Episode: Show 54 - Blueprint for Armageddon V

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Show 54 - Blueprint for Armageddon V
Politics, diplomacy, revolution and mutiny take center stage at the start of this episode, but mud, blood, shells and tragedy drown all by the end.

Dan Carlin's Hardcore History
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Automated Transcript (Why is this transcription so bad?)
they show sponsored by all laudable goal or ballpark estimate calm for josh hardcore is street for your free or you will download which are back to yours part five of them all time part series on the first world war if you haven't caught the earlier episodes and you wanna know what's going on it might be worth your time to go back and listen to them you bari original you care about stuff like that can please join us for par five of the blueprint for armageddon and some of them my being going on the wit will live and in coming weeks has telephoned well come on gone i'm bernard of the other peeled and sliced and what i had had what i call that you did that have a lot that lawsuit outside what pride would lead to a lower tone of probably it i've been playing hide and lose the v. and he has to hit a home that what he eats like the one hand it hide why why the illusion that you make those two little was not built for the lung question what we we could be the martyrdom of gardening and with him of his jumped from phil coleman her out each floor and coleridge history earlier in the story we brought up the often quoted phrase that one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter and we brought him up in relation to the man who actually launched the incident that sparked the first world war the serbian nationalists covering the print shed who killed the nearer to the austro hungarian thrown the archduke franz ferdinand jeremiah precipitating a crisis that actually started the war the awestruck aliens are printed unequivocal use a terrorist is serbian nationalist brethren revered him in fact not that long ago a statue was unveiled you silly gave away the assassination happened honoring the assassin so your view of the motives of these people really depends on your who's doing the viewing at that time project is far from the only figuring the story who falls in a similar category the united states is dealing with one themselves in nineteen sixty for example in january nineteen sixteen just as the german military is putting the finishing touches on what will become the quintessentially horrible battle over down the quintessentially twentieth century style bottle the killing fields created by master virtually the meat grinder that will be burdened the united states is attention is taken off european affairs by events going on in northern mexico mexico has been going full speed by revolution since nineteen ten of the northern mexico often becomes one of these hotbeds of on reston instability in january nineteen sixteen gunman wally h. roaring in northern mexico now this is at the tail end of the error which ring robberies are not uncommon that these gunman aren't there to rob the train in fact as they go up and down the aisles they leave the mexican nationals locals alone but they pull off every american from the train that they find they find sixteen to eighteen workers employees of the u. s. corporation operating in northern mexico they take these americans off the train line them up up in for the tracks forced him to split up and then execute them we know this because one of the americans feigned death and got away and told his story i believe he said the bodies were also mutilated very well may have been an attempt to provoke a response on the part of the u. s. government and if so the mutilation is just part of adding fuel to the fire blue something to make the u. s. government even angrier at this event and they must've been escalating to this point in northern mexico for some time groups affiliated with the same gunman had been attacking isolated americans every year or murder there are worried you were there but this was popping the anti significantly anomalous the maneuver accomplished nothing concrete of note so couple of months later in march nineteen sixteen this group of gunman warhol walls or revolutionaries if you're looking at it from another point of view of the anti gay men across the u. s. mexican border are in strength more than a hundred go after or american interest on the us side of the border culminating in a in an attack on a u. s. c. b. columbus new mexico in the middle of the night they wore through this town shooting looting and killing and burning eighteen americans will be killed the town will be burned down and the bandits or terrorist war revolutionary depending on your point of view will escape back in new mexico now was assigned know then as now americans are heavily armed people in those bandits pay a high price for omelet they did to that town many more of them died then americans died nonetheless the idea that you were safe and protected within the confines of the u. s. borders were shattered in a way that hadn't happened since the apache wars in that region and ended thirty years previously the attackers of columbus new mexico were affiliated with the mexican revolutionary leader now in the history not is actually him as poncho via now be almost certainly wasn't in columbus new mexico he'd been hurt not that long before but these gunmen the hard olive in his mansion and he few look at the superficially there's a lot of similarities between poncho via and osama bin wagner this is not said when salt on mexican folks who still in some cases revere partial views memory but it's hard to avoid that at least from the american side of things there are we're off to analogies that you can the report to for example like a thin line via had once upon a time been a friend in the united states someone we thought we could work with the news and bad or mentoring and health in fact after an attack in columbus new mexico what it was obvious that some response had to be put together president woodrow wilson the american leader launches an expedition military expedition into northern mexico since about five thousand men across the border there was eight eight eight the shill leader but he wasn't a guy election had been summoned around the kind of things on the ground was an american general named john pershing whose nickname by the way was blackjack and by your before to show you how close the united states had been divvy up at one time the year before pershing launches this expedition to go capture this terrorist poncho via he loses his whole family a terrible house fire portions wife his little girls and little children died in the fire and as he was the wall we in almost sold crushing grief amongst the condolence letters he received was one from this poncho via person that he would be chasing a body year later there are a lot of interesting things this expedition across the border shows not just mexicans up not just americans the european observers every worker who all throughout this war of laundered what the united states is gonna do what their capabilities are all the sudden and the u. s. military force in the field to have a look at measure we're up against the standards of early twentieth century warfare and be honest the american endeavour looks like a disaster it doesn't look a whole lot different then efforts thirty years ago to the europe that were launched to go after the last apache leader to to break off the u. s. reservation system with forty warriors and the wind is some of the same country video and his men were hiding it looks like a very similar army just add some older cars which is what the u. s. military was employing to give them some mobility and some airplanes that look like they were invented by the wright brothers themselves in fact the pilots were trained in some cases by orville and wilbur white that's how we sent in our airplane development used in the u. s. planes are so ricky and so new that none of them survived the first week or two of operation down there one of the more interesting aspect to the u. s. operations in northern mexico middle departure be it is the u. s. doesn't know northern mexico in their maps or or on and so they have leading their army as scouts apaches and these apaches include allegedly some apache scouts who were almost the apache scouts that hunted down geronimo thirty years before in fact there's quite a connection to a lot of these people and baldness conflict john general joan blackjack pershing it the junior officer for a winter will memo thirty years before these events it's believed the poncho via want to get the u. westwood tak northern mexico and bought him down in this insane country of fighting and insane terrain insane weather conditions and there are body worries his standing amongst several revolutionary leaders vying for control all of the instability in mexico that been going on since the nineteen ten revolution began but if your opinion is already had a stereo typical of the u. of the united states is a nation of cowboy is an army mired in an almost old west sort of approach the expedition into northern mexico to capture poncho via did nothing to disabuse them that stereotype to many european observers who was in just a ferrante your army that united states of america look like they possessed was kind of a frontier mentality to go along with it one of the things that was really hard for european planners and on both sides the war by the way to begin to look more more like the united states has come up with these huge role in the war the war dead even mean imitated never sent over a lot of men to go fight in some european war it was alien to the american experience of the day actually do that there were a lot of european observers the opinion that the u. s. got into the war they would send troops americans go to that and that's part of what makes that prefer store war united states of america hard for modern americans to understand if you know your granddaughter has to be lucky enough to badger grant and you can explain them to the people you begin to get a real feel for what they're about even if they're very different than you are but they're real you can relate to them he had stated nineteen sixteen is like a great great great grandparents you couldn't read all about it you want to those people are different from you when you're finished in the mean airing of them they're going on like 'em the modern united states of america is the most interventionist great power in the world in nineteen sixteen it was the opposite and it had a long mythology connected to it very founding been reinforced the idea that that's the way american foreign policy should be before the united states could involve itself in the first world war it had to somehow deal with this lasting legacy to you all the way back to the old pre revolutionary days but what i need to start with and farewell speech of the first american president george washington the speech that was re read aloud once a year in patriotic fervor the speech that told americans to stay alley europe's wars in the middle of his goodbye speech to the american people is resigning from public life he said quote the great rule of conduct for office in regard of foreign nations is in extending our commercial relations to have with damage has little political connection as possible so far as we've already formed engagements let them beat both bill with perfect good faith here let us stop europe has a set of primary interest which blossom non or very remote relation is she must be engaged in frequent controversies the causes of which are essentially pour into our concerns and snare for the must be allies in us to implicate ourselves by artificial times in the ordinary visit to defer politics with the ordinary combinations into lesions of her friendships or enmities are detached and distance situation invites and enables us to pursue with different course if we remain one people wandering efficient government the period is not far off what we need to find what you're really injury from external annoyance what we may take such an attitude as will cause the neutrality we made any time a result upon to be scrupulously respected when belligerent nations on video possibility of making acquisitions upon us will not likely hazard be giving us provocation which we may choose peace or war as our interest guided by justice john counsel why forego the advantages of so peculiar situation like when our rome to stand upon for new ground wide wide interweaving our destiny with that of any part of europe entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of european ambition rival ship interest humor or caprice is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world pinnacle when americans review those people like demagogues and that's beaches re read to america's school children re read probably won't see you running anniversary you can see that if you were an american who thought the united states should enter the first world war you've a lot of biology to overcome a lot of bean grained ideological training unless you think that those are we're evolutionary sentiments in from the beginning of a nation of times people are very um emotional and sentimental and lofty an idealist inclinations founded madd coals over time forty five years after watched him do that speech the current president of the united states a second generation guy like him george w. bush kind of john quincy adams here's another one of these foreign policy speeches korean enough famous phrase that americans would use ever says you're going abroad in search of monsters to slay the very antithesis of the idea that the united states government is going to use as the slogan to get the united states and the first world war john quincy adams and little aboard his speeches dealing with what the country's foreign policy should be forty five years after washington gave his speech said quote speaking about the united states here in the feminine pronoun by the way accord wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been a war shall be on upper rolled up their will or heart for benediction center prayers be but she goes not abroad in search of monsters to destroy she is the well wishers to the freedom and independence of all she's the champion and indicator romeo barone she wore recommended general caused by the countenance of her voice at the beginning in sympathy of for example she well knows good-bye wants enlisting under other banners than our own upward the even the banners of boring independence she would involve yourself be on the power of extrication in all the wars of interest in intrigue of individual avarice indian ambition which assume the collars and usurp the standard of freedom the fundamental maxims of her policy would in sensibly change from liberty to force the problem upon her brows would no longer being with the ineffable splendor rough freedom and independence but instead would soon be substituted an impure real diet damn flashing in paulson tarnished lost or the murky really is a demean yin and how or she might become the dictators of the world she would be no longer the ruler of barone spirit an equal this kind of historical legacy of idealism of this mythology if you will that americans you know had reinforced all the time provided a natural power wait four patriots to choose a side that seemed to be the opposite of what patriotism normally implied in your patriotism was a key part of nationalism that stood up and grabbing of the flag sometimes i'm pushing your nation's glory and and and and borders farther that was true in the united states to everybody shield and the same sorts of your rallying cry is often work on americans to work on other people but you also had this refuge for people who were patriotic and who could take an anti interventionist position and couch it as much in the flag as those who were suggesting a real patriots in a joint up and bought the spanish in cuba for example as theodore roosevelt the former president of the united states and in volunteer for the expansion of american war in el cap taking the opposite view point to the united states of america with him to print on the most founding fathers and the real patriotism real men that be ready to join the first world war the united states is looking like a howard by not being involved the theater roosevelt is not the president in nineteen sixteen but he's really knew the guy who is the guy from the other party a democrat name woodrow wilson all of the most enigmatic can hardly get your mind round figures in the story and part of the reason the wilson is so hard to figure out is because the historians don't agree the majority storage of always taken will some sort of face value and portray him as one of the most if not the most idealistic prose n. american history a guy who was so peace loving he's virtually gandhi ask and a man who did everything he could to keep the united states out of war and to fight for this wonderful just the earpiece afterwards that's the sort of leave the goodwill smythe divided into two good wilson in the evil woodrow wilson in terms of how some historians see them together historical campus smaller but to reverse ever surreal out and growing and the the people who've for a lot of domestic reasons it should be pointed at the white woodrow wilson of all and often you know ascribe sinister or venal motives for him doing what he was doing and see a man who wanted to get involved with the allies who sought peace for his own vain glorious reasons who was a schemer in a person who he behind the mask the promised you know idealism in peace and they were german generals for example were never fall into that store rita wilson was some bambi during the headlights on the world stage and always thought that that was just a really good mask it is mackey of alien scheming is hid behind making him even more danger strike is disguise was better nonetheless on microwave is a fan of history in which wilson i believe was the real wilson but look at how it adds to the uncertainty of the whole thing was the sky all about now i personally think that the error of mystery that surrounds woodrow wilson me to maureen trusting character and he's a giant in my that quickly becoming perhaps the most important single individual in the story by the end of nineteen sixteen but john enough to live with them the people in the studio he's not a character he's world leader of the united states does in this war might decide to conflict so the stakes couldn't be higher winston churchill home breaking after the first war he scared very interesting view will suntory describe you can see he's he's he's walking on eggshells sometimes but he says this guy and you know anything about him in me comes out of academia basically any sizzling in the american system do you get these people that can confirm talk we outside politics as complete a nobody goes in britain such a prime minister who spent years in the in the house of commons or what have you been working their way up they would be in the public eye the whole time they would be known quantity by the time they got the top job the marvels of the fact that woodrow wilson is an unknown in no the most powerful man in the united states and quickly becoming the