ran into one the place with the roads and railways all come together french onion pontiac added to this point that something that's been any issue for the entire war comes to an end almost fatal head and that is the fact that there is no coordinated allied leadership of all because at this point douglas hague be british military commander on the scene would like help from the french in this crisis situation recently troops and historians of argued whether or not they did some historians now they say they not only did he did it before they were even asked me to get larger numbers on their britches stories above all we said the french were very stingy with extra troops and put hagan is situation where the worst possible thing could happen you saw your underpants moment indeed but i was asking for troops from a guy named the time when his own war he was worried he'd gotten geologist the germans had another fist that was poised to attack near paris and as far as the town was concerned that was his number one concern to me on march twenty sixth and some historians to describe it hades mood at this point as near panic is he runs up against this brick wall always knocking the kind of help he feels like he needs and he's in a crisis situation baritone burrows says quote gaps also opened between the british in the french are crushed it was river sending hagen junior panic as your trenches doctor protect the channel ports shifted six divisions from his northern armies including three from the front line and implored to tend to rush cody divisions that we scolding the head of the general staff the regional stuff sir henry watson court haig is howard said wilson on march twenty fifth quote he said that unless the whole the french army came up we were beaten and would be better to make peace on any terms we colored end quote the seriousness of the situation finally leads the allied on tom hours too disregard questions of sovereignty in jail was guarding of of rights and privileges of all that and finally decide to nominate an end up finely approve somebody whose job it can be not so much to be the boss but to be the guy the coordinates the sauna goes to the french military leader for an infomercial we had talked about him in an earlier episode very aggressive energetic brave among the first things she'll do is issue an order that says that there would be no retreat from this important french city that an course gonna go after now on me out the people want to die with a stand basically not one step back and he will dole out the reinforcements as he sees fit but he's going to be very stingy and the general's like haiti will think that he stingy lloyd george the british prime minister writing his memoirs of that if our shores being a gambler and that's what generals often have to be how often we said look george gambler but was cautious gambling on is that he can be stingy with these reserves and these generals can manage without the merman it without what they really want the hague subsidy take a twenty divisions twenty divisions is a huge force the warner get to twenty division cautious trying to save the heart and stockpiled reserve force people the key to stay back stay in good health ready to go chomping at the bit and then unleash a counterattack with the german offensive is like the way you that washes up on the beach and loses its momentum right before it is sinks back into the surf that's when you wanna watch cower fence with fresh true for the enemy's exhausted what's all she's in the small type a hunch combination of lytton gore says an opportunity to win the war let the germans punch themselves out here and then take it to walk with a fresh force knows they're exhausted but that fresh force can only be built by being stingy with reserves when people like hagar worried he's about to be pushed into the sea in the french and british are about to lose contact in the no milk little part of this plant there is desperate you will and heroic when you talk about some of the fighting this battle it's the kind of thing really have the last four guys with the gone over ron fighting to the last man did you get the rest of the army you another our safety while the new move back then reserve positions and it's it's really frontage road stuff in the germans are striving they know this is the borg winning or we're losing moment and they're giving it their all of the casualties are power rangers what are people talk about this time period as the end of trench warfare in the beginning of open warfare again which hasn't existed on the western front since the war started coming at like six months a bit in the casualties were terrible and everything that went down underground into the trenches 'cause it was the only way to stay alive with all by lead flying up above no ground level up and out and had reverted to open warfare in the troops seemed happy to be moving up but this is also much more dangerous 'cause those trenches were there for reason they protected you from the county casualties bigger starting to see right here it has to shaw with the resumption of old war to regain comes the khanna casualties that we hadn't seen for a while something happens on march twenty third they had heat it's hard to put it in a proper context what happens is people in paris start seeing in hearing explosions on nowhere de since eyes explosions too and he knew shifting sort of twist the explosion comes with no sound of any schiller anything dishes nothing and then boom it was something goes up in smoke that's puzzling for while the people in pairs can figure what's going on under the other books to talk about as were people would be in cafes speculating on what's causing explosions in the aircraft is what everybody was thinking that the skies were clear there were no aircraft in the more the theories floated by some these people in cafes were court was that the germans had somehow small golden artillery piece you secretly hiding in some forster something within range of paris 'cause was so obviously are to be peace or ball finally with the french will figure out is that they are being shelled from a cannon firing from the germans are the line the german side of the line is way farther than the range of any other gun that anyone's ever heard of it turns out that paris is not being shelled by one gumbo but probably multiple guns but they're called the paris gone and they're being shelled from a distance of seventy five miles the dungeon reportedly shoot eighty one miles and give you an idea how long that is what the longer range don shula run into were the sixteen inch guns on the american i awoke class battleships they can shoot if i recall correctly between twenty five and thirty miles to talking about a gun that shoots twice as far easily it's got a better role that is a hundred feet long they have to have a special crane like device that did that this it's all over the gun holds the barrel up in keeps it from drooping the shell that it shoots by him to hold is the first thing that humans ever launched into the stratosphere and the distances were so long that the gunners had to reportedly account for the rotation of the correction their calculations but the calculations could be that targeted i mean these people could only shoot at sea bees and that accounts for why the shells that landed randomly the worst occasion as it is a much talked about still incident during a holiday when people were in church i'm one of the shells came crashing through the roof explode in the church and killed liking your ninety people was awful but over the course of the conflict it would only disheveled more than a hundred casualties in less than three hundred deaths which you know his wonderful but if you have a giant artillery piece shelling your city at the tube we assume worse after awhile but some historians say this is all part of a of a concerted effort to what the germans are trying to do with their army a shock the allies into a pro german peace and shelling paris's away of all milk india bird flying sores on that i'm pushing you british army's back and shelling paris and and believe me it certainly makes clear to the french the stakes involved here the germans are close enough to be show in paris the key to this battle's going to be how the generals to utilize the reserves that they have not to get too technical but but in this level of the war for when troops are fighting each other in modern comedy wearing each other down and wiggling the way their strength and so generals have at their disposal troops that they're holding back and when they decide to commit those troops as part of the yard general ship it's part of the winter loses battles and it's part of what the generals were so concerned about what the law she's offenses at least half the offensives half the punches league or full throttle the kaiser schlock are nothing but efforts to divert reserves from where he really wants to punch bob woodward who decides to do is to throw in some of these vital and limited reserves which were always wonderful storm troopers these i'm encouraged younger sister roxanne young long haired sort of wild man as opposed to the saloon buzz cut germans it's interesting to talk about storm triple try and understood them to be a new members of the of the best and brightest and he pulled out but younger makes him sound like some sort of ultra cool set of long haired german viking youngsters or something nonetheless sure that tom i'm so worried they use a little doctor size to throw them into where the british army the fifth army in the third or were there bulging back like forty miles and see if he to smash through the support of railway junction but he runs into the same problems that the british and french could warn him about the peace first world war or muse run into when they tried to launch offenses and continued a day after day after day mission to break down the breakdown or multiple levels first of all the logistical and supply problems are immense any remains for the army's is still have a lot good stuff like the british and french to the germans were down to like no horses that are under fed and not even enough of them to try to move supply up these battles or a huge challenge us the one could somebody really important german armies and sort of ironic and a conquering in pushing into the territory that they had deliberately destroyed in the scorch worst policy to hampered their opponents and how they had to try and operated the german army right next door the army to move to the scorched earth territory and i'm going to the old psalm battlefield with all its creators of barbed wire and in all the graveyards of the dead and all this i mean so both these are major canadian badger rain now they're attacking in more and more debate the allies are resisting heroically and the supply is huge the german army is starving in some cases you know when you read like the memoirs of england or she'll say something vital supply didn't keep bopper someone comment like that as reason why these battles bogged down when you actually read accounts of what these troops were desperately trying to get the guns and bullets but more importantly even before alluded to these people for the book is called the tip of the speedier or the head of the snake the combat troops for action fighting they're being shelled and shot at wildly they tried over calm supply difficulties that once you hear the music during the wind to numerically goddess forest they did historian alexander watson has a reminiscence by one of these german supply troops who realizes that winning or losing the war requires that they get their stock up to the front but listen to what they have to contend with annan magnify the years across an entire for your fifteen mile front as they try to move forward in continue to keep his momentum as the supply lines could stretch longer and the german says quote i have that feeling that we've been marching the wrong direction we ask on several occasions but don't receive any useful information and in the meantime tommy their pet name for the british recall begins to shoot and not all badly by bus ride on an income upon to recently shot up carsten to get horses through a miracle the driver were mainz on the heart they want us that we should not drive past spring from detail but what can you do therefore forwards now however the way begins to get bad thick mud makes forward progress difficult assume we have a supply column stock fast in front of us a saxon mobile bridging unit cannot go any further it approaches ascended stock we therefore harness the horses push make room on low the breaching units stuff that such rock all of the deepest darkest with the least possible mores in addition the shells crashed around but one no longer worries about them after much effort the wagons or got back on the road we think now the comrade in his column who missed their way to go on but now all just then a narrow gauge train comes rushing along you're responsible chaps a throne munitions on the rails one jolt in the train is do you worry old on exactly that street along which we have to pass what to do with unspeakable effort to mean issues which are jammed at the french were moved the derail the carriages lifted by means of the winch and in the route is free now the vehicles to get three when they start up again we didn't come to the worst part of the road the client allows us to go forward only gradually every moment of wagon and its driver get stock reserved teams are sent forward bridges over streams are especially difficult to cross on top