most important single figure in the war church or what about wolves unquote in all his strength and all his weakness in his nobility in is foibles he was in spite of his long academic record in brief governorship an unknown and on measured the quantity to the mighty people who made him their ruler in nineteen twelve still more was you mistreated the world at large rating with every sense of respect it seems no exaggeration to pronounce that the action of the united states with its repercussions on the history of the world depended during the awful period of armageddon upon the workings of this man's mind and spirit to the exclusion of almost every other factor and he played a part of fate of nations in comparable a more direct and personal than any other man and equal that's where we're talking about the united states so much in this episode and what the other parts of the wilson story that are interesting is when you get human beings in positions of great power and authority oftentimes there little quirks are idiosyncrasies or characteristics can make or break history when we all have little things about us that might be courtier idiosyncratic because we're not in positions of power authority don't really make much of the difference if it got off hitler leaves the military after the first four wars a decorated corporal and goes and opens up the sausage shopping munich his quirks and idiosyncrasies and characteristics don't make a big difference on the world stage you probably never hear about them the only effect in of the people he has contact with buddy take that same figure in you make him the iron fisted dictator of one of the great twentieth century nations on the planet and all of a sudden that man's quirks and idiosyncrasies in characteristics to create a deadly holocaust now wilson didn't have those kinds of characteristics of these i haven't heard that even from the evil will soon take up what he did have characteristics that impact of this whole situation what was he was almost always convinced that he was right the paraphrasing here recent something to the effect it was that he felt pity for people who had differing opinions than into singing there were wrong you can watch the way he operates in government and he says supremely gifted politician but one times those people are on willing to let other men carry out now their policies and and and their programs because they know they could do it better you can see that from wilson too after the war the manners can become the british prime minister getting david lloyd george will have to sit by the french military leader on one side the president of the united states on the other incentives like sitting between napoleon on one side of the french leader and jesus on the other that was woodrow wilson and jesus was probably more the way wilson's saw himself as one george was trying to convey the way others saw him negotiating with the savior can require a daft tout and wilson's demeanor as sort of professorial air of superiority in that i'm always right kind of savior hear about him sometimes robbed some people the wrong way and certainly in the words to wake the wilson handle things and you were several big challenges to american neutrality it will soon have to do was and all were especially acute in nineteen sixty one fault american lives the other involved american mani analyzed involved in american election star with perhaps the number one most obvious thing socking united states into the whirlpool vortex of the first world war and something that would do that was so obviously doing that you can yield the momentum even now reading history books about the so slide into war because the germans use of this thoroughly modern science fiction almost weapon the submarine now the summer remains creating conditions where a couple of americans here in the air every now and then we're dying on ships every now and it was worse than that when the lusitania went down which was a titanic like liner lisa marine torpedo more than a hundred americans went down with that shit how long any nation put up with that the problem is is that the u. s. would complain it did work something out with germans tensions with drop in a month later more than half later bone what happens again it's like a sore that kept getting poked with a needle before was able to heal and yet wilson campaign making the conditions more and more impossible to fulfill also goes anti will sell your story to say no no you misunderstand will soon was trying to create the conditions that the germans could help would violate an intent united states and of the war and then claim it was forced upon the americans for example will sit at one point his administration it high minded rhetoric in speeches was defending the right of an american passenger or to remember americans could travel on american ships or neutral ships in and aimed at certain times the germans had had swore they would go after those will assume was defending the right of an american to travel on board a ship or french she read a belligerent ship and defending their right to travel on a belligerent ship even if it was carrying munitions i am defending their right to travel on a belligerent ship carrying u. nations that also was carrying defensive guns on the ticket horizontally that's when the germans would throw up their hands and say to them wilson didn't look like an honest broker that's the pentagon you gonna trust with cheese only looking good and their attitude was he doesn't hold the british to any of the same rules he's trying to hold us to bring channel blocking going getting submarine as they used ma i said they would minority the treaty's older they would stop every why they could get their hands on make igor bridgeport search it in a decided contraband and wilson and his administration pretty darn quiet about that occasional protested nothing more to the germans this book like rank hypocrisy and two anti will sewing historians to them it looks like a perfect example the show that really these ideals that will super fast we're very conveniently ignored when they ran against what he wanted there were other complications that affected what he wanted to warn had to do with perhaps we beat the most ancient of motivations of all economic wants the united states was making a killing on the first world war by nineteen sixteen pardon upon and he began to effect didn't hire outlook toward the conflict it's one of the longest term impact by the way the purse for war the results of which we live with every day in our modern world but so sinks beneath the radar if somebody's you finished in the submarine warfare question the media's the economic transfer of wealth from europe to the united states this war was sold to hold all units takes that piece that besides fighting it found no good reason not to spend every basic happily had to win it when britain story this war nineteen forty she was the richest country in the world it was not long after the error with the phrase the sun never sets on the british empire was involved the british empire control directly or indirectly about a third of the planet she was wealthy she'd been such an awful lot of the wealth of europe for a hundred years during europe's most dominant time period on the world stage the arrow up all of the colonies and then post napoleonic splendor right the victorian age and yet when nineteen fourteen started the british dangers have their own bills to pay it is most expensive of all human conflict the underworld to dominion's became a dusty australia's the new zealand's they under roe countries like italy and pay for almost all their call stirring the war the russians to a lot of other small powers the amounts of money that we're changing hands i've seen so many different attempts to come up with it all you have to know though is it a godly the one penny was like seventy five million dollars a week in nineteen sixteen money money's it's incredible the wealth transfer when britain start buying stuff from places like united states won the war started the use cash the goal by nineteen sixteen or talk to my credit and yet if you want to think of new york is being like a giant vacuum cleaner with the socking hose and in london just socking out a hundred years of civilization all wealth requirement it's not a bad image and for years the center world banking as we said minerva refers to is transferring from london to new york same thing for the center of world trade and all the sudden by nineteen sixteen wilson is acquiring a huge amount of power because the united states is the banker and these people are beginning to public money the british realize it at the same time the story just as don mackey writes a column about wilson the new abilities because he controls the purse strings of the allied simon's war to dictate any sort of outcome he might want the micky writes quote if we're also desire to force the allies to the peace table the opportunity had come in he knew it on october third nineteen sixty the british inter departmental conference noted the nation's honor dependence upon american munitions steal food stuffs oil wheat cotton and lubricants we're the united states to engage in economic reprisals britain's war effort we practically stop about five million pounds sterling needed to prosecute the war were poured the government economist john maynard keynes later that week two million must come from north america quote in a few months' time claimed the treasury official the american public will be in a position to dictate to this country on matters that affect os more nearly done them and quote the altar continues quote reginald mckenna chancellor of the exchequer concurred with chains telling the cabinet in late october quote by next june or earlier the president of the american republic will be in a position if he wishes to dictate his own terms to was in court the doctor says at the end of december mckenna told an american journalist who will soon could quote force the allies to their knees any time in a moment and co the united states in late nineteen sixteen is like a bank in europe especially great britain was the financial underwriter of the whole allied war ever basically was the bank money that gives the banca water power but there's an old line in thinking that if the old bank a little bit of money it's the bank us to power but if you will obey cut a lot of money that power goes back to the person who oppose the money because the bank now has a vested interest to seeing that that person survives so that they can pay them back the united states is beginning to worry about what happens if we can sell this war material anymore we're freaking to pay for the credit were loaning out the u. s. has had a very uncomfortable sure prosperity descend on it in the past two years in nineteen forty one offer for war breaks out the american economy is not doing well by nineteen sixteen halfway through the year the american economy is humming along nicely thank you so the stories of actually called the united states the nation of the war profiteers at this point if you will so successful include creating a negotiated peace to the end of nineteen sixteen somehow thing you want it at that point to clear the winner in the first world war two the witch two powers at nominee i nominate japan the united states and the japanese hardly on the ward all the money in the nineteen sixteen united states and fought the war all those are the victors the japanese get involved in nineteen fourteen perpetually opportunistic reasons they can take over all the german holdings in their neck to the woods in the germans can't do anything to get all this territory for me to gotham the united states someone stop amazing amount to stop the ball sides need everything in the american so seldom anybody but they can't get their stuff to germany they still made loans and tried to get stuff to come by lords the british blockaded shut that down you can still trade with the british and we did and the idea that that trade might somehow goal when they began to filter into the halls of government the prosperity that this war brought the united states created another vested interest and there are economic historians and then story to look more and i'm economic motivation for why countries do things that we did this is the most important undercurrent of why the war was really going the way was that is another reason to do in this very pedestrian by woodrow wilson in nineteen sixteen was an american president faced an election campaign and this is where the the real old uniqueness of the american situation is demonstrated was a president do who's running for reelection a big elephant in the living room situation is this war in europe when he's facing electorate made up of immigrants are people on both sides of that conflict in the old world historian david stevenson is a great job breaking down you're the ethnic makeup of the united states in showing you all these weird problems of the united states would have it the got into this conflict that other nations wouldn't we simply point out that large chunks of the united states is made up of the murder in terms of these countries the two main groups that are there problematic for anyone who wants to talk about siding with the allies in this for for warp core german americans and irish americans his was stevens and writes quote support for american neutrality was strongest in the interior and especially the middle west where the german americans were concentrated of only in his significant minority favored intervention on the side of the central powers over u. s. population in nineteen ten of ninety two million he writes to one half million had been born in germany and five point seven eight million and one or two german born parents in nineteen seventeen five hundred and twenty two german language newspapers and journals were published in the united states and german americans were the largest ethnic group in baltimore pittsburgh chicago detroit los angels and sampras's go and co he then goes on to talk about irish americans cool and we can even get into this is as a person of partly irish american descent on by we're just going off on on the whole on fire rush on popularizing the easter rock rising happened during this conflict of which the germans may have had rolled off the british can see this in especially nasty stab in the bank back since it happened during wartime reacted by killing a lot ally russia or depends on the diversion of killing a bi racial years in the top rising be infuriating americans mileage to sandoval cheer worked hard and the soldier politician like woodrow wilson us to deal with the fact that you have a time of borders with the only people that can keep you in power we're really interested in not joining the side of the allies may be rainey won the slogan for the nineteen sixteen campaign that most remembered on the woodrow wilson signed is the one that said quote he kept us out of war end quote that was a slogan that appealed to most americans wilson's palm peace oriented secretary of state william jennings bryan had said one point the new york and major newspapers want war the rest of the country wants peace and if you're an american plan or it's interesting how many times you can open up the history book to see references to the young certainty what these large immigrant ascendant populations would too if the u. s. joined the allies side in the war to two point five million americans born in germany where they get into when war breaks out of these potential terrorists the so it became quite interesting issue before the conflict involve the united states as to whether or not the united states was unified in the idea that you would go fight on any side in this conflict now what you do if you wanna be's american figures perhaps one of the top politicians who want the united states to get into the first world war what's your strategy for dealing with these americans who don't wanna go wanna stay neutral it may be a huge majority of the country during this time period if you're a politician in your eustace over putting your finger in the wind and go on in the direction the people wanna go but they don't wanna go in the direction you wanna go to watcher strategy for dealing with that the strategy of several of the top political figures in this period was to play the super patriot car and to accuse americans who disagreed with the idea getting into the war as being disloyal we take for example the former president theodore roosevelt in nineteen sixteen roosevelt is not running for president but he's campaigning in helping the guy who we turn his own party give the republican it's challenging woodrow wilson in the november nineteen sixty elections now roosevelt is an interesting position here in desperately wants to get into the first world war they did how we're clean up the u. s. paying out these publicly slamming woodrow wilson from pillar to post for not wanting to get involved in the conflict compares him on the campaign trail to ponchos hide and becky says wilson's neutrality is worst unconscious pilot river barges pilot he's the roman official who in the bible sentences jesus to be crucified that's a pretty good political slam of the president isn't it but then roosevelt makes a point to go after what the time war were for two hours hyphenated americans know people and hyphen between their description of their nationality german hyphen americans irish hyphen americans jewish hyphen americans there was a feeling amongst a lot of americans of these people were real americans that they had a conflict of loyalties and it was also decided that you had to have a hundred percent loyalty to the united states and any consideration with what the ancestral home might want was equivalent in roosevelt's own words to be no more world creature so how'd you deal with the fact that you want united states to do something to most americans don't want to do you slam is traitorous those who oppose it now we'll fill us in a bit of a different position because not only many historians think did not wanna get in the war may be but he certainly had a public persona of not wanting to get into the war but wilson didn't like anyone who disagreed with him when you can see wilson's attitude about those who would oppose his policies even in peace time in his response to a telegram years see from an irish american there's a pi finish and ride high ridge hyphen american leader it's a temper nineteen sixteen a guy named jeremiah o'leary and only three was telling wilson something that's that's perfectly logical he's explaining to him to all of these moves to seem to lean toward the allied some of the war burnaby shoes in the campaign right is nothing controversial by that o'leary's cable said quote your foreign policy is your failure to secure compliance with all america right you're leniency with the british empire your approval of war loans the ammunition traffic are issues in this campaign and co most american political figures would understand that that's just someone from the opposition explaining the steps of the american political system works as of tomorrow without especially than peacetime wilson wrote back to jeremiah o'leary quote your telegram received i would feel deeply mortified to have you will or anybody like you vote for me since you have