of that war under heavy fire and quote but the fact that troops are getting supplies becomes part of the reason why they can't continue to push on at the pace that the german high command wants them to push on the peso didn't have to push on with the one which she these objectives this is revolution in the english wife of the german nobleman we record the few times before has the story about letters to their family was receiving from family members who were in these battles and when you read them you hear about an army that is literally starving and exhausted she writes quote they say that no words can describe the horrors of what they've been through their right that they're almost dying of starvation they say the advance so rapidly that no provisions could reach them their division was five days and nights fighting incessantly without food or even sleep at all those other companies who were not killed or wounded died of exhaustion and it is only by a miracle that they themselves are left to tell the tale their letter range with a significant words quote send us some food somehow was quickly as you can what we also shall die and court she then i'm into the situation is little village where she lives quote the peasants in village people received the news that sometimes wanna sometimes even two of their sons of being killed on the same day it is done wholesale slaughter of late and co given that situation it's not hard to understand how wants peace troops began to push forward in truth allied controlled area and see the supply dumps the stores and all the strings of the allied troops have us believe he read your counted they think they were suffering right demagoguery reading one with a guy said liberation order saying you're reading dog biscuits were practically starving but these germans come across with these british forces house and they just stopped in some cases g. g. minor quota famous piece about a soldier investigating why the advance was moving forward a german captain writing about advance on march twenty six in court today the advance of our infantry stop near all they are nobody could understand why are your men had reported no way enemy between a beret and i'm yeah the enemy's guns were only firing now a medium of the very edge of the errors are way he seemed entirely clear i jumped into a car with the worst to find out what was causing the stoppage of the frog as soon as i get you the town i began to see curious sites strange figures to look very little like soldiers and certainly showed no signs of advancing were making their way back they were many driving palace before them online others who carried a hen under one arm in a box of no paper and the other main caring about law and under their arm and another one open in their hand menu which one is still drawing room curtain office rod we were dragging into the real residues for peace of loot men with writing a paper recall or notebooks evidently they'd found a desirable to sack the stationery shop men dressed up in a comic disguise men with top hats on their heads man is staggering man who could hardly walk when i got into the town the streets were warming with wine on the seller came lieutenant of the second marine division helpless and despair i asked him what is going to happen it was essential for them to get forward immediately he replied solemnly in emphatically i cannot get my men out of the seller without bloodshed end quote but in addition to the logistical supplies off to miss another kind of exhaustion the place and all these world war waterfront intimate human exhaustion it's the part we're human beings simply come to the end of their limit when it when you can fight a battle we want to you rotate people out so after the unique is so tired you're not useful anymore they take a model any replacing by fresh troops with these battles and especially on the german side this was very difficult to do and he didn't so the same troops are fighting for days and they're dropping when they stay and i mean them if you believe the princes lucia letter to dying from exhaustion but she think about how being this tired affects your ability to resist a new willingness to continue onward ng we're sitting in the comfort of our recording studio here overwhelmed by these people's ability to put up with the shelling in the conditions in the dead bodies all that stuff but that's when you think of them having a full belly and a good night's sleep imagine it when you haven't slept in dayton you're starving to death the second world war some of these armies will sometimes use things like amphetamines to prolong the amount of time people could endure before the heat exhaustion point i've seen it blamed by some historians for some of the more income is massacre is your troops had been up for twelve days straight using speed they might not be as rational and cortez arm collect did hands on to might've been twelve days previously i'm part of the white he's exhausted soldiers aren't able to force anything to a conclusion that they're they're moving forward they've been successfully been reinforced but they don't have any mobility the role of human history cavalry had sort of played the role of what they needed now someone they could rush forward an attack were treating or troops were least pulling back really sold in oak all sorts of chaos in the enemy reared the germans need tanks in the armored personnel carriers they will have a firm rather were war they're polished to have these things they unveil the tank the year before this time period and they become better and are getting continually battered figuring out how to use it initially the german high command at scoffed at the school tank idea but to taking in more more seriously as time goes on they wish they had some tanks now i'm bad because these exhausted soldiers were only able to march forward historian john terrain considers this to have been almost criminal the german high command launches these offenses to win the war but don't give the troops annuity reached with the victory he said quote as we hear would show the days of cavalry is an arm of exploitation on modern battlefield were over yet feeble as it was the cavalry was the only exploiting norm that existed for the germans to launch an offensive intended to win the war with u. n. all was not just polish it was criminal and cool and it would allow the enemy to move reserves and help in the fringe of unleashed divisions a trip to come to the aid to you and the resistance on the allies will stiffened her were awake lead you in for the support and railway juncture and the germans would run out of gas essentially it would be like a wave that lost the momentum at the end of the beach lynn dorf years later writing his memoirs about what he knows is this important moment in his history germany's history world history and he's been criticized for time and and here's the way he puts it in his memoir school the enemy's line was now becoming denser than in places they were even attacking themselves while our armies were no longer strong enough to overcome them unaided ammunition was not sufficient and supply became difficult to repair of roads and railways was taking too long in spite of all of our preparations he then goes on to say it was an established fact that the enemy's resistance was beyond our strength and quo on april fifth two wooden doors calls off operation michael he's inflicted a hundred and seventy eight thousand casualties on the british band in fifteen days seventy seven thousand on the french buddy suffer between two hundred and thirty and two hundred and fifty thousand casualties were self for men who launched this whole attack one of the year that american reinforcements were gonna come swamp the germans through sheer numbers you can trade lives to dissuade them survive and dorfman zack but is gonna continue to poetry does that his plan he told him to land a clean shot somewhere the problem is is that there were so much invested in michael these offenses the bin plan for mom's always do the best troops' morale was always it's highest the failure was disheartening and the dead on the german side come disproportionately from the very best hand picked troops we decide to he'll use most of the rocket fuel in the very first poncho have a time left for subsequent arches at this point london door starts getting really pointed not so nice questions from subordinates about what she failed to her we can do some of you wouldn't or staff is turning against him they're openly questioning his decision making in these situations at least one of the moon gorge responses to use rebellious staff members made it into the history books he's supposed to set him on his story described it as acidly cool or is the purpose of your croaking or you want for me my now to conclude peace it any price and co bill humble on leave but who will be a field marshal in the next world war is openly critical to the dorf and then says on march thirty first he called totally lost his nerves and equal this is sort of the way they described a nervous breakdown back then and included or fed had won the sheerer any mayor had another one or he may have the first one later there's going to be an increasingly stressful period ahead for lord george annis artie showing signs of cracking if he'd had won a band that would just put him as the second german military leader in this war to have a nervous breakdown the original architect you had to carry alta plan to win the war to bree started the war one mold that also lost his nerves they say you soulful carriers why is it no matter but if little dwarf is still basically the guy making all these decisions on what to do with all these charges and how to react when opportunities are crises wrapped his state of mind is key and if it is nuclear house his decision making going to be the good question increasingly as we continue onward the second conjure rides on april not so great after michael was called off the launch georgette each of the sponges was as it has it's own name george it was supposed to be george but now it's been scaled back his georgette because of the huge losses the first punch cost the germans georgia is launched in the north in flanders against in a really strong differences we've been fighting for years defense is to billy king is somewhat though because when the germans were busy throwing their first launch hagen the british were rushing every unit that they could spare down where the fighting was in the budget delusion it'd been up here in flanders lot of woodworkers committee with the sponges we said to create diversions to be the equivalent of boxing matches throwing it upon to someone's body to get them to pull their hands down opening up their head to another patch this is where looting dorf really want to win the war though because papa in the north hearings later she's gold of the channel ports these portrait on the other side of the english channel from great britain that are supplying everything the entire british army in fact all the stuff that they're bringing in enough to share with the french and everything else dickie yuri everybody knows it and when georgette strikes once again with the doorstep foggy weather help him out and once again he somehow straight units that are just shouldn't be in the line of fire they were actually moved to was thought was a quiet part of the line and then boom have another german hurricane bombardment you have still some storm troopers left for pursuing through this fog papa por portuguese division this is truly becoming were worn out that was supposed to be leaving the front that day it's just it's integrated from the artillery fire the british in the polls backing have a very similar situation exactly how michael started this german penetration another soil your underpants moment when hague once again pleads for your help from the french annie get some but it's war stingy in his mind how much she gets remember for shoes were rolling away troops for this coward type he was to launch when the germans are totally punched out but he has to gamble that he can be stingy with troops are not have the hague fold are no one knows whether or not that can happen with haiti she's one of his most famous speeches or proclamation to to it's it's called the backs to the wall proclamation and his glitter really one of those stand or die orders to the troops barry famous very stirring rousing when the situation is graham court many amongst us are not tired to those i would say that victory will belong to the side which holds out the longest the french army is moving rapidly in ingrid forced to our support there is no water course open it was but to fight it out every position must be held to the last man there must be no retirement with our backs to the wall and leaving in the justice of our caused each one of us must fight on to the end the safety of our homes and the freedom of mankind alike depend upon the conduct of each one of us at this critical moment in court nonetheless buggy and you do for were osha's resistance and yet to think of both sides is actually straining to the maximum up the british and the french are able to hold once again the logistical supplies in the human exhaustion and the casualty levels you know destroy the momentum of the german attack again and it's it's in your image it's the same thing that the allies have had to face the last couple years when they try to launch offensives and continue to maintain the momentum george it gets to within five miles of the key in our objective from both sides by the white or yeah but it can be mind numbing suffer another hundred and ten thousand casualties each it's hard to deter mind around the numbers i we think the figure fifty to sixty thousand people fill up your average sports stadium and so you're hundred and ten thousand number is no couples sports stadiums in georgia by the way is small that's why it's name georgette the big encounters are giving you know malt ion dreams of thousands of people on may twenty seventh almost almost later looting dorf throws to third podge but the most clear because it took that long to the reef it can reorganize and send replacements and have people in the hospital that met major wounds get sent back to the front and the exhaustion was such that it took a monster recover so that they could launch another are these punches and it's called operation blue shirt and within a couple of days french are discussing abandoning papers when the government to bordeaux the british our panicked that if the french fold up here and it's a real possibility that they will that the british army will be trapped on the continent on french soil they will be hostages in the minds of some of these people that were discussing coming up with a plan to get the troops in our friends hostages to haiti and all arm twisting german peace agreement right before the americans can come and save europe with their massive numbers of people the british would've had to knock a wanderer after the french were defeated in their army and as hundreds of thousands or low millions be held by the germans for leverage we've seen happen here is we play up we saw in both michael in georgia with the germans again have an initial breakthrough that shocking and on like operation michael were the germans broke through and there really wasn't any super fantastic goal that they could strike at this time when the breakthrough it's near paris the french capital one or two sides to reinforce this attack as in passing and labels him an think it's a pretty good label for him he says he's ever in the opportunist never the strategist but they can be taking canada's a compliment to gluten dorf things that the idea of cutting yourself down one standard recipe your set of rules for object is the decreases flexibility makes a move toward paris and we have this crisis again another so will your underpants moment for him for shopper why do troops as he can without totally destroying is opportunity to have a counterattack in the near future the americans already on train did get thrown into the mix because of the desperation of the times go find out the small encounter at chateau cheering it's called on the no flight of famous battle in the american military strike will be bullied the americans when they get into combat for the first time they fight like the europeans ball in nineteen forty no they're not particularly enamored with with the european war for forty seen him with a bit of a fringe or tried to train them and stuff they'd rather storm of san juan hill and has simply take these things why are we being sold in our own conniving about and why are we here just go up and and and little dashing little american aggressiveness and you clear out these trenches and undetermined to be on the ron because of this the americans are taking the nineteen fourteen level casualties the supper ten thousand casualties to bellow wood bowman welcome to the war initial german reported that the americans are almost suicidal the brave very good marksman the calms early lead and the american artillery which is mostly stuff they borrowed from the french don't have any of the room have your tillery doesn't know how to do basic things that the european armies to all the time delicate creeping barrage that sort of level of cooperation and dom sophistication he's not yet part of the american arsenal that makes it hard to come back battles the way the europeans to at this point luton gore says his biggest fear about the americans is that they can go and take over our quiet part of the line from the french every shoulders are currently there are allowing those soldiers to be moved into positions where they can fight the germans but there are ten thousand americans the day arriving in france there almost three hundred thousand by this time in the story and there will be two hundred and fifty thousand every month for the foreseeable future as the emperor angry military leader napoleon said about troops quantity as equality all its own what looted orders gonna find out is that the americans make damn good soldiers the canadians and the australians due to you and several historians jaunty in among them have started setting up by this point war the canadian an australian divisions are the shock armies of the british army the british had lost a town of their own units in nineteen sixteen at the psalm at this point the canadians and the australians are healthier bigger stronger reversed on getting sort of the pick of the litter or as these british formations i'm awful lot more people but if you'd had your druthers should be back in civilian life you know with kids were still finishing up school or whatever it might be on the canadians australians are so important to support the war that the german intelligence pays attention to where they are and i'm i read somewhere that said that the german intelligence on to the canadians an australian division for rape by each other they knew that some often supposed to happen right there one german soldier court after being captured by the canadians had had been shocked because he simply thought you were up north the they'd they'd they'd monitored were the war when the germans' captured the americans would head so impressed them was a combination of how a strong and healthy eating the americans were compared to you the way that the soldiers that they were reviewing towering are living with work and also to the equipment was sold nice and pristine in immortal that the quality of the weather and the belt buckles all those things are made of the german army staff at this point is trashed their katie's would be called distract the guards and one odder still good but in terms of clothing and one on the german army is looking pretty ragged we'll be too instance the soul of the in american history that show the attitude of the americans as we've always celebrated and one comes during a war these really battles that involve americans we're going in action of the french and then there's a moment and the french decide to call a tactical retreat to sometimes it's the right move to make you know from that from the playbook and they advise the american kept in the marine captain i believe that he should do the same thing the famously says retreat pal we only just got here an ocean of the famous incident that has gone down into american military law or off from these really battles where the americans to the very impetuous city and and suicidal bravery is the german commander might say on get themselves in trouble under firing tall grass with machine gun pinning him down when people down and a certain point one other officers or marina would be in the hall the classic cream first world war remains hammers and priestly happen from the spanish american war to the philippines to central american all items that is supposed to stood up start walking forward firing his weapon from the hip and yelling all the soldiers that were on their stomachs in the tall grass c'mon you sons of bitches do you wanna live forever once again the ending is in your image of the other poachers the physical inhuman exhaustion combined with logistical and supplying nightmares combined with heroic resistance again like i can't emphasize enough these battles on both sides are fought with the ultimate in a sort of frenzied striving i can describe it any other way but the germans are starting to get weaker as we said they burned the rocket fuel they're down to people that they had planned to be the troops that you put in the trenches that the better troops are already conquered to serve in the rearrange is gonna be the last line of defense in atwater best weapons were taken in given to the other troops they've never been trained in the new firing movement the storm troop tactics in the decent people now left to make the last beauty sponges work when the better troops at a higher state of arousal and a better time could make it happen the fourth punches thrown june night it's called denies now and this time you don't see that initial period with the germans are able to you make great progress before they're stopped here they're just stopped but this time the kaiser she lost his cost the german army between half a million seven hundred and fifty thousand casualties remember this punch of the years that they were going to troll was about a million two million three hundred thousand may interest and now it's condition is a little like what the condition of your fist would be if you would been throwing in multiple times into hard object rusty gets nicked make it sliced up and starts to bleed and then it starts to break and if that wasn't enough to read to whether things impacting the ability of the german army to continue to fight like this one is perhaps the worst aziz in human history certainly top i'm on anyone's list in terms of nasty epidemics on the history is the spanish flu andy it probably kill old between fifty eight a hundred million people at a time when the population was less than two billion some five hundred million people will come down with it and in june and july right at that that time all these encounters are taking place a half million german soldiers have to in addition to an actual contagion to dealing in the german army now with an intellectual one oh the fire including dorfman started in his next door neighbor's apartment is now coming home to roost and as we study the so hard to figure out from the memoirs you how much are these people are actually bolsheviks how much of the more much more moderate socialist and how much of it urges people that had decided that the war should be over guys like looted orphan hitler they put them on the same category and by nineteen eighteen is the replacements are coming to the east german unit twenty need reinforcements from home they are people they have been hatched shall we say by the intellectual contagion let loose in russia by the german high command to undermine their willingness to continue the war and now they're part of the east german units all the random house trial rights some stuff on the americans and then she skiers towards this intellectual contagion issue that luton door to sort of in the car make sort of sense beginning to reap he writes quote in addition to confronting americans eager for battle the german high command found danger in another quarter or the impact of the russian revolution was beginning to ripple through the german army as its divisions of eastern front troops were transporter france and belgium the general discovered that revolutionary ideas and come with them being read german language newspapers distributed by the bolsheviks or fraternize with soldiers from the fast dissolving russian army many had lost all order for combat called are victorious army on the eastern front became you rotten wood bolshevism a senior german general told an american newspaper after the war quote we get to the point where we did not dare transfer certain over eastern division to the west and cruel hoax trial continues quote soldier shipped to the western front turned rowdy firing shots retrain windows every one troop train in may nineteen eighteen carrying six hundred and thirty one minute eighty three deserted along the way cynical troops shot cattle for flanders on the side of the railway cars taking them waxed and a half a dozen german cities underground network spring up to a deserters leftist sympathizes provided men with shelter mani forged papers and ration cards and instructions on the best spots to slip across the border region neutral holland in equal a little over a month after the fourth german punched in the eyes and nose halted quickly luton dorf throws the fifth puncture and by the way he's planning on the sixth poncho up in flanders again word georgette just failed but first this fifth partially be to draw reserves away from flanders and to who knows you know poncho holmes see what happens it's known history is the second battle to mourn the reason why people remember this name so well is because instead of the germans breaking through and having this early success the second battle of the morning they get hammered back the larger pincher movement and the episcopal french cities ones are the answer is immediately stopped the other side in a goes on for a couple of days slow grinding advance and then it stopped and then the french military leader the generalissimo now the allied on tom tore says fernand for shit launches a counterattack now historians disagree over whether or not this counterattack houses the beginning of the big counterattack the porsches been saving up for some say it does others say that this counterattack is more something designed to stop this battle in the next counterattack is the beginning of the big push nonetheless within two days of the second battle of the more we launched by lewin dorf the allies are counterattacking and they're doing is using essentially second world war tactics they hit the germans in the flank to get a part of the salient that we're really essentially in the germans are they're trying to cut down some wheat that they just advanced into custer's