access to many disloyal americans and i have not i will ask you to convey this message to them and co in other words simply oppose woodrow wilson's policies in peacetime doesn't make you portable loyal opposition it make shoot disloyal what is a president who feels that peace time opposition to peacetime policies is disloyal what to dilate back and do what no longer peace time well here's a little preview to think about we still have laws on the books that were currently in forcing in using the war on terror or president wilson's response to critics who would dress him negatively in wartime unless you think that this is an over reaction or may be misplaced priorities it's worth noticing that in late nineteen sixteen there are several belligerents in this war for most threatened not by foreign armies defeating their armies on the battlefield by their own populations collapsing from within morally or in terms of their unity in support for the government in an arrow where more and more of the armies of these modern twentieth century state could take upon to stay on the battlefield fighting year after year the chunky in the national armor for some of the states was proving to be the home front and nowhere by the way you see a better example of the sweeping away of the nineteenth century mentality been in how the whole front is viewed the helm from of course is a shorthand were for the people back living their civilian lives in the support the war economy and open to make me nations and all the stuff that helps support those troops of the fraud in the nineteenth century europe's more genteel sort of arab there were all sorts of peace conventions and and laws of war meetings to do to help spare civilians and keep them thus far way from the suffering of wars possible that was considered to be a civilization woodlands it's interesting and and telling i think to watch that sold a genteel peace time mentality crash into the rocks of reality that on the twentieth century where all of those rules look like rainbows and unicorn to me from another time when gassing each other with unit insecticide humor he may decide to say that you may decide something used to spring on human beings with their hands undergo the nineteenth century genteel conventions right there in the same applied to civilians we have the germans in using zeppelin raids to drop bombs on on british cities ameen beer goes those nineteenth century contingent right there in the german bombers to do with us like this idea that everyone to come back now if the whole different is a legitimate target in total war dance or the civilians going about their daily lives in places like germany and austria hungary when the british car off trade to those places they begin to do the equivalent i'll put an entire nation or an entire alliance undersea each and one british official actually said you know what's the difference between you're putting the city under siege which is been done drawing is to really civilian population in the besieged city always suffers and putting a nation under siege the british clampdown this blockade the beginning of the war by the middle and latter part of nineteen sixteen at long term anaconda like strategy really begins to bite and part of the reason why is the society sir already straining to the maximum to just keep their military is in the field and i think it's easy to forget exactly what the strain on the society's it was because you look at the window we've often compared the size of these um our armies to what alexander the great khan gribbon own world was back in three thirty two p. c. e. alexander the great he's a call in one of these modern armies listen to what german army corps of which they had dozens in the army requires to sustain itself imagine an ancient economy trying to provide this says from a whole juror for vague and is built on the first world war corp the army consumed copious amounts of food in fog or a single core of thirty five thousand soldiers monthly devoured one million pounds of meat six hundred thousand loaves of bread hundred and eighty nine thousand pounds of fact or he says to woodard in forty two thousand pounds of canned meat and a hundred and twenty one thousand pounds of marmalade and he says seventy three thousand pounds of coffee it's horses for big says needed seven million pounds of boulton more than four million pounds of henry the eighteenth army corps he says for example estimated that it needed one thousand wagons extending thirty nine miles to hold its monthly allotment of bread it's butchers slaughtered thirteen hundred twenty cows eleven hundred hogs and forty one hundred and fifty eight she every month taken as a whole he says the german army weekly demolished sixty million pounds of bread hundred and thirty one million pounds of potatoes and seventeen million pounds of meat no one in the government or the general staff he writes had given serious consideration to such mammoth needs for pure enough for years and call no no one saw that coming someone from the ancient world and this could never have been sustained before the modern era but sustaining it took all of those necessary toward stocks out of the civilian populations mouths you were beginning starve because of it the winter of nineteen sixty nineteen seventy will be remembered by germans forever as the turn of winter and that's the winter where the hunger blockade really be it story in your dorm rooms right all as nineteen sixteen trying to nineteen seventeen caloric intake which it already begun to fall in late nineteen fourteen slid to about a third of prewar consumption levels money connections on the black market help the lucky ones but even the upper crust suffered no quoting a noble woman we're all gaunt and bony now we have dark shadows around our eyes and our thoughts and chiefly taken up with wondering where our next meal will be perot's continue school pork had almost disappeared from dinner tables in restaurants where cora was now sir milk was reserved almost exclusively for young children but really sugar could be purchased only in very small quantities eggs were ration did two per person per month and turnips and rutabagas had begun to replace potatoes in court burrows goes into a couple of reminisces from germans about what those tasted like in and says quote inevitably as nutrition level spell body succumb to a variety of ailments like rickets skirt the dysentery and tuberculosis in influenza estimates place the number of blockade related deaths by war's end at seven hundred and thirty thousand which makes popular our wage understandable and co now as with everything in the first war there are historical dissenters who will challenge every aspect of what's known as the hunger blockade affecting the central powers but nonetheless the important thing now understand is that it be created dynamic in this conflict that forces the german side to do something they are the ones continually giving less food their adversaries liberation the french do not have the food in security problem that dynamic force is the germans to do something to change sir situation or though to strangle to death i mean if you're ready living through what germans are calling the turnip winter in nineteen sixteen in nineteen seventeen what they can recall the next winter of nineteen seventy nineteen eighteen you have to be genius to see you now have to do something change the state of affairs german public opinion begins to demand it no i should point out that that just bring much makes them equal all the other populations of all the other belligerent seemingly doesn't seem like anyone's particularly happy with the way the government is prosecuting the war regardless of which country you're talking about at least amongst the major states in britain at the end of nineteen sixteen their government fall is and the new prime minister who rises use the very embodiment of what voters would vote for they want to shake things up and get somebody different in there his name is david lloyd george usages called low in georgia feisty welsh one of a much more working class background than you normally see in the store to positions might be exactly what you know the average dissatisfied with the way the war's going free citizen won it now uneasily trusting that only a couple of weeks before lloyd george gets the job he's recorded as having said about the allies in britain lost this war and now he's in charge of britain's war effort it's also interesting to note that you could tell how often hear the outcome of the first world war isn't nineteen sixteen were you could find a leading figures on both sides who think their side has lost the war nonetheless the fringe also get into the game nineteen sixty to terrible year for them to just as it has been for the british and they finally find the courage to get rid of their long time military leader of the legend joseph joffe are he's been living off the fumes of his reputation from the battle of them are long time and it's safe to say been under performing and the french finally began firing is too much of the legend of define the so's kick him upstairs and promote ritual ceremony opposed to replace him with his first new french leader says the war started a guy named the dow the russian population public opinion which isn't certainly supposed to have much of the sweating supposedly 'cause they live in in a strange sort of autocracy with a part-time legislature bombardier making their feelings known to moral man in a minute in germany the population just wants away at the strap up some people would like to see efforts made towards figuring out a way out of the war which they have people who say they see in all the belligerent countries to jeff to be careful little while ago we talked about woodrow wilson suggesting that people who might oppose his policies were disloyal be to get to trial in the jails and wannabes belligerent countries if you appear to be disloyal so too much peace talk to get you don't want trouble nonetheless there was a body of german public opinion that was pushing for another outcome they want your government to take the gloves off stop playing nice the adversary they want their government to unleash the submarines and to heck with what the americans would do to some germans the american policy look to be a very conniving wade is simply deny in germany use of the submarine to be made to rules too restrictive than any americans case the rule basically was that an american traveling or associate gives us some magical protection simply by stepping on board can sink a ship now there's an american on it that pretty much notifies the submarine for germany at all but if that's the only way you see a chance to end the war with the german victory over the british or is that mean can you let the americans hamstring you like that and that the fact that lord germans don't see the americans all the neutral already and think that maybe britain to be defeated for six months before the americans have a chance to do much of anything add to that the fact that when public opinion be yours in that direction there are germans in the military high command a majority of them that we're we're eating him up themselves now they have public opinion on their side at least the submarines but what the americans come in the war there were german leaders well that didn't like it destroys want to find another option rather than no use to subdue the annexed it into the war chief among them was the chancellor of germany the top political guy's name was back in the whole thing and we discussed him before this is all by the way very controversy a very complicated recall ballooning drugging again carlin a condensed potentially unreliable version of this but it's a fascinating time in the conflict because the politicians led by holding think they find a way to throw monkey wrench into that terrible choice to the allies of sword foisted the germans are with the hunger blockade and everything up the gonna make a move so they make a very unexpected won on december twelfth nineteen sixteen bettman holding and the germans an ounce but they are prepared to enter into negotiations when the war now he should be voted out that such calls for peace in discussions about peace and gone on since the war started woodrow wilson had stepped up pretty much run at the beginning and said tommy it in a time you want they were attempts by both sides in the war to try to make a separate peace with somebody else and maybe get in one of the allies of of your enemy to drop out of the war but bowser peace terms just to get in age in the conflict in a peace terms to end the war the germans were making the first terribly ceiling is certainly public offer to sit down and start talking about the issues that kept the conflict going this was the it you cheap shock not exactly to the wilson the ministry should be getting some information for treason back channels of the germans might be ready to do this but the american stock that they were gonna unleash to speak peace proposal when the germans do with the preempt woodrow wilson's version keister rushes out you know about a week later little bit miffed that the germans stole his thunder little bit but all the sudden in december nineteen sixteen after this horrible your your peace proposals on the table and it puts everybody in you're really uncomfortable position now the german to take in real chance by the way i'm trying this peace proposal route it is a high stakes card game and i often think of a warrant in terms like that the germans because of the hunger blocking of the most are forced to play a card and everyone takes to complain that really high risk high reward teenagers car they have of the unrestricted submarine warfare card instead they play a potentially equally perilous card wanna know won't expecting me play the peace corps that the peace corps kimball whopping your face if you play it deftly case in point what are your enemies can i think when you become the first power to come forward and start talking about stopping the war they're gonna think you need to you what's more is a danger your own people might think that you when you spend a lot of effort new swore to defend him back boning keep your resolve in place how much you that undercounted if you become the first powers seek peace so this whole thing has to be working very carefully candidates but almost in such a way to give your in a cave to give you what flashes you're moving your neck between the humanitarian side of the german chancellor spur polls and the side is filled with overwhelming hubris the germans talk about what this war two and a civilization and how they be willing to get into conversations about any new but that they're still invincible only gonna win the war in italy to do this the wall with the terms be on the other side maybe you could say that allies historians of argued about the motives behind this ever since but the truth the matter is if you look at this like a card game there were some good reasons for the germans to play that peace carded whether or not it was realistic and whether or not the other side accepted it and some historians say this was what was intended to do the whole time provide some diplomatic cover for the start of the unleashing of the submarines to go once a headache we'll talk about peace and when it's rejected the will to turn around to your role to people and say it in the better give up those hopes of uneasy peace we just try they won't do with this is applied to the end stuffing yourself most of the show the world including the neutral zone including the people on the other side of the war's population that we're not the ones keeping this carnage going it could've been over mature side wants to keep fighting but most especially is an attempt to maybe influence public opinion in the neutral countries especially the most important for concrete united states just so many german americans in it that there are more than five hundred and twenty german language newspapers as we said what you think the editorials are gonna be in those newspapers after germany makes a peace proposal in the allies wiped out that's gonna put some pressure on the u. s. government to stay out of the war to end that skinny influence american public opinion or with the bad guys know the good guys are that may have been the overriding intention of this german peace effort but nobody knows it may have been any serious attempt to it we start negotiations going and to take a position that didn't make you seem to vulnerable at the outset the germans had the right time to do it right after the capital for mania fell to the central power so they are they're negotiating for a position of strength here anyhow why swatted down the house too the problem with asking these powers to speak publicly with the war aims are you were decreed in peace is to show that the warriors of these powers of god is so one hand they bear no resemblance to anything they could be negotiated this is storing granddaughter religion as we linger court already on the spur were an quote what the government of your book on themselves trapped in the first total war discovered to their dismay with the demeans used to fight the war total and so must be the yen's it was almost impossible to stop short of total victory for one side and unconditional surrender for the other and co the old territorial exchanges and the pain of reparations and the new giving up or acquiring of colonies was in nineteen century sort wore a bit sounded out of place in the twentieth century the british or the french were the germans or anyone had said that their war aims of all the little change it territory and little reparations money what have you able to seem so out of proportion to the cost that would be real danger that the public would think that what the country was fighting for wasn't worth what the public was paying for it in addition to that of course there were some cream and territorial ambitions involved and no one wants to those in fact both sides had promised other people's territories to allies of theirs for example the italians were promised territory from the austrian during empire once the war was over the british couldn't very well say that was awarded him and still know like it's cynical games man in this war when everyone by the way on all the sides he is a cynical game somebody can show that to the public was more the idea of war arranged it stopped short of defeating the enemy unconditionally clashed with your propaganda this is awarded choosing such twentieth century ideas as a war to end all wars and the war to make the world safe for democracy it's not a war to acquire few colonies in the mediterranean as moral middle east in the breakup of the austro hungarian empire into war freebies high minded ideals the problem is is a pure propaganda patrice the germans is the second coming of them on goals will actually the han's is the word propaganda use and their baby killers and nurse executioners and non rapers and all the things the propaganda makes them ought to be how can you possibly sit down sign a piece of paper to compromise with an have peace again when the vatican was on at this time trying to help create the conditions were peace could happen at the vatican kept telling the powers to live up to those prewar agreements to make war less