darling and then with no warning at all an artillery barrage just starts and instead of the id you hitting various positions all over the place the shells instantly come together to form one of those creeping garages those walls of explosions then the creeping garage instantly starts moving forward like a giant moving hurricane heading toward german troops behind this hurricane how she all this wall of explosions is a giant smokescreen and charging out of the forest where they've been hiding are hundreds of light tanks followed by infantry and with the aircraft swooping down conducting what we call now ground attack missions which is something that didn't even exist three years previously these tanks didn't either and not only are these tanks and in hundreds of them in one place is very uncommon these are new kind of tank the white tank that even a looted or faster we knowledge in his memoirs made a big difference because they're fast well they do the disputed jogging men who were the heavy tanks which are the size of the school bus an f. fifteen to twenty people on the move and more the speed of the walking and hundreds of the tanks want to make a huge differences well what their job is is to go take out the things that are so damaging to the infantry thereby making it safe for the infantry to advance remember what the first world war did was combine a bunch of new weapons systems together the changed everything two of the most important of them were machine guns and barbed wire the first thing the tanks do is crushed the borg wiring go after the machine guns machine guns can hurt the tanks what they basically do they often don't even use their guns they often just drive right over the machine gun nest in either crushed the people inside were forced them to flee but this opens up the battlefield for the infantry who were following close behind you didn't go off also mentions in his memoirs that the french are using he calls the tanks that hold him country he says this infantry drives up in the tank called the battlefield to surmount sets up a machine gun nest and and the tank was back to pick up more country he's basically describing armored personnel carriers these generals who robbed his war have been accused of being on the magic of butchers we're figuring out how to overcome challenges of early twenties century warfare the germans on their side has some very forward thinking generals were good as the allies two to one of those a canadian guy and others australian general almond korean monash and they're coming up with the new tactics the french and generals were coming up in the new tactics and together they are all for coming in the traditional things that slowdown office you might call the form of protrude blitzkrieg american soldier elton he makin was attacked counterattack and had been told that they wouldn't be a preliminary barrage of this wall of steel this moving walsh do with just up here are instantly and in the infantry with russian afterward he describes the situation like this four to one instead there was silence and then the world when maginnis smashing burst of sound man castano for her role to the earth which shook against the guns mine is stupid five were fused all function for a moment and we'll get everything within a hundred yards was nodding be derek tearing bites at the man in trees and wire stately forest melted beneath the raging storm of firing steel heavy branches in tree trunks crushed the life out for man who powered among the root for shelter or one or the furious awful screaming as the shell fire world away then mad waves of charging infantry came afterward mopping up and quo the satellite counteroffensive but today and all those punches to the german army had been throwing come dwarf will very quickly cancel that point she was thinking about throwing up in flanders again and you put the german army on the defensive the german army has now reached a point in this war that is here you see in a lot of war slash the ones that its report when you're not defeated two can no longer when how are you playing that card when you're delta does very interesting come on to gain makes us wonder about now how sound the mind of the man who's going to play this card as during star entry gluten dwarf has been spotted by his subordinates crying at one point they will carefully convince him to go see a psychiatry est any changes actually almost a little common cold mean you and these are human beings and we should have some sympathy but the same time that the psychiatrist is saying things like you never get out you never smelly there was the last time we have some good food no it's it's it's just another you never think about yourself and loafers going yes yes yes right to all true but what can i do on a leader says the war has taken everything in one sense he's not exaggerating soon after the german michael offensive starts lytton gore for motors into territory they didn't recently conquered by the germans and some of this ground contained graves linden dorf pulls up in the car the story goes as damned dig up the remains of what the graves and he identifies his son also named eric luton dorf now this is stepson actually but suppose we use as close to the moors biological sons in this was the second sana that he'd lost in this war also the second pilot in no danger to soda comparing contrast this is the last war were you seal lot of fame as powerful important people lose their children in the war i can think of another time period after the switch been anything quite like this for me not only does the newer flus two steps on this but just off the top of my head the prime minister of whom britain went to the first two were so years of the war with herbert ass with he lost a son birdman farce to generalissimo of the allies he lost to sight and famously when he been told the news she was busy in the middle of an offensive and doing stuff was told a news he gave himself half hour to grieve composed of self and a bike to work you're roosevelt the famous adventure junkie and courage to skate in the vault and and lost one the pilot also help it's hard to know how much losing his second son in this war affected in the dorf i'm tempted to feel like it's just one more straw weighing down the camel's back and he's in one of these positions you and i'm always fascinated by the extreme human situations and an door to more of those positions our history there's a lot of people been in the weather and the six train crushing stress and i was wonder how much they can take mr limit that everyone has occurred to plug up some other person was some other personality type in the situation and were soon have them do better we look at how off hitler in the last four mom susceptible east onto this crushing your sword of damocles pressure annie's this holy where that could you put someone else in that role had them too much better i don't know where the limits of human interest or you know to question the to the howled across the border soldiers was asked about the people of the top of the food chain like to lead the worst you also want to ask it about the soldiers collectively in the fight along can endure and also by the people back home remember all of this thing is that this war really inaugurate is the idea of total war obliquely go back to other times in history you see it but in the modern era tall war means the involvement of the book called the home front all the people are needed in this endeavor because they produce if nothing else in all the munitions and everything the troops at the front need to keep fighting what happens when they reached the limits of their interests campus last part of the war in the last couple most will be known as the hundred days is one of those tickets not have the least dottie part of the war because it's not like the trench warfare party for for warp but it's want those occurrences that that when you read it the bring stranger motions to before because what you're watching so sort of a dune to effort and the costs of the doomed effort beyond the leaf so as you watch it you don't know what to think because there's something unbelievably admirable about the people in the stories willingness to sacrifice all for whatever reason the part of you just screams out at what appears to a person not in that situation and let's be honest raised on much more cynical modern values what appears to be frankly not that smart right if you think that the war is over and you're looking at it from the early twenty first century as we are any watch these people go through unbelievable things to prolong it one second longer worsening you can help but feel that he was screened out against the collective waste of it all right enough if you know that this is don why let us continue and it's a strange emotion as i said do something there were awake about the loesser from ones of the war and one side of the heroism and again and again for people in the twenty first century it's it's it's a little strange because we have the second world war intervening in the way we think about things in the second world war really have a good and evil feel to it the first world war was sold as a good and evil warn the people of the time drink untreated it they'll wake up one hundred years later as we are now you can look back on its he truly not a good evil war two really more of a old line no power politics so internationally shanley it's it's pretty representative in a much larger scale of the kind of wars people of always fought to what she do that she could begin to see everyone sacrifice to mr white as i said in a strange way to like the peace people sacrifice really takes on a glass of almanza toward his his heroism very old grandson to determine media so wicked doomed heroism and as we said before you know there's a varied to hold can ask feeling to the first were worn many people say that that's not an accidental country mentioned in an earlier episode was in this war was a soldier started writings to stop that would become things like the lord the rings bombed out in this conflict base certain scenes of lore the rings on things he'd seen in this war and the way the toehold in sort of underpin sizzle or the ring story is our last alliance of the grand old people to use to be so powerful to take down the dark power and then in one of two things can happen either they could lose to the dark power nearly will be covered in darkness or they can beat the dark power body and soul in doing that wellstone damage themselves the barrel the high water mark on the world stage will also be overheated tuned victory and that's kind of war were watching in these last couple of most of the war where are they frightfully high amount of damage is being done to all sides in this effort to bring what's now a foregone conclusion to win in these people are dying over tom's maybe you can we kill enough of the enemy to make them give us a little more leeway on this point in the peace treaty after these people are really dying for butter dying in such large numbers that these will be mortal wounds really to the british and french empire safe not moral loose in terms of replace ability 'cause eventually you can replace those people may be mortal wounds on an imperial psyche whose cost was now appearing to be unsustainable from august eighth the allied powers launched a long awaited counterattack the hunchback against the exhausted german forces in the hopes that you can snap back like a rubber band everything that they had taken in the past couple of months they have washed up to the top of the beaches we said the tide could run out of momentum and on august eight they were hit with such extreme violence in in several places good mood and dorf will call it the black day of the german army in history of this war they'll call it that not so much because the germans for smashed and push backward but they work but because it seemed to be the first real confirmation that that the murrah limits had been reached at least for some of these soldiers there were thomas renders for example which is what happened a couple weeks before when the french and watched about will lose light tanks lot of german surrender now the d. d. t. in here and they didn't surrendered in one's work to lose you guys who'd been courting shell holes they came in groups heavily armed men led by junior officers who would surrender to the first ally officer they ran into him thirty fifty seventy five men at the time was it was a sign of something different as the germans didn't do this it was a sign that we were reaching the limits of injury to a base for some of these units the army had become brittle bone on this date you see that because some elements of the army held firm we're trying to keep us all a blind if he gives away anywhere the enemy streams through that and then surrounds albeit a position turning him into little islands amongst the enemy and what my favorites to resume on tuesday it because it really brings forward the sense of confusion is on an officer in the second line of defense who's in a bunker on the telephone trying to get news of what the heck's going on he get your stuff it's foggy that day which is panel like mother nature are deciding the equally odd 'cause he'd been forty through so many of the punches the germans had recently thrown in their nineteen eighteen spring offensive it seems only fair he would be foggy and of the day the allies counterattack and it is in the bunker commander says she can even see ten feet out there an as a telephone trend figure what's going on and he'd cut down the