horrible and they were saying that they were favoring this not because they were idealist because if these powers kept doing everything in there you might to destroy one another the ravenna hate each other so much of the good of the no space and russ mutual respect left to carve out a piece later the germans were no happier by the way to state their war aims publicly for the exact same reasons and it was implied threat included on the germans came forward with this attempt to get negotiations started an implied threat was if negotiations didn't happen in more fruitful i would play the unrestricted submarine warfare card the peace negotiations are over by the end of january in the middle of january after on january twentieth will submit to famous speech the big speech where he calls for peace without victory the news so called peace without a victory speech on the twenty second of june you were one essentially he already knew that it wasn't going to happen wilson lays down the kind of peace that you are all have the broker in the first world war if it's to be a lasting peace he can't be one of those pieces in it with a knife is stirring and one side is left haiti the other when you think about how the first world war ended and how would sow the seeds for the second world war wilson's outside nostradamus was some of the things he says in this part of the speech we talked about the having to have this kind of peace he says quo i'm seeking only to face realities and a face them without soft concealment victory would mean peace forced upon the loser of victor's terms imposed upon the vanquished it would be expected in humiliation and under wraps an intolerable sacrifice that would leave the stain or resentment a bitter memory upon which terms of peace would rest not permanently but only as upon quicksand only a peace between equals kenmore only apiece the very principles which is equality and a common participation in a common benefit the rich state of mind the right feeling between nations is is necessary for lasting peace as is unjust settlement of vexed questions of territory for racial and national allegiance in court so he's not only calling for peace we're nobody can claim a victory we just stop fighting and begin negotiating for a post war world in which wilson and invasions and newark international global structure to enforce global peace and harmony so that we never have a first world war again as i said for those historian to suggest that wilson is out to make wilson the biggest historical figure he can i would be a heck of a legacy he could pull that off but instead within a couple of moments united states will be in the war and from the allied perspective not a moment too soon the end of nineteen sixteen early nineteen seventeen and we've been spending quite a bit of time setting this period in the war bob but this period in the war is probably the most important six months' know last hundred years people talk about tougher for wars is transformative moment in the aftereffects that we're living with yet even now all around us but the most transformative moment in that conflict is what's about to happen now and no i can't help but find some sort of metaphor analogy approached looking at the bottom in it's like we have the street and you can shop in an effort to yours and the in the nineteen sixties finally the tree falls over winston churchill says three ingredients acting together create what he calls the second climax of the war in this period we deal with two of those ingredients the americans submarine question they're ingredient involves russia but ultimately it's pretty obvious most of the so we've been dealing with which you could safely called the first great powers the country's at war at the top of everything that when the war started the rich powerful cohesive unified in a topical line states to france and the britons the germanys but if they are worn down by you know this many years of this war to this point to where they are now with the germans are undernourished for lack of a more provocative term what must be the situation that the countries that want first rate powers of the war started was ahead challenges were struggling in various areas howard two years of war treating them will the italians op have open disagreement about peace in their government in the in the trenches they were pamphlets distributed by a socialist of say next winter not another man in the trenches the generals are not very pleased with the avatar to blame the italians they're all like to temper eleventh battle of the us on the river fighting over this tortuous mountainous terrain which create an environment in eighty eight the little teeny horrible war in and of itself with all these unique brings me just to give you one example in amount awarded the italians are fighting the awestruck hearings when shells hit they're all carved into rock means the trenches a lot of times table home how white has arms for cover when the shells hit the rocks rocks to splinter preening like a secondary mama shrapnel that just horrifying in the new be awarded your way out of six seven thousand feet you could be brought down through no mountainous alpine conditions to the nearest way station they they still find frozen things appear even today the horrible conflict and by nineteen sixteen the italians around like to attend a paw real leather and version of it i'm only have to show for his war more dead people they wouldn't be human if you're starting to get a little fed up with this in fact that just put them on par with how it seems the populations of all the belligerent countries are doing now how's austria hungary doing remember there was that in a kind of our ground zero when this whole war got started they're the ones who had the archduke become self assassinated they're the ones that in a sense that on comprising letter to the serbians they're the ones that sparked is war how the billing whether they wish they hadn't they're in terrible shape the venerable emperor the rule there for so long the benign face of stability and finally died to be on he has exceeded by the next emperor was much younger man and look to this country insisted the germans this war has to end in nineteen seventy when austria hungary to worship and don this new emperor during this coming year will go behind the germans back to the allies reportedly and try to sew sell them out in the germans find out about it many never imitate the rise of austria hungary jane olson in these brothers in arms don't trust each other anymore it was a very interesting move a lot of people talk about it it's almost like we're war was version of rudolf hess flying to great britain in order make a separate peace for the nazi germany in the second world war just as weirdly governor all of those is burned austria hungary germany's mistrust the new house the russian for the russians from the very start of this war even before this war for very long time and in this contradiction in powwow in one sense they are massively powerful in the military since you're ready clique they are terrified and yet they erected same time soul fatally flawed in the underpinnings that anything rushes doing in this world we seem to be like writing some real or were walking a tight were open and disaster looted any moment just it wasn't on the steady so the situation is a story that so shows is this contradiction in terms the military leader the russian military leader pursue off people have an offensive named after him in nineteen sixteen we talked about no we're nearest much is it deserves in the watch program this once again porch the russians out there in good light show shoe what they can do when they get to their act together and they are devastating seven hundred fifty thousand casually austral gearing army coming in this century mortally wounded and it is frightening what the russians continue in when things go the right way purcell of tells a story to show should just how fatally compromised everything user how how rodney inside sorry says at the height of this offensive when everything's going so well he's receiving on is signed letters from his own soldiers telling him that if the fighting doesn't stop soon they can kill him russia's been having internal problems for decades now the current czar nicholas the second but on the czar and his arson even is running he's the emperor of russia bazaars the old man that goes back hundred to use that they still call mad because that's essentially what the office to lose in his name is official long titled says he's the autocrat and out even if the russian dumas been given one percent in the source dollars nine nine percent of our bomb he has a a an example of the old world and it's most royal and yet he knows how frightfully fragile the underpinnings are what he was in meer adolescent he saw his grandfather sherrie dean to the royal palace with his legs torn to shreds is growing go on his stomach ripped out the space mangled and he's bleeding out on the wheel carpet and then the royal family including nicholas the second commander we nicholas the second watch their grandfather died takes about fifteen minutes you've been killed in an assassination another was the stories were in a bizarre is out in his bulletproof sladek an aunt emma bomber throws a bomb it sounds a little like all stereo thing they kicked up afresh for a bomber throws a bomb the bomb goes off kills people who were not the target the target comes out in this case is our comes out to look around and there's another bomb or in the crowd supposedly bizarre the time it said something about enough thank god that nothing happened in the others asses east wing the bomb and i'm saying it's a little too early to thank god boom any believes on the royal palace for all the czar who will be commanding russia as the autocrat in the first world war as a thirteen or fourteen year old war watches he knows how dangerous the job is the ninos appears a violent current of rotten eggs that opposes his system he's dealing with all the time one of the things that makes the story so interesting those when you're dealing with one person with almost all power as we said earlier they're little idiosyncrasies make a big impact on history imitation nicholas the second the autocrat of all the russians right is it idiosyncrasies involved some things that i think most people out there who have children can at least really to libya it's interesting that there's a part of the story that just has a personal tragedy were wrapped up in it and is an example why you can reduce history to some sort mathematical cohesion or some sort of predictable set of rules are and they're human beings involved here the case of the czar it's a fascinating story the man just so you know me this is how you work was the city older pits being destroyed he's the first or second cousin with everybody he's the first cousin with the king of england he's the second cousin with the emperor germany any shortly to everybody and his wife the first cousin of the king of england i mean the little incestuous maybe but that explains why czar and his wife mourn her second poor only have one son give birth to us on who's a hemophiliac it runs in the family to queen victoria who sort of the good that descended to all these people countries to henry to the doctor said that this did not run her family it seemed to the tory of course was german in her words so was the czar's wife is arena alexandra both of them loved each other and i say this because you knew it into the will of course they do that listen this is an era where especially amongst nobility you often every political marriages hillside ethereal fashion things were very common back in the husband wife really in love each other in the husband was out in with all the girls all of it wasn't like that with nicholas and alexandra this is what is a love story it really was an artist between the two of them with their children to love their children the way we think of every modern person loving their children all the way they show it it is not to say that people on the past didn't although you find a lot of examples in the royal family's throughout history with the father barley sees the saudis it's not like that with these guys they take an active duty of the role in their parenting in the world letters to each other constantly in the world in english which they both spoke well arms arena was german but but she spoke russian she spoke english bizarre spoke everything and we communicated in more than a thousand letters with each other were you get a real feel for these people are more of the things that they are absolutely terrified about mr solomon who's got the hemophilia he's the only stalin he's the next azhar and he is almost certainly going to die young from this disease mendocino hemophilia is a disease or your blood doesn't call ought not to get too technical 'cause it can explain it anyway but tom buddy sickly a little cod for bruce has the potential to spiral out of control the normal in rough and tumble of up of the young child's life will kill you and in this era especially parents just assumed almost a death sentence and these two parents as any parent would think of today probably could hardly handle that thought and we're looking around for church and trying to find them and eventually they found someone who seem to be able to fix their son and because of the little idiosyncrasy connected to who this person tended to be world histories completely altered and in the funny part about it is an ode to the pity to tragic story and it's interesting story to breach human story but there are elements to it that would make a good in a sitcom or good movie premiere sunlight as i walked in to talk about this today i remember the movie that was gonna based on the premises that nick nolte the unity was calm down and out in beverly hills in the story is about a vagrant come home was coming guy who by hook or by perkins up you know he ain't leaving with a rich family in beverly hills offbeat really fabulous the rich family and of course because of the dichotomy in their lifestyles no way they view the world to larry b. c.'s right that's what happened with the czar and his wife and hemophilia exxon when they found somebody who seem to be able to heal him that somebody was basically the equivalent of the vagrant in downtown in beverly hills they were bringing it hasn't been to have a look at their six on there's us name is gregori rasputin and history has always been an easel hardcore history personality peter burke antoine and the fact that this government was ron ninety nine percent by one guy and his wife opens up the door to agree gory rasputin being able to have the effect on history he's at the historian peter hart does a good job of the frame in all the various things seem to be going on awards including what i just talked about the the way russia is sort of a giant but hamstrung by this this ancient system of theirs to the big guy like rasputin could make a difference in the idiosyncrasies of a single individual or two could come to the fore he writes cold the russian all frog was gradually collapsing under the intolerable spring of war the czarist government did not have the flexibility necessary to cope with the plague of economic political and social problems that infected the light and those are himself perceived any form of democracy is a threat to his regime and rather than introducing an increased measurable liberalism was more attracted to the idea of the total dissolution of even the token estate dumas i meant to positions of considerable authority were routinely assigned by the tsar on the grounds of either naked favoritism or the authoritarian credentials of the candidate by skiers raged through society with particular suspicion fallen on any russian general on fortunate enough to have the germanic name meanwhile incompetence and corruption blossoms on feathered one of the center the czar was publicly embarrassed by the hearings of the czar rina alexandra to the ludicrous cult of rasputin and on the east religious mistake with a penchant for your religious pursuit the whole despotic system of government was resting on just a few week individuals russia was being hollowed out from within and the vacuum at the center was creating dangerous instability and quo not everything that peter hart says writer could've applied to several other countries in the story reading except one thing the hard dealing with rasputin gregori rasputin is agree wild card the story of a quintessentially russian figure me he's it's hard to imagine anywhere else and he is i'll read you some larger than life and i think your heart is breaking story is easy sounds a little bit like he can't understand in a bizarre rina the wife of the czar can of calling for this guy in the shtick he calls it the ludicrous rasputin called i mean if you had your ear jasper she probably said you but i saw him do it multiple times too white save my son's life if you saw somebody savior kid's life multiple times don't you think he would be hard to have your logic over right would you think you saw i've seen cold hearted to our realists dream to people seeking quack remedies when they were dying of cancer they were looking for help if your kid is dying you looking for hope want somebody actually comes through i knew what that quack treatment for your relatives terminal cancer cure the cancer that's the weirdness in the story that double the royal family the emperor his wife were running into this guy gregori rasputin first in nineteen oh five but ten years before the country we are in the story and there's an entry by the sorry ms donnelly we met a man of god today and so starch this relationship between this person was born up war hasn't in siberia on educated everything and his relationship with two of the most royal figures in the world mean we think the king and queen of england that's the level we're talking about what the sorenson really imagine today's queen of england was no power all picking up some person off the street was almost home was in on even the london homeless person someone from the sticks up in the north of england so were some small town bringing them in the palace and having them live with you for wattles were questioning them on the state of things done for the people saying in and or yeah letting the minister of medicinal lead to your child it's a crazy story than the only reason rasputin becomes important you can hardly imagine an important in most of the other systems of government but because russia is so autocratic if you captured the czar you capture the country rasputin made the royal family emotional hostages now whether that was intentional or otherwise is debatable historians disagree your son history to think this is a person who thought he was a blessed man of god with the special powers to do in our religious oriented things and others say he's a charlatan in we had the royal couple sort of emotionally blackmail but it was nothing anyone could do about disagree quote from the czar in the middle of the story with rasputin where all of his advisers as something to be fit to be gotta get rid of the sky and the czar's chancery is there's nothing i can do about it and why histories which interpret that to mean that the czar's basically saying he can't stand up to his wife you know she wants him and is nothing that the zorkin do you won't stand up to his wife but you know some historians a car recently as sunday know we could easily mean there's nothing he can do about it because there's only one person who can save their son's life the heir to the throne by the way you really believe that the stress people can't get to in a weird position between nineteen oh five rooms are rasputin first meet where we are in the story right now late nineteen sixteen rescue has been warming his way into the czar's family pretty consistently my circle of friends his family bizarre wannabes get together sometimes with him and his wife and his kids and rasputin now there are back steps sometimes the relationship goes sour for while you sleep is rasputin was a surreal misbehave are does something to take truly outrageous be very embarrassing as are so much that that that he does with his underlings are continually telling him to do in an centrist be no way for legitimately upsetting him and nonetheless every time he manages to break the rutledge break up and she could say with rasputin inevitably alexi his son we're the throne will get sick again necessitating the return of rescued me he's like a cigarette cabbage can get don't distress been character's fascinating on so many levels you know ye have to think you were dealt some interesting cards by fate to be able to parlay your gifts prom his upbringing as a thousand on educated peasants with no money in the middle of nowhere to weary you are in the royal family and when you see a picture of him you see a little bit of a i mean he was five foot nine inches tall pretty normal arm he had dark black wally hey or four in the middle unkempt mustache on cambior danger too interesting i mean if he if you'd photoshop his picture onto the back of any number of nineteen seventies heavy metal albums i don't think it would be able to look at the bans faldo won the back end and nobody did it he lived in a perfectly is the basis of any number of banter back then and if he were lead singer renamed the band after him it would be in on any lineup you could think of as an heavy metal festival when that nino this weekend only black sabbath iron maiden motor and rescue can indeed most amazing eyes and you can tell because normally you can't tell from forms a hundred years ago in certain qualities of individuals it just gets lost through the layers of of coziness and black and white alike but if you catch the rightful raspy he had to be in the car just the right time you can see with the eyes were like has been jump out of the black and white photo from a hundred years ago at you even now the whites in his eyes were so by witnesses to be extra white and again become upset when some of the photos is i collared dazzle people to the point we're multiple descriptions of all contradict each other some people say blew some people say brown some people say grace of people same altay hollered when you read about his sort of bomb tech alike way of all walking moving his nurses' habits the way he wouldn't talk for a while most and you get is this stream of sometimes on related conversation spiced with sexual innuendoes mean there's a party that things are images read a book on the late writer hunter thompson they sell like the room together they would look like the one person in each other rasputin is a combination of a person who looks to be a very devout arm religious figure from russia's christianity orthodox christian campana drunken our ways her apparently that's not that unusual in rome in the russian tradition especially in the siberian tradition where wrote speeches for home the russian offshoots insects and calls i'm one of these interesting policeman who understood them wouldn't would try to explain and apparently it involves needing the scene is sometimes in order to get the right kind of repentance working for you and then there are rumors of orgies to take place as part of the rights for these religions and some historians not most of some of tide recipes and some of those i'm strange certain strange police had it would make sense in one day in one sense though because this there are conversations and record with his wife who knew she was married when she walked past an eighteen in the middle of a town with other women and they would all see him having sex in the opening some towns woman she would say something to be effective will touches his cross to bear he's gonna do that in a green light beam want to just he has to do that but that's nice helping those people i'm sure if i was rescued not what was so at that point without one and to gossip column type of coffin says that he's he's always torn with our car extreme drunkenness and sexual our regis nursing usually in combination with each other there are bring charges that are brought to the czar's arenas attention when the household staff is accusing him of going after them he's absolutely brazen he will sit down next two of the year from the royal family and put his arm around her at a party with all the aristocrats barrister moving in our your stories that you have to know that the czar's are really knew he was the sweetest at the scali gatherings i mentioned earlier whether all sitting there and it's just him in the family jewels sit next to the princes sons were all adolescent girls during this time period and they will jump up what they've been the prodded with hot neal because he's gonna sing them feeling them in front of the czars arena i knew the same time bomb some of the stuff is passed off as just part of his rustic peasant army is neat you could he doesn't know how inappropriate that is because of some of these people in russia's aristocracy hated him but those who didn't come matter reaction when he was some sort of exotic thing that the subaru in you have to make allowances for what he doesn't understand he might not know you can't just walk up and touch some noble woman's breast to dinner and how how funny an interesting isn't it is we are ready just in the second banana to our body was found in an historian joseph ermine has written two books on rasputin point that out all rasputin was upon it was a pleasure to be in his company he gave people nicknames they were often coming in quite appropriate he might double wallman a hot stuff boss lady sexy girl or good-looking while i'm in would be called fancy pants big breaches long hair or fella people accepted this is a charming characteristic the humor about hasn't who meant no disrespect and quo so the people that didn't hate rasputin would often in overlook his power rangers nissen consider that part of a notice charm is rustic peasant charm nonetheless sometimes it was a little too much even for the tsar there's been a famous incidents and they all end up in the local media believer not russia had a tabloid media during this time period and rasputin was one other staple we know figures by mean back in my day when you bought every one of them had have elizabeth taylor story or michael jackson story or something like that i'm putting car dashing preliminary back man in russia if you can have a rescue the story in ever so often that i mean you worry about circulation dropping just when you think to be no new c. d. s roaring drunk in a in a highfalutin restaurant capital city starchy alone about how he knows the czar and pulses pants down and then with his genitals at the restaurant word like that gets around the tabloids heated up one point the tsar had to tell the tabloids that they could mention his name anymore so they do start were for ringed in as the guy who lives on so in some street weaver street lived on and everyone in the public just knew they meant there were cartoons that maybe the rounds showing rasputin home with his hand on the naked breast of the czar rina implying with a lot of people wandered about this relationship although it's almost certainly not true if rescued is going around town sleeping with everything that moves from passes to royal women as well what's he doing with the tsar arena you're even whispering someone public charge made that the here to the throne the czar's son israeli rasputin sana almost certainly not true but the more gossip circulated at that time and talk more undermined the people's trost in his arms arena of the supreme is already german at a time when the russian people are hounding russian generals who just have german last names what happens if you are german and as ours not allowed and this just range russian peasant who seems like us bengali is i mean there were protests in nineteen fifteen were the people were sitting down with rasputin down with alexandra he's not an unknown quantity everyone realizes he's almost a public figure the debate team in the legislature and the powers that be want him gone the story during this time period one of the ways they tried to get him out it's a famous story one day rasputin to knock it is to war he goes to the georgia man standing there with a package the key is risky the package rasputin old as the package and it's gulf photos and rusting hulks of the photos and their photos of him unconscious in sensible due to drink and there are naked women all around him night photos the man at the dorm gave him the package says you do you leave town and go back to you came from stop talking and clinton is our order to get these pictures to him it was an extortion attempt an arm was the night apparently dead recipe had passed out from drink his enemies and hire prostitutes in position around him naked and start taking photos to blackmail him in typical unexpected fashion rasputin took the photo straight to the czar is sort of you know through soulful mercy of the court no law that time rest beams able to skate away with no real repercussions sometimes she's not as we said occasional with us would develop between his arm rasputin one of them for example the one nineteen twelve is a perfect example of how hard was for the czar to stay away from rasputin in nineteen twelve they have what these disagreements and as our sensors beaten back to siberia the royal family goes on vacation in september nineteen twelve to their country how was there playing around in the young near the throne like c. johnson the boat was about seven early years old not unusual not unusual for seven or eight year old to lie and we're on an african selves but most of these every year olds course not hemophilia so it into the comes up from the sunshine human tallman is lower abdomen they take him back to the palace and have a terrible scare he gets very ill very bad politics about a month for him to start to recover as he's just trying to turn the corner and never understood as his mother this arena things and agree to take a model carriage ride and it's a bumpy road and they hit some bomb that he cries out in pain and something's happened inside him be taken back to the palace and now they have one of the most rustic periods of their life starting because this kid starts to die it takes a while it's very painful and the parents are watching it the kids peter sky rocketed the pain becomes so terrible he's delirious is slipping human consciousness i read somewhere that the opium issues and in the past sometimes for people in the ear to the throne condition of the music for him and screams or so terrible that were told the panel was staff esta stuffed cotton in your ear to walk around to deal with it the parents like i said loving reliance on parents take their turn at his bedside annie's begging for help ease he sank lord have mercy on me was one of things record over and over yet am ahmad help me the pain and we're told that wendy perrin is shifted the bedside was over they walk another room just burst into tears bazaar said that does arlene handle before deal better than he did mr imported doctors renata things to do they tell the paris is nothing more they can do it becomes apparent to the parents and to the patient that he's dying and he starts talking about those things that destroyed parents' money never or hear you look in saying he's he said my dial the pain be gone to his mother he asked that after he dies the pill this little shrine in the woods for milestones on the reality of the situation said sinister putting together a public statement to tell the russian people that the heir to the throne is dying the last rites are performed and while at a meeting of the czar gets a heinous world know from his wife saying come quickly i think it's time the boys about to die at the last minute bizarre wringing their hands a note to rasputin office iberia essentially saying help and she gets a cable the next morning it's a famous cable and intellectually arrogant tires and it's not as good according to a history joseph fernandez as we always thought it was the cable was to always thought to say god is senior tiers unheard your prayers do not grieve the little one will not die do not allow the doctors to bother him too much in court russian history and alexander's believe the bitch apparently says there was there were two note of the one that was misquoted really said quote fear nothing in the illness is not as dangerous as they're saying see that the doctors do not bother him and co by that afternoon the boy is our pain is able to sleep in the beaver starts dropping the doctors are still an issue before that they hate were speaking they were forced into several of them court in the inference latest book he's written two books on the street and they're just below what even make of it and it wasn't just this time they would be trying to stop the boy from bleeding in past incidents and and rasputin come up and the white chevy stop at an historians been trying to find explanations for this ever since a minute i've heard everything from hypnosis to the power of suggestion to drugs to one theory is that that they were giving the youngs are aspirin which was like the new wonder drug back then course we've been the worst thing to give them an arrest pieces goal of the doctors bothered him too much the stamp given any aspirin some people have suggested that they were some hole she rasputin had the sun kept them away you're investing in county want to in a blue motion pressure on the roof and there's all kinds of theories but a few others are rena and you've already seen rescued the same yourselves like several times and he just hold him back from the brink of death by telegram don't you think you'd stop caring about the we're force in the what is it does not want this guy believe your side if the czar of russia was in the process of taking his rasputin habit he fell off the wagon after the nineteen twelve implore your son back from the brink of death moment you're used to think rasputin wasn't a problem because he kept feeling the hearing the throne if he had stopped to that it probably we'll leave in talk about him very much of course the reason we do talk about the reasons of things begin to reason that half of russia wants him dead is because he snaps begin cutting yerkes meddling in policy in a funny way too i can see how that happened i'm not so called i mean if he viewed if you look at this from the czar's arenas vantage point than you think this guy has something to the real thing she's a man i'm gonna god favors him all the t. and he's prophetic anything seen what she's seen one true thing so maybe to win if you thought that when julie used this guy like a magic eight ball especially with the stakes as high as they are for the tsar this time i'm in the first world war breaks out when the romanov dynasty is threatened when millions of lives hinge on the decision is our makes how tempting would be in outages sort of ask rasputin we thought about disappointment to that idea should i go to the front and command from the front line sources say yes the next event by the way those are going to come into the front lines which opens up the door to to promote charging were skins influence and really are sure ring russia into the terminal phase of the end of the romanov dynasty is what happens is under the terrible losses against the central powers of the russians and suffered on the bizarre thought the people might mean scapegoat and he altruistic we offer himself up as a sacrificial lamb keeping she's an igor different his advice erskin kisses a terrible idea would like to downsize barbarous be likes the idea therefore by the way this arena likes the idea that one point the source wavering in things maybe he should do what must be no bolsters his confidence that it's a good idea as a bizarre leaves the capital and goes to come close to the front lines most of the czar ring is left in charge of the day to day activities and she's using recipe you can like a magic eight ball like you wouldn't believe you can read it in the letters back and forth between those are his wife big issue inform him what's going on she calls rasputin are offering to code named for him and she'll say to those are our friend things we should do this our friend as alike that legislator our friend things the boy image or should go to this person bundle debated back and forth and rasputin here is making huge decisions for russia's future in war time when things are deteriorating badly in bread riots are happening in and and dissatisfaction is his palpably on the rise in demonstrations are occurring annie's drinking twelve bottles of wine a day at waco something to belligerent powers of the other countries are aware of it either the british secret service is monitoring accord that tipped to histories and joseph ermine is monitoring rescue kevin nickname for him a column in the column dark forces and in many things about rasputin trouble the menagerie is not a german agent are they think he's unstable certainly the things he used in favor of some sort of peace deal to get russia out of the war the lotteries as their own karma like him but this problem is becoming a cute and some nobleman apparently take it upon themselves to read russia this cancer which is the way the steelers beauty they decide to kill him now when we reach this point we're actually caught up with the story time one indian it's december nineteen sixteen where we left off before little russian digression you know that time with the submarines in the peace deals on the table on the questions about the u. s. getting into the war or not in december nineteen sixteen were rumors are flying in the capital that recipe is gonna be killed and is so pervasive rasputin years mom allegedly his children you're going to win the heinz close we can go out nonetheless even with those rumors flying he can resist and this is the traditional story this is the kennedy assassination type thing and good luck finding the truth i'm just giving you that the most common story here apparently the nobleman offers his wife to rasputin you know nice little clinton arrangement and after party or something like that rasputin takes the high up on the offer he's a nobleman feel that she saw pop whose name i think he saw ritchie as more money in the ruling dynasty and working with a bunch of other men into true conspiracy nobody knows how deeply there is something to bring she could serve as it was even in on that the majority don't you stop off on meets rasputin kennedy's door brings him down into the basement start yanking do little to tie this story together wonderfully is playing on the phone grappled