stairs and insisted the lines are broken the enemy is as as has bypassed this redoubt aziz bees behind them any says that before the person speaking even get the whole message out the grenades are rolling down his staircase into his bunker the worst enemies they were already throwing grenades so sums up how august eighth looked in the allies on in the north of the army out the british were using the canadians australians as reso's with shock armies on news five hundred plus tanks and most of them were the big hairy ones that they're like school buses an anti aircraft coming into the ground attack missions in the infantry come out the use that tone of the wall of shells but no preliminary bombardment and german units just break in front of them the french have success when the years that they launch a couple hours later and the allies are pushing through a german lines in making what by first world war standards is great progress here's how the stirring equally describes de quote eight august would be one of the most remarkable days of the war although the position of all units was not known at the allied assault had driven between six and eight miles into german lines shattering the second army an army changing the flight of the eighteenth army on its left germany casualties had been staggering the official history estimated that there were so high as forty eight thousand men including thirty three thousand missing or taken prisoner four hundred gallons of them lost as well as hundreds of machine guns and trench mortars for the battalions in the front line often only small groups of survivors reigned even continues called numerous from my battalion to be reduced the size of companies all that remained were clusters of shellshocked man their will on early broken their faces grimy your eyes glassy staring straight ahead your stories were always the same horrifying accounts of iron monsters clanking of the mists towards them of mass infantry attacks of being cut off and surrounded of waiting for counterattacks that never came some did not or perhaps could not say anything at all the deed or for worse nightmare was it seemed coming true and cool in his memoirs who's very suspect and take it agree miss all memoirs leading dorf claims to have sent an observer to go and check out the scene were these units were breaking the city observer came back and said that the troops of the front line were yelling at the reserves are they came up to take their place black legs strikebreakers your prolonging the war in london dorf pointed out that there was no way to hide now you know the changes in the fighting efficiencies he called in to the troops could become brittle you could depend on some of them and orifices of course but what about us all the time is abortion isn't taking hold it would shoot more of them may be a certain way to stiffen the defense but then he says that this convinced him that the war had to be ended there's a mystery say that the kaiser the day or two later terms to the conclusion after talking with some of the war had to be ended n. either histories say other things in only one on to describe all of the uncertainty says people trying to figure ro what really happened is opposed to what ended up in the history books a lot of evidence to suggest that looting dwarf was more of a hardliner held on to a much later but when you see how he ended the sacrifice that going to be made because he may be dragged his feet on peace negotiations for example that's a hard thing to justify after the war if the decision like that cost an extra hundred to two hundred thousand casualties and you look your countrymen in the eye twenty thirty years later right i think if i were glued norse shoes i might try out of the war the shade things in the best like to do i mean what the tragedies during this period to be and german general who was looking at the incoming list of eighteen year old son entire age group now being called up begin to be thrown into the mall of this war when it's already decided in the house side bad about youngblood if one of those members of the new crop of young bloods was your son he lost him in that war afterwards read and or smell more zhou might not be too pleased either nonetheless after the blocking of the german army on august eight the allies will launch a series of regular hammer blows up the germans and they're all pretty darn awful and between them there's towns of fighting going on you that taking in this machine gun nest the moving into does valley it's pretty much constant solar up and down the line pressure on the german army and the casualties because now we've reported back to open war for indian people are not hiding in trenches which let's be honest are safer than being up above the trenches which is why you had trenches to begin with anna casualty just go through the roof again the point in the war where really eat there fighting for improved terms of an armistice right and and english not exactly move in all but i suppose with the kaiser wants to open up negotiations with the netherlands but it's normally take on so fast and thinking in your head you look back on this tragedy every day in all these people dying he does want and her real brashness a time limit here right every day to get a little closer to armageddon armageddon is exactly what historian peter hart called this period of the war fury after the black day of the german army august eight one multiple punches keep knocking the germans backward eventually knocking them back into those prepared the fences that they had to move forward from monster go every takes a depositions again the meow i smashed through that hearts as cool the allied armies british french and american and belgian moved forward along most of the western front they were winning all right the casualties were still high this was a truly murderers form of warfare it's a sobering statistic that of the one point two million men serving in the british expeditionary force between august and november nineteen eighteen that some three hundred sixty thousand of them became casualties this was on sustainable that the f. was being consumed the french and americans were also suffering this was armageddon end quote again or mine juvenile most told the mask situation where the good guys even if they win i'm gonna be a shadow of their former selves but it was bad for the allies would lease knew that they were going to win the situation to bell what's right for the people or enduring with the knowledge that whenever they were fighting for is already a moot point in passing and writes quote most of the kaiser's men were now utterly resigned to the prospect of defeat in despair that they fall on in places with such tenacity and such good order never ceases to impress i'm amazed many did either witness to bend or consider today but it was also a truly awful experience soldiers the mold of their plight equal to german soldier during these last two hundred days of the war quote artillery is fired out we get too few horses are fresh troops are anemic borys in need of rested cannot carry a pack the merely know how to die by thousands they understand nothing about warfare they simply go on let themselves be shot down the summer of nineteen eighteen is been the most bloody been the most terrible every man here knows we're losing the war still the campaign goes on dying goes on end quote again that's another guy who might not wanna read clooney doris memoirs after the war after the war the great german historian military stirring constantly will be a scathing critique of lewd and dorf and with the same kind of rage that anyone might have from that generation and even that side of the war when you realize that may be several hundred thousand casualties were unnecessary as we said the weir did human emotion comes into play though is that when you look at the sacrifices in the interest of these people he can help but notice the heroism in it right it is it's a strange tank lloyd george knows until the british prime minister his memoirs enough part that you can't really spin goes out of his way to just talk about how amazing the whole thing was he says quote the ceaseless body blows delivered with increasing power by the allied forces left the german army breathless and helpless but it is fair to wig knowledge that they retreated fighting for every kilometers debate ultimately had to concede it was not chase and hardly a pursuit starved decimated despairing the german soldiers fought on making us pay a heavy price for every mile with russell from drop the whole war the germans had shown themselves dowdy fighters there was nothing finer in their record than the plock with which they continued to withstand as in the hour of their defeat they could not but know that they were beaten at home their families were starving in the month of october the last hole multiple war the british forces in france suffered over a hundred and twenty thousand battle casualties as evidence of the resistance they encountered between july first in the conclusion of hostility is the british battle casualties in fighting upbeat to follow an awful didn't know she was beaten on every front total four hundred and thirty thousand killed wounded prisoners and missing during practically the same period the french lost five hundred and thirty one thousand men any americans over two hundred thousand let us do on her to a brave people with whom we've had but one deadly quarrel they've got to the end with desperate valor end quote american historians got stevenson wrote court to be a german defender in the path of a major allied attack laid in the war was to experience the horrors of dante is inferno and co and truthfully when you read the stories they sell it they can come from any part of this nightmare the worst tragedy here is that you get the feeling like all of this is you coming after the time when this conflict should be ended already if the whole thing is already tragic pisses the extra tragic part blistering the glory talked about a german garner name crunched kiel meyer the recording his diary about the fighting going on in late september or early october he writes about his experience of coming under sustained british artillery bombardment including a direct hit he talks about three men and says that they were quote torn apart beyond recognition nice and all lord what a monday morning and said quote i'm firing a gun number for all day in between we picked up the pieces a ball in flash and put them in a box marked them with the red pencil my companion at all times so that the cemetery official know as their metal plates with names and lange's could not be found try to pick up three heads six arms and feet and whatever else there is left from your friends and an historian the court right court she omar was understandably traumatized by his experiences called it that's how three of us died he wrote i hope their families will never find out into court and again as we don't earlier in this case are wanting emphasized but these are the survivors go go home and make the post first world war world the user watering their memory banks to you sir what they carry with them to you sir what influence their politics their standards their expectations any influence is what they want bitterness that is part of blood work on off hitler's trying to touch in his audience reading his book mon comp is the sort of bitterness but experiences like this generate can they do so in an entire generation after this war the british and french will also have to poets and writers and painters and their politics in one wonders why the scene so willing to do whatever it took before the second world war even if it involved we call today appeasement look at what we're in most people's memory banks doing all those negotiations the vast majority of the people that will be in decision making positions militarily and politically or people who were in the first world war and look what they went through i think of how it changed somehow as arm was beginning to turn to november nineteen eighteen optimist were beginning to think that this war could be won in nineteen ninety eight pessimist to point out maybe nineteen twenty was more realistic at the german's began a step by step dog defense they can hold out for a long time it was going out to this is an important as the germans are non germans sort of get their retreating but they're still on conquered territory something that they were continually tell themselves was in a paw paw sign that they were never defeated as something politicians after the war will play a tune bertha never does the german army always on conquer church revert to being battered pillar to post during this last hundred days offensive they will retreat you want to want to the old hindu berg line these great defenses to go make a scandal never break and every line in the american french forces retreated and under law ironically though considering all the debates the allied commanders and politicians and having three years the easterner west to debate where you put the troops were you when the war western frontier someplace else it's someplace else the collapses first in this case it's what's called the ball confront him for years the allies have been slowly but surely building up for susan please call so long ago in greece and doing nothing with them mainly the british especially joked that they were the gardener such lawmaker they were just sitting around a greek army eventually joins the french and british army that there are the army of serbia remember serbia's been