stairs that the king here to get this blue mary continue playing in the story is as russia on the reaches the terminal phase here in the romanov dynasty bomb this food on the table and swore in a the rendezvous was a little pushed back you so cautious a basic there in the the food they drink the wine and after while you saw both begins to freak out because he's least all these things with cyanide and this guy's not dying he says he's a stroke bothering local and image bothering him a little but he's the city mayor drink it morini morning asking you some pause to sing for a while like you're singing voice you sobel of excuses and so goes upstairs to a to conspirators are and freaks out where we can they do finally one of 'em decides on they should shoot him and you suppose got a pistol to ease off goes down there tells tom rusty located on the wall over there and then no one rusty turns around the pistols pointed at him use of force as you said you know so your prayers for something like that shot him in the chest he springs the fall down on the rod for laughing at the mouth convulsions dies the assassins all come downstairs have a look at the body the blood everything on go upstairs to commiserate about it for one of them were told that the assassin use all of what have another look at the body personally goes downstairs and that joseph or minister recorders original sources in his hold talks about what happened you so awful and down there to just make sure that nothing was amiss firmer into court he found rescue lolling in the same position on the floor overcome with a terrible inner rage you so above grab rescued by the shoulders and shook him as he stared in your rasputin space first one on the n. n. the other suddenly opened in the source he's calling says green nations may guide they've fixed the prince with an expression of satanic hatred rescued the stumbled to his feet foaming at the mouth roaring in angora wildly clawing at the air is you rushed toward you saw all blood dripping from his mouth he grabbed the prince by the shoulder reading an apple information of form rasputin was reportedly growled in his tormentors name noble got rough voice and cool it's like a zombie any stop off this screening and every runs downstairs when they hear the struggle going on in years top of the screaming about the time every get downstairs rasputin has lurched into the snow bound courtyard is running away and he's yelling at you so paul's first name was also the printed crunchers up of felix felix hotel was sorry to everything nice to the cattle on the prince for trying to kill him and people opened fire the prince among others had rasputin fleas missis a couple times than hits him some more in the back and on the run up to the nobody gets on the ground they put a bullet through his forehead and we're told the rock 'em up and it could tie him up and wrap 'em up in the carpet bingo in nearby river where there's ice intro intro holy eisen the hopi floats to finland and of course she doesn't i find him if you days they dragged the body out and and the myth of this story and again it's so much better with the myth is that during the autopsy they found water in his lawns in his body on tight as though he freed himself and only at the end two rounds of the cyanide edema teamwork the shot multiple times it didn't work the truman the river in almost didn't work historians say that the shot to his forehead almost certainly killed image right in the middle of his forehead and it's possible that the cyanide was cold war that never got put in his drinks or who knows but adds to the legend of rasputin dear sir warning before she dies that he gives to the royal family supposedly that also adds to his legend you know another one of these prophecies better sometimes one can only to ricky supposed to ascend to the royal couple court if i die you're you're desert me you're bullish ursula manager crown in six months' rasputin the news right again from beyond the grave this period in the first four wars timeline about the time curie rasputin guys it took a couple most before he's assassinated a couple months afterwards that really is she the first four wars crowley now on nina match with theodore roosevelt called his combat in the spanish american war to strand his twenties large number of events that was crammed into a short period tiny city buses crowded hour the jury from out november nineteen sixteen to april nineteen seventeen is the first four wars crowded are a huge number of events compressed in a short period of time these events are all connected though to the very schemes we've examined individually so far the united states the united states' involvement in mexico the submarines the high level diplomatic activity maneuvering and the train wreck that's about to happen with russia this all comes to head as we said in january late january nineteen seventeen woodrow wilson views his peace without a victory speech while he's doing that the germans are already behind the scenes prepping for their family were re first resumption of unrestricted warfare they've pulled the trigger on that because they had given the high level politicians in germany the go ahead to try some peace maneuvering of course they were told that the peace maneuvering does when one of the submarines go to some wings are slated to go february first nineteen seventeen now because germany was reasonably sure as well as everyone else pretty much dead if they started shooting at every ship on the high seas the united states is gonna get dragged into the work is americans would die american ships would go down it was pretty much inevitable so the german start work on some contingency plans in january nineteen seventeen you again right around the same time wilson's proposing peace for all minimal as our minds and and the germans are sending a telegram to their ambassador in mexico giving their ambassador in mexico some instructions on what to do just in case he nodded speech comes into the war and start fighting germany the telegram from the german foreign secretary a guy named arthur zimmerman to move the ambassador of mexico so is this court we intend to begin on the first of february on unrestricted submarine warfare we shall endeavoring spite of this to keep the united states of america neutral in the event of this not succeeding that we make mexico or proposal alliance on the following basis make war together make pieced together generous financial support and understanding on our part that mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in texas new mexico and arizona the settlement in detail was left to you you will inform the president of the about most secretly as soon as the outbreak of war with the united states of america is certain that the suggestion that he showed up on his own initiative in by japan to it even hear it at the same time he between japan and ourselves please call the president's attention to the fact that the ruthless employment of our submarines now offers the prospect of compelling england in a few months to make peace and quo so there's a note suggesting in mexico nor war as part of the central powers against the united states if he had stayed to get into the war what's more they talk about getting japan on board to die was in the united states is great worries by the way the japanese in spirit the americas as all these theories from the american players that maybe they could not go take the panama canal and come up to mexico news all the cities warplane kind of a disease but the idea that japan to be brought in and flipped 'cause they're wrongly allied side germans it roth let the japanese make in their mamas and for powers to have any japanese attack the americans the mexicans attack the americans if nothing else that keeps the americans busy so they're not over there fighting germans in europe if you're playing in a board game here of risk or something that's not a bad idea you lose again call diplomacy to bad move if you're playing the game called diplomacy brought mr shaw kinds of variables in real life not taking into account in the game of diplomacy one of them his bitter enemies might be tapping into the cable that you used to say and the secret message like that from germany to mexico the british got it snatched it right off of the american atlantic cable which they were tapped out when did we mention earlier episode the british maybe he did the best espionage code breaker or are people of all time when the war starts to cut the german trans atlantic cables and germany can send telegraph messages across the atlantic sold they were continuous to borrow other people's cable sometimes united states let them use the u. s. cable for just messages woodrow wilson thought would would maybe foster piece right you want that the germans them an open channel to him to the germans used the american cable to send a message to mexico offering some american states to them if they come in the war by attacking united states little ironic there the british have a problem they can't tell the americans about this cable right away because then you can get all these embarrassing questions like how to get the cable and in the british would have to say if there were to be truthful well we tap into your own cable only been reading your messages for the whole war can't quite say that too easily so by hook or by crook it's a great story barber tuchman rover whole book on it on the british bigger runaway to soar high into the source of you know how they got this cable they give it to the americans for wilson a shock to major shock that this would happen and understand the context right this is the very moment jane you were in nineteen seventeen that american military forces are finally withdrawing from the poncho via expedition read this attempted to get this terrorist us a blues in arizona new mexico and texas would've called him and and the u. s. force karma comes back with their tail between your legs in the new bon jovi up until the budget as men but despite you know high public praising of everything involve general john black jack pershing says was not very memorable period in american history nonetheless it made the mexicans mad as hell and in the west almost went to war with mexico twice in two years in nineteen fourteen u. s. troops occupied the city of their crews in about two hundred people buy that will endeavour may be close to three hundred are nearly caused the war between the u. s. mexico then and then in this part of the expedition the u. s. crosses the war goes after a guy who was also the enemy of mexico's leader but it's so upset the mexicans and u. s. troops in the country for any reason at belmont lead to war and so just as you're getting your troops the very mature get your troops out of mexico the germans are sending a telegram saying hey one award as united states and t. v. three states will help yup it struck a nerve for americans one woodrow wilson released that letter publicly the american public first heard about germany saw for mexico the reaction was won the fight i think what would muir the reaction in the american public is similar situation today all large number of them thought that the telegram was a forgery the british intelligence was behind it that this was an attempt to trick the american government and to affect american public opinion make them more angry germany more per war it's interesting to speculate how much you bet so the perception of the stain that with the german foreign secretary carter zimmerman hadn't done something in early march nineteen seventeen that looks inexplicably he admitted that the telegram and innocent and that it was genuine twice the second time he said he hoped the american people would understand that this was only to come into effect the if war broke out between germany and united states as away as saying it again understand and write the american people would understand the confirmation that the zimmermann telegram was indeed an official secret proposal from the german government of the mexican government of sabotage of americans and undercut the cause of german americans irish americans were hoping to keep united states neutral it was another nail in the coffin of neutrality and a huge german misstep in fact the whole decision to unleash the submarines when they did was a bad decision by germany if they had only waited a little while longer events what happened that would've made that move on necessary and if that's the movie gets the united states and of the war then it would've made better than ten necessary winston churchill points out that the timing of the events that happened in march and april nineteen seventeen in his mind shoulder handed destiny it worked here's how he frames what's about to happen what's about to happen ladies and gentlemen will screw up everything here and no set the stage for modern world as much as the united states getting into this conflict will set the stage for the modern world russia has its revolution purchases that school the beginning in nineteen seventeen it was marked by three stupendous events the german declaration of on one of the u. bo war the intervention of the united states in the russian revolution taken together these events constitute the second grade climax of the war the order in which they were placed was decisive if the russian revolution and occurring january instead of in march or alternatively the germans and waited to declare only be kubo war until the summer they would be no one with the cuban war and consequently no intervention of the united states in the allies had been left to face the collapse of russia without being sustained by the intervention of the united states it seemed certain that france could not survive the year when the war would end in the piece by negotiation or in other words the german victory at rochelle lasted two months last in germany were framed for two months more the whole course of events would've been revolutionized in this sequence we discern the footprints of destiny either russian indoor ends or german impatiens was required to secure the entry of the united states and both were forthcoming and call as we've mentioned are read the situation in russia had been seeking and simmering for quite some time the straw that broke the camel's back was an almost complete breakdown of russia's transportation system which you've been with the ring since the war started and it had suffered terribly in the winter that just happened russia almost couldn't handle its transportation needs in peace time after several years of war they were whole cities newborn are receiving enough food one of them was the capital that for granted after greg used to be called saint petersburg won the war started that sound a little too late german to be changed into better grab this is a city that will change its name all the time during the communist years will be known as leningrad now at st petersburg again nonetheless it's the big metropolis and it doesn't have enough food you take a bunch of people who were angry already had the war and no food it's not surprising they were marching they've been doing all throughout nineteen seventeen is pilar she story of william mulligan points out cold from the beginning in nineteen seventeen it was a wave of strikes concentrated in petra grad on the seventh of march thirty thousand workers were locked out of the people of armaments plants in the city the following day the international women's day when men gathered in the buy more working class district protest against high bread prices they marched past been one station toward their ski prospect by which time the strikers number two hundred thousand down with the war down with the high cost of living down with hunger bread for the workers they cried as they marched through the city the protesters connected their experience of war with much broader political claims although the crux of their complaints was the food supply crisis this material experience of war and political implications including the overthrow the czarist regime and ended the war it was possible in theory that the food supply system could be reformed but the strikers knew the czarist regime could no longer reform itself and co british general sir henry wilson went to russia during this time period and came back and reported to is she yours you know concerning how the people in russia felt toward the starnes arena and told him quote it seems as certain as anything can be that the emperor and empress are writing for fall everyone officers merchants ladies talk openly of the absolute necessity of doing away with them they've lost their people their nobles and now they're army and i see no hope for them there will be terrible trouble one day here in equal there are open discussions amongst some of the higher levels of russian society that terror attack should be made against the tsar someone stands up and the duma an important personally during the story and says that those are nice to be were moved by terrorist means if necessary now it would be foolish to say that the your royal court did not have their support they did and they had people who did never problem with you know one emperor but they have a problem with nicholas the second so we'll all stripes in this idea that the tsar needed to go and no consensus of all about what would take its place or how to get from here to there russian knew how to have protests and to revolt about a dozen years before this time period they had the famous nineteen oh five revolution which also come after you know russian problems no war when a revolution broke and it got so serious those are supposedly wrote out his abdication letter he didn't deliver it buddy was ready to go in that particular revolution the crowd marched on the winter palace with the czar was to align of truth to open fire on them killing hundreds of them snows bloody sunday bizarre had received intelligence reports a few months before this event saying that quote recently the conviction has been expressed without exception that we're on the eve of great events in comparison with which nineteen oh five was but holy and equal that was from a police report to the tsar received months before these demonstrations in more to break out but here's the thing no as with many historical events they can be seemingly inevitable for the longest time in still calm as a surprise when the actually she'll walk the people who were on the streets march seventh more to the hutus international women's day they now with indices the revolution in fact the people on the scene point out that that's what the tipping moments in the situation when people understand we admit this just isn't another demonstration like the kind we've been having this is the chance to topple the government that's the big turning point and the actual moment on the turning point is one of those really interesting almost turning point in history mama's a revolutionary guard leon trotsky who certainly see that we spend a lot of time talking about that moment the tipping point in the revolution this is seven days by the way folks seven days for a three hundred year old dynasty the fall and it starts off with some factory strikers on march seventh by the way this is our calendar these events in russia happening on the on the old calendar and fed recent often called appeared to worry revolution and it makes the dating confusing is headed for someone like me mama last march seventh by our calendar nineteen seventeen years at industrial strike march eighteenth international women's day the women go out and strike and protest about the lack of random all this is seems to be key and so many people talk about the fact that the women are doing us a lot of these women are the wives of soldiers of the front which gives them a huge amount of credibility azure might imagine with other soldiers and they're out on the international wednesday on the eighth on the ninth and the women come back out bring more people in gold to factories shops and businesses in grab the workers out have you join the strike in the crowd swelled to lease twice what was the day before by next day at the industry of russia's capital is paralyzed and to show you how how of touch does arena is with all this she writes in her diary on march tenth about the troubles in the capital and she's basically in charge of the capital quarrel this is a whole again movement young people running shit out that there is no bread simply to create excitement along with the workers to prevent others from working if the weather was very cold they would probably all stay at home but all this will pass and become comically the duma will be eight itself and call the doom is the russian legislature which by the guys in earlier as well one person of the power in the system is or has won ninety nine percent and as arena is complaining that the dumas misusing its one percent sort of russian revolutionary leon trotsky compares her pretty convincingly jury and twin act before the french revolution that led them eat cake statement there and she and the czar and before he died rasputin like this one the russian history guy named for pop off and so what he begins to sort of act is bizarre arenas minister in all this situation and according to some on the scene it's anger at him that prompts a lot of this activity the events that are happening starting really on more chicken and march ninth are large enough to be big news story any international media is there they are our magazine journalist daily newspaper reporters from britain france places like that telling the folks back home what's going on in the russian capital was a british newspaper man named john pollock and he writes about the women protesting he calls the bread riots you write to mrs about more cheap eighty and my apologies for my russian pronunciation quo riding was so far confined to the biber decide the chief workman scorer at for grad but in the center of the trial lawyers service and already become a regular on the ninth the rider stop the trams across the river terrorizing the drivers and throwing part of the mechanism away so that the service were still more intermittent visits were paid all the factories in the hands were called out in sympathetic strike against the sudden food shortage on the state to the prefect of police who threaten the crowd was killed a strong cossacks waters patrol bedford bride and there was a collision on the net ski in which the cossacks used their whips but they told the crowd that they would not shoot so long as the only asked barbara had alarmed at the attitude of the cossacks the authorities on the tenth brought troops of the line into the streets to support the police posted machine guns on the nesby and stop traffic across a good many points and cool john pollock then points out the bomb but it sounds like a rumor what would the russian minister working for the serene is supposed to surrender when his methods for dealing with the surprising are being questioned years would call a growing seasons quo for a pop all of approach by one who endeavored to convince him of the madness of his methods only answered you know how splendidly machine guns work from the roof and co pollack says that the first serious bloodshed happens on march tenth when police opened fire on a group of protesters and schiller one fifty the czar's now told about problems at the kappa remember he's off kind of at the front not in this capitol hill aziz led his wife's over on the show with his protocol off got a bizarre finds out about it they tell of things are bad the issues in order that basically says make it stop that order appears on lampposts and all over the city the next morning when the rioters were protesters arm muster too protests for the day they see this message from the head of hector grands military garrison colt during the last days disorders are taking place in bed for grad followed by force an assault on the lives of soldiers and members of the police i forbid every kind of assembly in the streets by warned the population of petra granted the command to be nice judy and repeated to the troops to use their arms and not to stop short of anything in order to assure tranquility in the capital and cool john politicians street that day when he writes quote sunday march eleventh began nervously we're soldiers everywhere in the streets and strong bodies held in reserve in courtyards by now the trams and all stopped it was hardly possible to find a car no newspapers appeared about three thirty p. m. the troops begin to clear the streets around the nasty of the bayonet point as soon afterwards the police turn their machine guns on the war crowd at the same places the day before with more deadly effect a caucasian officer who was nearby estimating the number d. n. a three hundred at the same time heavy firing took place brother down the nasty an opposite the kazarian cathedral several score more people were killed the crowd he retaliated with pistol shots another brief victim a kernel of the police besides policeman in various news and passers by being killed it was significant he writes that soldiers were seen among the crowd firing on the police and a number of men and some fourteen officers are different attachments were arrested for refusing to support the police with arms on the same afternoon a drunken officer bob audience key regimen nameless gammage ordered his men to fire run the crowd they refused published garish borscht one of the soldiers to obey the shot kill the wallman and cool the burden of women as i said seems to be an important part to suspend her 'cause it's mentioned by everyone trotsky says the rumor that was going around was that a police officer struck woman with a clogged and that this was witnessed by the cossacks who were sort of sitting by neutrally only there to kind of and some muscle to the mix but the army scan standing by while the hated police and the public face off and trotsky says whether what really happened everybody believed that a woman had been assaulted in front of the cossacks in the cossacks drove the police away who did it now one of the things that if you've watched recent revolution usual noticed that oftentimes some incident will happen that the demonstrators and protesters and riders will sort of cling to some sort of symbol generally from the event the becomes almost like a high sign the protesters use them at the rally round according to trotsky what was in this revolution was a call sack robbery men thinking to the crowd and it does wink became sort of a symbol was going on here is to wait trotsky explain to remember try to ease revolutionary for him this is a hugely heroic tales and that's the way he tells it and i think we're all collared at least those of us who know what's coming up by a what's coming this revolutions going to devolve into something very terrible and a lot of us look back on this event thinking that that's how we should be you the removal of what came before communism and yet it was a period after this revolution where russia was on the road to becoming something more like the united states and so getting read it on the czarist regime that these people seem to hate what does saddam hussein was initially viewed as a plot scanner pour le seen for example for the british press he's really in favor of something replacing his regime the united states is too by the way one of the problems the united states has we joining the allies are being associated with the allies is not britain and france and if you very close to a lot ways it's russia to the rushes the same kind of militant autocracy that u. s. propaganda pains to germans athens the idea bizarre going away to be replaced by some some constitutional government makes a lot of people in the allied camps about then but she here for the protesters now in the story by trotsky of the winking cause i'd explains that the officers of the cossacks cannot force them to charge into the crowd one point but as soon as the officers pass by and scatter the crowd the regular cossacks are very careful moving through with their horses not to hurt anyone in trotsky right school behind them fill in the hole with the prospect gallup the cossacks decisive moment but the horseman cautiously in the long rib in the road for the court or dismayed by the officers some of them smiled the court to protester guy you're ever calls at one of them gave the workers a good week this rink trotsky says was not without meaning the workers were in bold and with a friendly not hostile kind of assurance that slightly infected the cossacks with it the one who we ain't found imitators in spite of renewed effort from the officers the cossacks without openly breaking discipline failed to force the crowd to disburse but flowed through waiting streams this was repeated three or four times and brought the two sides even closer together individual cossacks begin to reply to the workers questions and even to enter into momentary conversations with them and discipline there remained but being transparent shell that threatened to break through winnie second the officers haitian to separate their patrol from the workers an abandoned the idea dispersing them lined the cossacks out across the street as a barrier to prevent the demonstrator from getting to the center and quote he then tell the story about hobbes kasich will allow themselves to be used as a mounted barrier that they don't stop the protesters from diving and the horses bellies the fact that the cossacks traditionally the czarist crowd control mechanism appear less than enthusiastic about carrying out the traditional convinces the government that they have to bring in the troops garrison of antar crime is like a hundred feet the sixty thousand men so they've got the people and they call them in marshall them to the key day because that's the day that elements of wanda faye machine in the training squad what's called opened fire until those people that the british were forbes talking about now the people up ahead for grad are appealing to the troops as you heard earlier mingling with them talking to them they're walking up to the law in the bay united troops in knowing him once in chooses sang brother sure not really going to side with the police and tell us are you the wind n. began taking the lead in this whole thing or walking right up to one in a minute troops in grabbing their rifles with the bayonets on the mud wrestling with an insane jocelyn ass to reach reuters lot of going on after the shootings in the street on more to love and citizens were told workers go walk to members of the more the story peanuts and tell them that mature people in your unit opened fire yesterday against the people of the city and told him what happened and in those troops went back to their barracks on the evening of more to love and morning of march twelfth they had one of those moral crisis moment the keating's didn't in any revolution a guy like leon trotsky would say and he describes it with almost you were awake intones this this moment reduced storied unit confront the reality that they shot of much of those poor people that have been besieging them not to shoot the day before and we're gonna have to go on do it again today years with trotsky right to call the soldiers had no more time for hesitation they were compelled to shoot yesterday and they would be again today workers will not surrender or retreat under fire they're still holding their own and within their wives mothers sisters sweetheart yes and this is the very hour that they had so whispered about if only we could all get together me stop you trotsky saying that all these people who said he had thought about abuse or be overthrown if only we could all get together that would happen enemy soldiers we're not taking part in that they were taking part in crashing that if only we could all get together trotsky rights and in that mona supreme agony in the unbearable for the euro the coming day the choking hatred of those were rupaul was in upon them the executioners ruled there rang out in the barrick room the first voices of open indignation and in those voices to be forever name was the whole army with relief in rapture recognizes itself boss and on upon the earth the day of destruction of the roman our monarchy and co the soldier shot toronto sir we're now under the streets cheering and joined the people up hector granted trying to overthrow the tsar encourage other military units to follow most of which by the end of march twelfth and gonzo the upbeat your son was melting away and joining the anti czarist rioters they ransack the artillery depot then they go to the arsenal of breaking you and take all the weapons then they burned down the court of justice and a bunch of other government buildings and for march twelfth on you have all been battles in the streets between the people in the army and the very large police forces do we call them today the secret police and all these police agencies that is set up machine guns eddie mair sections at this point the big question is what the heck is bizarre doing the person is or try to do is just get rid of the duma when it ended this powerless for all intents and purposes russian legislature were seized your attitude humans to disband he says no and most of the duma joins the industry joining the revolution next the tsar get so much ringgit on the thirteenth of march and head back toward the capital from the fighting for and we're even as in what is typically strange moos he takes a lot longer to get there danny should've because he says he does award disrupt any of the war traffic heading to the foreign service is trying takes over the long way around and ends up getting stopped on the way to pack for granted because the revolution is spreading to other cities now one of these trains stopped the revolutionaries are stopping the train we're told that the czar's advisers are bringing in telegrams from power brokers including for example on his cousin and others that he he needs to give up the crown what sort of interesting about nicholas is that he almost seems willing to do with as a whole line of thinking in a few real or the prayer resource issues and has portrayed as this broken entire range in going in but when you read more modern day history she so much more pitiable figure churchill likes him in the church would like as our buses great things about his poor misunderstood person of course she wasn't a great man just a good many top to bottom like that because our sort of seems to be relieved by the prospect of giving up the crown at first is like five minutes to talk about giving it to his hemophiliacs on the bizarre doesn't want that an interesting the ugly enough to be in the abdication note to his people the tsar specifically mentions not wanting to be pardoned from in others on the tube doors once again you get that feeling of nicholas and alexandra furs these kind of parent and just adore their children whether or not this is some sort of smokescreen to cover something all the evidence seems to point out to a guy cared more about his family in some ways in beings are there was a call to the guy who will take over the what's called the provisional government of farm the country in the near future his name is alexander current ski and he met the tsar after the tsar been taken into so the cost to the any city quote as i started his face i seem to see behind his smile in charming r. a. is a stiff proper mascot of honour loneliness and desolation and i began to notice living mascot understood why did been so easy to overthrow his power he did not wish to fight for it and simply fell from his hand and quo the thing is that the czar was going to have to do to keep our he seemed unwilling to do his wife may we want him to she wrote letters telling him he needed to be tougher and stronger he seemed to care more about the fact of all his children while all this is going on at a bad case of the measles which was pretty serious back and and tom is as concerns seemingly for the misuse of giving up in his power all over russia they began to break into government buildings and tear down paintings of the czar and the aftermath of this revolution sounds like the aftermath of the fall saddam hussein indian when all these figures that were part of the government to work for the tsar car being arrested and held in custody by people in alarm code weapons to willpower blocks reform in the wake of all discuss remember there is no plan the real revolutionary should do more to come is for your for camera caught off guard what happened so there's there's competing groups for power weinrich does good people that used to be the almost powerless to do my office and they have power in their mostly liberals and on and my old socialist and people wanna create the end up winning united states but we jews saying is that gonna create a constitution government the war years maybe the united states is a sort of a model competing with that particular entity for power is power much lower level groups and especially of revolutionaries forming councils of workers and soldiers together and they form this raft we're in deep partnership with the provisional government as it's called the former doom of andy can you work with each other sometimes but they come to and disagreements over other things but when push comes to shove the soviets as they're called these you're looking groups of people from soldiers and will crush counsels seems to win the first thing that they were in the rule that says that anything involving the military is under the control of the soviets and this is the key issue for the other countries in the war in germany wants russia out of the war they've been paying agitators for long time to hopefully make that happen now you have this situation with the czar's gone what the russians gonna do militarily the british and french feel the same way along with the americans they're not upset that the czar's gone but the very concerned that russia's been a whole lot of the war this provisional government building owners but when ski government of a certain point arm they tell the allies of the gimmick into new fighting are committed to continue fighting the ally start pouring money in stocks in the russian even the greater pace and they were before but how do you continue to hold off germany in the central powers with your army while you're three hundred year old monarchies b. c. collapsing in all the structures that have been in all hanging by a strain it start falling apart what are the soldiers of the front going to do this became the key question and it's not answered right away churchill as only he can stall whole thing is an unmitigated disaster