conquered taken over ababa warner for a couple years but the army fled with the king of the head and they've been reconstituting russell will make that up more people are dying for malaria they are than any military fighting and all the sudden it's a tambourine eighteen eighteen the allied strike mayor riggins the bone shove bulgarians were poorly supplied poorly motivated and certainly not ready to be hit by what is now more than four hundred thousand allied troops and the collapse disappearance everything in this way because if you read the western history jordan by the the british and french and americans it's clear that to them this is a side show thing you could barely get to mention sometimes but if you read german accounts this is a catastrophe they get thoroughly old one of their food from this area this will certainly be the last card for the austrian gary inch were teetering anyway because this is right by them the ottoman empire it was one second away from collapsing to this is sort of a final straw but from bulgaria dropped out of the war to cover twenty ninth that lewd or finally breaks down no we surrender but about it he goes to the kaiser answers to the war must be in the right way we need an armistice right now if i can't guarantee that the army will be able to stand another twenty four hours the german government contract woodrow wilson hoping that the kingdom i steal from the americans were at the british and french are not feeling very charitable wilson still has has his idealistic fourteen points out there and maybe the jurors can get that feel now looks a lot better to them while they're retreating that the war they were dancing and as german military historian hans stark broke right and this is the most painful event he's ever lived through any rate is at the time to the german public and as the bomb editor of the book points out this is something that would been censored three weeks before he wrote a bright was so anti war or defeatist or whatever you were saying but now at this point the war he's allowed to openly say something like this cool too the same day i completed the previous volume the most terrible fate we feared overcame us are southeast frog in the balkans bro completely open the bulgarians were defeated decaying abdicated the army of the on top of it so long he defended so long ago was on the march to the danube river is tearing of the english not only for the destroyed the turkish army and took damascus in constantinople the german allied turkish government of ever tell woody's gone it will not be long before the english fleet has free access to the black sea austria hungary is also when full dissolution on the western front or hope that the enemy offensive would not pass for siegfried line is unfulfilled under heavy losses a prisoner's immaterial our army retreat from one place to another as a pure yuri of our combined enemies not only in men but also immaterial airplanes tanks in the shoes far exceed expectations in calculations when we remember how strong we look to the world this past spring a battlefield successes from the twenty first of march three june the person we're versus hard to believe and quote on october thirtieth the ornaments problem the war on november third the austrians do while all this is going on you have dysentery we're almost two months long period where negotiations are opening into one omaha and seasoned and everybody begins to get the impression that things are happening i mean the mood is quickening the war is is winding to some sort of the conclusion of people are still dying in mass numbers some in the pirates of the german navy decided if the war to an end like this the german navy is going to go out heroically candy come up with an idea for impure relieve the death when i did tough sally out with everything you have take on the british fleet when a giant had had battling go down fighting it take as many of them would you wish you pay which sounds heroic and wonderful if you're some abdel somewhere when you moved to this is what's going on reaches the sailors in the fleet though who can also see that the war is winding down everybody's gonna get to go home it's terrible but it's over and they find out they get to be part of some get right to save some on her for fleet that isn't going to be your round whether the death ride happens or not in a month's time they say no and they begin two rebel right it is not too strong a word first they have new community music captured than the rest of the fleet's sailors get upset about two years and long story short they end up you're running through the streets taking over the naval city of keel and then they send out runners to other nearby cities in the began to spread an idea not that dissimilar from ideas that were being spread in russia the year before here is the fire from london dorsch neighbor's apartment finally taking flying in germany and there's been a lot of analysis as to how bolshevik oriented some of this is the truth is most of it isn't the left in germany runs the gamut from miles social democrats also when a hardcore were called sparred assists and everything in between a part of world happen over the next six months in germany will happen because there's no agreement on the left of all as to what should happen except that they're pretty darn the fight about one thing the war should happen anymore the news these people spread to other locations city after she those revolutionary the greater los to look into it with the allied on top army says date as they batter the germans back towards germany nothing save everything they've been through through these years of war he writes quote the thought of all the losses on the way of all the futility of this strife small that one's heart fools the germans had been what tragic fools or amend the money there had been among rival dynasties and powers and politicians and peoples to lead to this massacre when one game donovan all nothing except ruin nothing except great death and poverty in remorse and revolt and for as the german armies are collapsing gibbs points out that it's not a moment too soon he writes quote the british army could not i'm gone much farther after november eleventh when the armistice brought us to a halt for three months or treated for incessantly storming many villages strongly garrisoned with machine gunners crossing many canals under heavy fire losing many comrades all along the way the pace could not have been kept up the result limit even to the valor of british troops and for a time you'd reach that limit there were not many divisions to could've staggered on to new attacks without rest in relief fingers of the talk about the french and the americans and says quote both for them the german troops were in revolt at last against the bloodied few sharyl sacrifices of their manhood and people a blinding light had come to them revealing the criminality other warlords in this great swindle against their wings it was defeat an agony which enlightened come as most people even ourselves are enlightened only by suffering and disillusionment and never by successes and co if you read mine comp this moment in the war is the crucible of hitler's life and he says basically what gibbs said what you find out what's going on he is recovering from a gas attack in the hospital any finds out that this war is essentially winding down to an armistice and german government in the allies especially woodrow wilson are negotiating back and forth as people died and hitler freaked out and then he went about it in mind comp in the way that is tactically bro yen to mean hitler is a demagogue of the highest order and knows exactly what buttons to push him his audience i mean no wish to this audience in ten years fifteen years after the war not even that long in some cases are still in shock and denial in disbelief and in the bitterness that they are drowning in thinking of what was lost and who the new lives lost and and when the limit that they had lost in the lives of the change he knew that those bodies were ripe for exploiting near the same time demagogue and manipulator though she was hitler were understood those bodies really well because those are actually the same blood is that he was so affected by he wrote this in mind comp and remember mansion reading this is one of those people sitting there without a norma fifteen years after the war tortured by that experience deal hypnosis coke and so would all be maintained in vain all the sacrifices and privations in vain the hunger and thirst of months' which roth and endless in vain the hours in which with moral fi you're clutching our hearts we nevertheless did our duty in vain the deaths of two millions who died without the graves of all the hundreds of thousands open the graves of those with faith in the fatherland had marched forth never to return would they not open and send it to silent mother the blood cover heroes back his spirits of the engines to the homeland which he cheated them was a mockery of the highest sacrifices which a man can make to which people in this world and he died for this the soldiers of augustus a tremor nineteen fourteen was it for this in the autumn of the same year that the volunteer regiments marched out after their old comrades was it for this to the boys of seventeen sank into the earth the flanders was this the meaning of the sacrifice which the german mother made to the fatherland with sore heart as she let her best log boys more trough never to see them again to all this happened only so the gang of wretched criminals could lay hands on the fatherland in equal this bitterness was not just on the side of the central powers who lost this war though corporal ybarra toss in the french army is nothing else almost in sympathy with the german veterans many of these people felt cheated by the whole fang disillusioned by the whole thing exploring big event bartow sounds like he feels more sympathy for his german enemy than he does for the people in a bit in his mind anyway barton says the socialist and believes that the people running the world are kind of the enemy he writes quote me while the great drama was reaching its conclusion alone against twenty nations baying after her ring of fantastic clamor germany so proud in nineteen forty now on it's knees ask for mercy asked for our mistakes but this way of fleeing the war didn't appeal to the striped swedes who didn't have their fill of crosses metal star stripes ribbons on hers and glories for these folks warhead and with total disaster for the german army began switched jenna up waterloo when saddam would be near skirmishes thousands of captured can in hundreds of thousands of captured bosch is shattered enemy forces streaming back across the line bridges pursued with bayonets of their backs by our soldiers are regiments entering the great cities be on the rhine flags fluttering bands playing here was the apotheosis dreamed of not only by our great warriors by the government almost all the press almost all the emma's kazan back in the rear all those who had nothing more to lose or would more to gain by continuing the war what did a hundred thousand two hundred thousand more cadavers matter a few more mom's of unimaginable suffering to bear to that matter for those who were far from the slugfest he says and to accomplish this monstrous tree in the so called allied governments ought to delay for as long as possible the hour of the last cannon shot by requiring germane to repeated demands for miss deserve all times for simple questions of foreman formulas he says during that time in an orgy of murder bloodletting in burning the whole front was in flames from keep the balfour without exception all the regiments were thrown into the assault on the german machine guns he says the german armies bend back on all the points of contact without letting airline be broken and the retreating turn into we're we're out end quote which you she is there is admiration for most old church was soldier and sort of a shared understanding that when he came right down to which in all truce is to be called on they could go in the middle of no man's land in sheer tobacco one shot with each other but the people that as bartow said said earlier in the work force them to fight each other against their will would continue to conflict until things were just the way they wanted and people die until the absolute last minute love is confident that they will die for decades afterwards the germans will finally we're gonna deal with woodrow wilson and the allies in the on top they have to get rid of their form of government and transition to a more public mood and dorf offers his resignation what did the last couple days of october it's accepted the pre dawn to disguise it leaves the country the kaiser wrist told that he asked to abdicate bomb him save lives in the war any tries not to but is kind of pieces stabbed in the back to encounter forced to win and he flees to the netherlands and now this new german government which has been sort of left behind as a land mine by guys like literally bluer famously said it again blaming the socialist know people back home the other day he did this stab in the back so let them pick up the pieces and let them get blamed by signing all the surrender an armistice papers and that's kind of the ways and dorf started spinning this whole thing for minute want hitler picked up on that an entire german political movement will play off this idea these people who signed the peace agreement to twenty jurors of november were the ones who lost the war and it was never lost a different by the soldiers this will set the stage for the next conflict and when the actual peace agreement is signed sealed and delivered which will happen for quite awhile to be long negotiations into nineteen nineteen the results are so punitive the people will realize forward thinkers were berta was simple say at the time but this does nothing but delay decision and that they won't be so many embittered elements after the street you saw him the woman will actually in the first world war you abuse your research trees actually which are guaranteeing another world war in the near future yet one can't help but think of all the men in uniform especially those in combat units of the front we're just glad they were going to have a future that deal out of power but the eleventh day of the eleventh moment eleven am november eleventh nineteen eighteen on many different fronds soldiers greeted this moment disagree more with so little strange when the war would end in advance historians soldier politician john cochran was there lombard different the minute the war ended here's what he wrote cool but you managed to allow the opposite the south african brigade of the eastern most point reached by the british army's the german issued honor after firing off the belt without a pause was seen to stand up take off his helmet bow and then walk slowly to the rear became the second of expectancy islands and in a curious rippling sound which observers for baja enough around like into to the noise of the light wind was the sound of men she your ring from the boesch to the sea end quote the future may have been poisoned but at least these people would be there to see it november eleventh will be celebrated after the war as armistice day there will be celebrated with a wide mixed and range of emotions the war however had taken the geopolitical chess map of the world it'd been basically in place since napoleon's defeat a hundred years before and threw up in the air and as the pieces fell back down to earth in people tried to reconstruct a new world really 'cause countries have been totally remove from the map a lot people were going to suffer part of the reason that the first world war is so important for modern time is that it's a little like a giant bond old firecrackers the one you like it off nice big chunks of firecrackers blow off in the distant to continue explode sometimes with more violence than the original amenable to secular wars writer director sasser bolshevism in russia which produced the cold war the situation in the middle east and the or you'll hand that colonial impact the thing about the first foreign wars that it wasn't quite armageddon yet the very things that probably were needed to create an absolute global holocaust hadn't yet entered into the picture things like nuclear weapons for example that she can safely say looking at it what the first world war was was a blueprint for armageddon from a business sense or a self promotion sense the internet's the greatest thing that ever happened to recover people like that i talk to people about this all the time abuse beneficiary of the fact that ought to have a broadcast transmitter radio station to do what i do those of you who do online commerce or four even trying to get your name or work out there do we have disadvantage of the web sites and i don't think we quite realized the revolutionary nature of them they become such a big dipper part of our lives the novelty has worn off but trust me once upon a time doing for yourself what website does for you was extremely expensive i'm only the very few could do it this is a form of democratized media putting your hands and it doesn't have to be complicated they can be simple these days it could be powerful and beautiful an inexpensive to think about swear space when you watch star new website only eight dollars i'm on to get a free domain if you buy square space for your you want to worry about things like were sponsored designed to scale on any device already commerce is built into would cover pages are built into it he can do it yourself than it looks great if you've ever thought about having the website might be worth a try not to batter the experiment in usually i find when people put website together not only do they continue to do that but they often make it evolve and change and grow i firmly believe down the road most people will have some version of their own website and most of us don't wanna spend it on a time coding certainly autonomy pangs of professional firm to do which you could do with square space in that sample powerful and beautiful you get ten percent off your first purchased if you sign up to square spacing use or offer code hard core where space bill to beautiful if this war look this was sort of be the postscript section i guess the water the most interesting aspects of the first world war is what came right afterwards for this result of that change so much so the catalyst for change itself as interesting but the change in our sheehan's fascinating start with the fact that although suddenly the map of europe agreed geopolitical chess board the head existed for ever was thrown up in the air totally scatter and also the pieces fell down that hadn't existed you know long time almost on a pole and was back there hadn't been appalled for quite some time of the sudden there was gonna be elected czechoslovakia mean these are places to use to be part of larger ramparts but those empires were smashed by this war austria hungary alone when you break that beat upon she knew countries you break the ottoman empire rob you get the modern middle east you bridger money out and you get them arguments the second world war right to good day and say can you get to sedate the land in what's also apparent at the end of the first world war if you get this pure read off people for trying to play the game the way it's always been played him maybe you could make an argument which will be played and people who were trying to utilize the flip side of bitterness i guess you could say to create a better world we talked earlier about woodrow wilson and his idealism or fake idealism depends on which woodrow wilson you buy into but nonetheless when you sell the war on the idea that is a war to end all wars sometimes that becomes powerful hype that you have to at least make a good argument around if you wanna play things the old-fashioned way the british and french for example we make our polite winners in the war when it comes to the territory that they acquire wind when the ottoman empire broke up all those new countries didn't really give full independence most of them episode of a compromise sovereignty is a good way to put it with the french and british empire in charge the twenties century version of the whole thing oriole the british will miraculously and with tom levitt but the americans and others had pushed ideas like self determination in the british as sort 'em out that two of the kind of believed it to eliminate its want those things where's the prime minister had said the cat would be an were messy feeding grab some of that area just with the french have it nonetheless they all come realized it didn't look at great with a new set of values implied that self determination became his weird thing to you who deserves the wrong place in and how can you use self determination as a weapon hitler would use it against one of those territories that was created out of whole cloth on the world war one peace agreements place called czechoslovakia within that place was a territory that had a majority of germans call the c. dateline and and hitler would turn the arguments of idealism and self determination on their head we said hey of self determination which really believe in those germans in the sedate land should be allowed to come back to germany and bring away and with them his return to the big problem and what are called the inter warriors it would hams during an entity that was truly idealistic like the league of nations is set up after the first four warped by the people who were as i said on the flip side sort of the global bipolar mood instead of being bitter their attitude about the first world war was a sort of and never again attitude and things like the league of nations in collective security we're going to ensure that the world ever had a tragedy like that happen again we emphasized the bitterness of the end of the last program because debaters helps play into the next war but there were a lot of people that we are better and it's only fair to point out first of all you had people want times usually officers to to interesting to note we're so proud of their war service of what happened at and justifiably so look what these people endured wouldn't take anything away from anyone some people straight up enjoy the experience ernst junger has a piece in his book we does something that i think many people throughout history of down when they're at johnny of historical events when you're a great battle when you know all your watching history unfold sometimes is a powerful feeling in that and especially when you think you're playing a part in it on the fiftieth anniversary of the normandy landing c. d. d. r. number comes in newspaper article published by an army psychiatrist who was talking about these kinds of moments in soldiers' lives acidity for many of the men in a war ad you know d. day in the second world war dubbed the greatest experience of their lives the greatest event they would take part in history new ferguson in his book the pity of war describes the remembrances of a couple of soldiers were probably representative of all whole lot of these soldiers was a canadian private talking about what the first world war was to him the city was called the greatest adventure rub my life the memories which will remain with me for the remainder of my days and i would not it missed it for anything and co it also had the sort of momentous feeling that was sometimes tough to you the recapturing private life for additional support another soldier that senate called everything that happened after the war was an anti climax end quote in some ways the war was an anti climax so many people went to find based on ideas like the war to end all wars and yet people who were rather farsighted but there were plenty of some before the smoke anything cleared were predicting the second world war in the generalissimo of the allied on tom forces spring and fall arch and said what he saw beaver side peace treaty this is not peace this is a truly your armistice about the way was almost twenty years exactly twenty one it looked to the british and french like they made out well with territories that they were able to take over but they were both in terms of their great power status mortally wounded and the eventual cost of this war specially falls on britain shoulders more than any others they were for the banker of the allied side and they you're still are or were recently animal church two outstanding loans but it was only last few months that they paid off for the outstanding for for war debts to wish to lapierre as we had said initially the center of world trade i'm banking transferred from london to new york and during this conflict n. n.'s as a result of the financial transfer of wealth from the old world to the new world that this conflict required as we had said about told him this is this is the in opie pulls up with a free peoples of middle earth destroying themselves to take down the dark lord right he's gone and injury losure money's no threat to anyone anymore but france and britain to name just two countries or may not even going to russia's backyard mention them of france and britain will never quite be what the work the russians needless to say tom harkin be what they are they're going to be living under the communist regime for decades the czar and his family in the middle of nineteen eighteen will be executed by the bolsheviks every last one of them anna koch the united states comes out of the warp well actually the other on the receiving end of all that old world well for example but for americans it was quite a change to change that it really started with the spanish american war in twenty years so years before the first world war one the united states starting going abroad and involving themselves more overseas the first world war solidified that trend and even though after the war there would be his mood when i do when that again and you could tell that it's was sort of like virginity hey pay barrier had been crossed the really just couldn't go back to the way things were we'd find that out as americans in the second world war americans also get to experience other things it would not be uncommon in europe things like sedition and espionage x. imposed by the wilson administration thinks to prevent criticism of the war anti war activities criminalized laws they're still on the books and still used today that most people look back on still think that those were extreme call for reaches a presidential authority nonetheless you know what was the first world war and the threat was there japan listen to be the united states or japan i would nominate for the big victors in the force japan are relatively easy rider that took over anything that was over their church rid of the german and start moving in more to the asian mainland or recharge a lot korean folks they started taking over territory that would eventually morph into what some historians now considered to be to really early stages of the second world war because by the time of second world war breaks out the japanese had been involved in fighting with the chinese for years and some fighting with the russians to do turkey will continue to have problems with violence and ethnic conflict and modernism the fighting will never really stopover in in anatolia in the country will continue to strive towards a more binational state would go go through period under command lots of turk mustafa to mount arm that's important in history will also have to begin to live down some of the things that were done during the first world war and famously to armenians but also to people like the ceiling christians greeks the turks had an ethnic problem that they dealt with sometimes in a very heavy handed manner they are strung syrians also had an ethnic problem they along with the hapsburg rulers it'd been in power for centuries were wiped away is result of this war and the idea of self determination that it would be able to use about the sedate nuland whatnot would begin to raise ugly sort of questions in places like india are controlled by the british but not necessarily because the indians want it that way trying to clean up after the war is one of the great efforts of modern times first you have the bodies to deal with the new house damage to the battlefields and then you have the clean up that happens you know in in the collective populations of all these countries the emotional cleanup if you will be getting past it all of the society's they were heavily involved in the first world war was awful lot of disabled veterans around he will be a very visible reminder nobody gets to just put this behind them and walk away unscathed it is a story and hawks child in his book relates the dates from the time of these last german offensive to know the big last card being played then he is a perfect example of what was going on in hundreds of thousands of holtzman is no question it was that money on display in the number safe hotshot talks about these cards that the officers would soon to family members informing him that they are trial or loved one was dead or missing he says cool current slowdown in the ceaseless stream but when it came to speed them up houses younger brother his parents like so many others simply received word that in the new german offensive the twenty three year old paul was quote missing presumed killed and quote it is seen fighting then fall in with these units position was overrun several months later the family's hopes were raised when a fellow officer passed on a rumor that paul was wounded in a prisoner in germany with male going through contacts in neutral countries steven got in touch with a pacifist committee in berlin court i was very glad to be able to set on foot by this means in search for my brother paul alas no trace of him could be from my poor mother for over six months persisted enough on the belief that paul wood for turn and called hawks travel continues during that time margaret hothouse never ceased write letters to her saw on the old eventually came back marked on deliverable returned to sender paul's body was never found and who but lawton lots of other people's work and still being found you know you don't know how much of the really nasty stuff to get into a program like this because you don't wanna be gratuities to what should you wanna be able to do is in your mind's eye see what these people are seeing right as we always see you can experience or understand what they're going to but you can try to have the tiniest little bit of emotional sympathy but you can have to see things through the rise of what they're seeing is permanently scarring the people have to clean up after this war are sometimes is traumatized to the people that have to fight it after these last big german offensive is that that blaster we dealt with the the boy missing and presumed killed the people who were killed had to be picked up by somebody an american soldier named robert hoffman in august nineteen eighteen was one of those somebody is one day he writes quote did you ever smell of dead mouse don't give you about as much idea aboard a group of long dead soldiers smells like as well one grain of sand give you an idea of atlantic city speeches a group of men were sent to kill tool for the maker recognizance to report on conditions there as well as to bury the dead the story was a very pathetic when he says the men were still lying there nearly two weeks later just as they'd fall and i knew all of these men intimately and it was indeed painful to learn of their condition summit apparently lived for some time had tried to address the romanians are their comrades addressed them but later they died there was especially pleased that the capture of the german soldiers had made it possible to bring back all the wounded in our sector many of the many been pumped full of machine gun bullets shot almost beyond recognition hundred urso bullets even in a dead man's body is not a pretty sight of our members line with the german bayonet threw him not unlike a pinch rule large beetle bayonets are harder were moved once they've been caught between the ribs especially the sock to the bayonets many of the germans carried to dislodge the misusing necessary to shoot wants or more to loosen the bayonet this german had not waited but left is gone and passed on the little italian boy was lying on the barbed wire or his eyes open in his helmet hanging back on his head it is so much shrapnel was some of the bodies were torn beyond recognition this was the first experience in handling and burying the dead for many of our men and it was a trying experience is i was to personally find somewhat later he then goes on to say nothing more pitiful than the battlefield after a battle more pitiful yes but dangerous is another term we might use because this clean up his ongoing even now does a good side in a downside to the clean up process would have been awarded doesn't move the great mass of europe and places elsewhere were spared the total sure we're winners war that the second world war brought to so many areas but the places where the war was actually fought were devastated and i just devastated permanently scarred maybe par and we were one and certainly for several foreseeable lifetimes father donovan worst row whole book on the state of those battlefield in earlier wars today and the most polluted most dangerous most impossible to imagine ever cleaning up for all these ones that the first for war fought on the western front in these places were things to move for years because the shells buried themselves in the ground but i don't remember what the exact percentage that the that the estimated the number of dogs burst burst the number of good shells were but since nineteen forty six french specialists and we're move eighteen million shelves and they estimate that there's another twelve million just round for don the biggest shells like those paris gonna shit all the dogs from those are so deep in the earth they won't even make their way to the surface for sixty years hundreds and hundreds of these people who go and try to clean up these areas died there been former skilled with thirty five killed him when you're when you're tractors were hitting shells and some of the shells if you might imagine our chemical weapons the problems that these people have tried to reclaim the resists so bad that they just have cordoned off the area since the war and millions upon millions of acres of france and part of belgium or to shut down too dangerous so that the world because garbage dump which human beings all ground up for wit and then it's littered with booby trapped explosives and chemical weapons good luck cleaning that moon skip up the germans have thought that they were signing something more like an armistice more like this assertion of hostilities more like somebody along the lines of what they thought the woodrow wilson's talking about in the fourteen points what they ended up with was more like a surrender and truly given their military condition that's probably what they should've been doing but even as the war was winding down loomed were changed his mind at the last minute them what to restart the conflict right before the armistice actually took effect would that have been an interesting what it's an area nonetheless his army was ready to go home and why cases was going home by the end and germs at least a million people of the stuff but we're sure looking at or not listening to orders are simply refusing to fight anymore the dealer the end of the war and the difference that the germans but they were getting versus what they actually got was one of the seeds that so's the future bitterness german navy manages to sort of give the middle finger to win the allies you know the year after the war's over when they're transferring their fleet to britain as part of the mandated things that they had to do it with the peace treaty and they intentionally sink a bunch of the ships so they may have rioted against their own officers at the end of the war but that didn't mean they want the former enemy to end up in possession of the year vessels i'd also like to quickly mention coming to that i think you're aware of this punch rapunzel program but the ripples of pain these wars all these deaths and meanings and sufferings cost the number of people in relating to the soldier or civilian who experienced the horrible news and how much is radiates across societies you can go read that the artist of this post war generation and and sometimes it's chisolm credibly hauntingly knew what the talk about for example that they were all these women who sweethearts orbit for older people that you know they may be with mary somewhere down the road didn't exist as they die in the war should they ended up spin stirs mean just decades of paying the rippling through the societies no sense of loss and oftentimes in some of these nation states plagued by chaos in which they tried to find their and their new path i mean germany's perfect example russia's an even better warn people were often confused and sometimes caught up in the wheels of things that they had no control over our delight to be some civilian living in the country they're going fascist on you or bolshevik on you when it fell apart i'd like to point out dead the problem with the story there we did here is the same problem you often run into you if you do read your speaking english language and you wanna and get a hold of something about the first for war of officer did doing these programs has given me the most sympathy for the people who actually read these books and create the material that we use us as sources for this program for example because what you try to do you even a pale imitation of what they're trying to do you instantly see that all your questions answered brown also why didn't they do this and when you start to do this commercial yourself and all my gosh how my ever going to include this without screwing something up i mean if there's anybody who got really shaft in the story in the eye at the victim numerous peoples who deserted town more time but i think we alluded to earlier the french are enormous part of the story i need to get to clemens so that's inexcusable right that the get away with that car along all i can say is look how long the series is now i mean i left out times of stuff to get it down to this enormous like this and that ter what what about the people in the balkans reduces with the whole war began as those of the people who've had an amazing history right before the first when war they're finding themselves in the national identity in consciousness is all committee gather and it's a fantastic week post-traumatic and dramatic time of change and it's it's colorful it's interesting the situation the middle east with the ottoman son and and and the modern middle east beginning to form africa got totally she acted in the story criminal whole pont des your reason for for war in africa in the far east is busy setting the stage for the pacific war the second world war and we deal with it minimally as a point of explanation though i might point out the lack of goody english works on the subject we have a lot courtroom german salon a quote from british folks and their dominion's block or to the united states there are not on good books even on the french weedy lot firsthand account and shoulders of the experiences i found one really good one and you didn't show but that guy was not about we're talking about all the sudden the sources are hard to come by love to have more from the russian side the balkans the autumn is i have to africa would be great to you finally there were some subjects we could've gone into more deeply than i know law you walk out uneasily people geeky out about the military side of history side you we did do some discussions on an airplane to do make it into the show we did some deeper stuff on the warships to do to get into another show those all the world together with some other appropriate but together any extra sure whenever we get them out on a promising when that happens again another one of the real no greater history shows are working on right away tissue folks to be patient with me this one took longer than any we've ever had in the past and will i guess you could probably see why culpepper reading list be nice to do was so deep that is not as well documented next time thank you for everything ladies and gentleman if you think the shell you discern is worth a dollar cannot enter would love to have it about the shell it's all we ask committee and carlin dot com for information on how to donate to the shelf