looking back on it from the late nineteen twenties again and now he can see world this is going to go to communism the future so his ideas are probably tainted he said that the tragedy of russia was an encore you get her she went down within sight of port meaning you were just gonna win this war and in russia doesn't get to share in the spoils annie says over russia called with victory in her grasp she fell upon the earth devoured alive like hair rid of all by worms but not in vain her valiant deeds the giant mortal restricting had just time with her dying strength to pass the torch eastward across the ocean to when you typed in long soak in doubt who now rose again ponderous we'd all arm the russian empire fell on march sixteenth on april sixth the united states into the war and quo it's been an interesting too much to the gods states since germany decided to unleash the submarines in the first twenty days of unleashing the summaries the germans sink hundred and twenty eight merchant ships forty neutrals among them boundary you were shipping companies in the montevideo were when this all starts to start losing a million dollars nineteen seventeen value money by the way the week the next month march nineteen seventeen those numbers will double and all the senate we begin to see what the first we'll competent abuse involving at least a minimum number of submarines is like in world history the germans had been perfecting what you do with these new weapons systems like submarines the science fiction type weapons what have you use 'em at the beginning of the war their car going after warships and whatnot money they work on short will burst going after neutrals and merchant ships and now by nineteen seventeen the germans know what they wanna do with these things and they have enough ships to make their plan work minimum number but enough they unleashed a little after everything which is what their strategy has told you have to get really maximize this weapon system and there are sinking enough ships so that britain is the first time in the war in real danger itself of going under or the advantages of being an island nation is you've got the strongest maybe you don't have to have the same time if the years that russia has already france has the germans are going to be able to break you directly 'cause they care for each you this is the first time in the war the british facing serious threat of the germans in one way or another reaching them affecting them personally forcing them perhaps to knuckle under to some sort of peace deal in april the mont the united states get into the war the germans in four hundred and twenty three merchant man almost eight hundred and fifty thousand tons of shipping the british empire cannot stay and those kind of losses it's the submarine war that eventually brings the united states in if for no other reason than its disrupting operations in the country the president is under water pressure on david increasing basis because most germany starts thinking all the ships us should stop leaving they begin to congregate and called up and caused traffic jams outside the major ports on the eastern seaboard and then all of the commodities and food and perishable supported the load on those ships began backing up you got this terrible claw get all the ports of the eastern coast of material the thriving in degrading because the ships will cross the atlantic is there for the submarines at one point will someone storm the shift change the situation it was to provide assuring summit began in a cross but this is like a ticking time bomb for wilson he's gonna do something this situation is only going to get worse the zimmermann telegram have recently to agree to remain at all these things that just increases situation it's bad and make a warship but there's no instead moment we're the line has been crossed and there never will be at some point by march eighteen seventeen at the latest improbably around the same time the russian revolution is happening the wilson administration decides that they've had enough five u. s. ships go down in march nineteen seventy to summon the will soon illustration is his confirmation of that he was already at war with germany as not to be some big lusitania nine eleven moment to cross over this invisible line it's happening every day on april second wilson gives his most famous speech were most important speeches american history concerning the situation and then he sees that the united states he is at war with germany and the interesting part about to speak to be dissected it's monumental on so many levels be so crafty way to put together he never says to the congress declare war on germany you know so that will be a war germany he says we are at war with germany and i invite you to confirm that fact he had no time gives congress the impression that they have any control over this decision at all no luckily for him the way along with him big time but what if they hadn't our wilson's speech focuses on the specific reason we're at this point or two of the submarine warfare compares germans to pirates and all these kinds of things to me take some time of the speech to say it we're not at war with the german people we have no quarrel with them and it's their government we'll liken this is a big change by the way in in the way that much of the united states government will craft in a way that they framed relationships with other countries to have nothing against the people it's the government of wilson's proud of you is it the people are running the government like in a democracy republic what the people are responsible for what their governments decisions or they may be the victims of it and we might have to hurt you in order to over three or government but when i met you about half the speech is really high minded sentiments forever known afterwards as well so me and principles that talk about things like the need to make the world safe for democracy going to be tasted and the second but more interesting anna gilmore the more groundbreaking part of the speeches that wilson takes only due west tradition on non involvement in european affairs head on he basically said that was the way was time to change to use the exact reason that he didn't win is a sea change in american foreign policy in the way the government your instinct approaches the conflict involved with the rest of the world and that course changes warning we're still living with today in the modern world in the middle of his speech telling congress the war it exists right now when germany wilson says quote our object now as then it is to vindicate the principles of peace and justice in the life of the world as against selfish an autocratic power and set up amongst the relief three unsolved government peoples of the world such a concert of purpose and of action as will henceforth be sure the observance of those principles neutrality is no longer feasible or desirable with a piece of the world is involved in the freedom of the two peoples and the minister that peace and freedom lies in the existence of autocratic governments backed by organized force which is controlled wholly by there will not by the will of their people we've seen the last of neutrality in such circumstances were the beginning of an age or you'll be insisted that the same standards of conduct and of course possibility for we're all gonna shall be observed among nations and their governments better observed among the individual citizens of symbolize states and co having international policy connected to the idea of not going abroad in search of monsters to spoil a two star doesn't really old fashioned did it but at least wilson's got some really good arguments to justify the historic course change these are the ideas will some unison and here's how wilson enunciate to just some of them will it is a distressing enter pressed him to the gentleman of the congress which i performed in thus addressing you there are it may be many months' of fire retrial of sacrifice ahead of us is a fearful plane to lead this great peaceful people into war into the most terrible disaster is all wars civilization itself seeming to be in the balance but the reich is more precious than peace and we shall fight the good things which we have always carried nearest our hearts for democracy for the right of those whose image with or you have a maurice in their own government for the rights and liberties of small nations for universal dominion of white by such a concert of free peoples as joe bring peace and safety to all nations and make the world itself at last free to such a task weekend dedicate our lives and our fortunes everything that we are in everything that we have with the pride of those who know that the day has come what america is privileged to spend her blood and termite for the principles they gave her birth and happiness and the peace which she is treasured god helping her she can do no other in quo one wonders what john quincy adams what replied to that nonetheless guys like theodore roosevelt had been singing was going to skin the wilson alive if wilson didn't go to war like the speech a lot it's interesting to know bob away that the one american political figure that the europeans really respect in this whole question is theodore roosevelt because theodore roosevelt is really what the early what we call deadline to assist people believe for example in locking arms with countries like great britain and in doing great things with calm t. r. was an interventionist before his time and in the united states he's thought of as an extremist the republican candidate for president tells him to stop campaigning for him because he's so bellicose it's working against the republican party right you're living wills in any opposition portrayed as a warmonger ers that's the guy though that appeared to be ahead of the curve we came to figuring out the germany needed to be dealt with again from the british one of you there's a lot is that you could look and see the very thing is the germans are being innocent lamb for doing it are things that they were kind of forced into doing by what their opponents were off to the first four wars martha krieger kind good and evil separation of the second were warriors and you mentioned that before nonetheless if you're on one side of it is certainly is the prime minister of great britain for about a couple of months' one wilson makes his historic speeches lloyd george in his memoirs glory george running after the war can help but take a shot at wilson not because of what he did but because of how long it took him speaking about was a speech now george right to quote these principles were excellent and excellently expressed the allied democracies of france in the british commonwealth had already borne the burden and been scorched by the heat of a thousand days in the battle with this natural flow to liberty spewing wilson's wine to his speech they rejoiced george says that the advent of this powerful help from the greatest democracy in the world at a time when troubles were multiplying they perhaps might be excused for thinking that the shoes so clear now the president wilson ought to live in apparent earlier to his eyes they felt grateful in their hearts to the great american theodore roosevelt whose vision was so on indian and sympathies were so sure from the outset of this grim struggle for international right in court winston churchill sounded almost the exact same why what took you so lol speaking of wilson's peace attitude school he had behind his policy reasoned explanation and massive argument and all must respect the motives of the statesman who seeks to spare his country to waste in the horrors of war but nothing sure to write can reconcile what he said after march nineteen seventeen with the guidance he'd given before what he did in april nineteen seventeen could've been done in may nineteen fifty and if don van that one of the richmond of the slaughter what sparing of the agony what we're what we're catastrophes would've been prevented in how many million homes within the chair be occupied today how different would be to shatter world in which victors and vanquished alike are condemned to live and cool writing from the late nineteen twenties and seen the mortally wounded and terribly scarred continent twist in church shore members as being the height of world civilization to him the u. s. taking this long to get into the war looks like something the cost you the world you know a couple days after the president gives his famous speech the congress vote to support him and take the nation to war oh what a close by the way in the house of representatives it was something like three hundred seventy four three hundred and seventy five to fifty as much as a wipe out as that sounds are read somewhere that that's the second most opposition the congress has ever shown the president award go to the war between twelve being the most nonetheless seems pretty clear that most of those people voting or i'm sure about what voting for going to war was going to mean the future mayor of new york bureau and gloria was a congressman and nussbaum was taken he said that sixty percent of the result of the war the sixty percent of his brethren were pretty sure it is wasn't going to mean troops on the ground in europe the west in sand on our knees overseas to fight you know what european so i think i was gonna be like financial aid enable help label help is the one thing the u. s. can do right away military help an army that's a problem does the u. s. really doesn't have the in april nineteen seventeen u. s. army's ranks seventeenth largest in the world doesn't have any flame throwers ringing tank serene gas masks to mortars no grenades the aircraft are these ricky be strange beasts that you know the right burned in the glenda planes the wright brothers can have put together the troubled modern all there's not enough artillery shells for the guns to shoot more than a few minutes by western front in the standards historian justice don't mickey says that the u. s. relatively speaking had been better prepared for the american revolution in the war of eighteen twelve than they were prepared for the first one more i disagree with him about that but his point is well taken the united states if it's gonna be any help to europe your skin after survive while it wait for this help to be accumulated the only place to us can help right away is with money which they were kind and you are ready to galore rangers treating you better deals with the continuation was already happening and the use of the navy in the thing the needy children right away is help against the submarines 'cause as we said in april nineteen seventeen the submarine save more than four hundred merchant ships britain's problem isn't it does not to stop all the sinking asked to stop the rate which is so much more than one can rebuild it loses where ships to make until the market's doing well at that loses more ships that they can build a mom gets in trouble the head of the submarine war will be for him you were in nineteen seventy one on restricted workers' declared the next eight months this is when britain lives or dies those of the stakes in and lloyd george in charge on all these guys go on their way to talk about the almost all alarmist word lloyd george's lloyd george says that there are some of the most cautious people in his cabinet ishtar news out loud about maybe we better make peace while we still have some ships afloat and he says the germans were getting gleeful at times they just had these reports coming in and made all the pro submarine people seen in the to be perfectly correct they were all of a sudden going to win the war churchill said we went from being you know the side that had time on our side of the key to sweet the sound every day the germans were losing the world with more to having the tables clip in our time was on the german side and a bridge had to come up with countermeasures or lose toward fast they not only did this it was the civilian leadership to push for the answer that turned out to make the biggest difference this is one of these early indications of something's changing the war for years the military men are almost on a question to pump awarding the to choose whatever path for fighting the war they want to no matter what happened but now so many people had died was so many disasters and so much of the same tactics seem to him he was saying result except more bodies getting high or higher than that there was pushed back now from civilian leaders lloyd george in britain is what these guys whose whose as openly to my job is to protect the soldier in the field and to the soldier in the field general says biggest enemy sometimes and you can hear all this talk about the stupidity of the military leaders even sure to kind of goes out of his way to say that the military experts were all against the solution and that solving some problem it was the civilian leaders from the most part the push the idea that won the day the idea was both breathtakingly simple an incredibly complex the idea was convoys the grouping of ships into a marge formations surrounding them with warships and escorts and sending these large bodies of ships across an organized times and schedules the military men often believe that this was just when you grow up your target for the submarines make it even easier goal line ships up like in a shooting gallery but when it was experimented on again the civilian leaders pushing to experiment with it is the results were fantastic almost right away the u. boat that approach these kinds of formations off and outside the idea that he was going to be easier to spot the stinger sixty ships on the water rather than a single should turn out to knock each ruining the the vast spaces of the ocean the goal convoys get swallowed up to his churchill said when these convoys made it across the water rustling through the blockades and everyone should make it through the german mark aged forty fifty or sixty ships do it by october nineteen seventeen of ninety nine convoys heading to great britain with more than fifteen hundred ships in them only ten that were still part of the convoy warsaw fourteen more that straining got lost we're sunk those are easily replaceable losses and by october nineteen seventeen was clear the germans were no longer going to be able to sink more shipping and the british could replace what's more they now had you a shipyard something to replace them as you might imagine the whole decision on germany's part when danger niskanen submarine warfare is one of the most if not the most criticized decision of the german leadership for me understandable and you know encounter once again put the line to the stereotype of the germans ursula bump lauding methodical sort of bomb some conservatives were leadership style because i'm both were wars determined to prove to be great great gamblers if we're lucky day approached but they were willing me any time to sort of throw caution to the wind and try these things in a sense to lead to defense mechanism when you wore the weaker party i mean to me the analogy the works best in the in the war that that we have going right now is to weightlifters and competing against each other and one of these weightlifter she's bigger stronger than the other one which is obviously a huge advantage of weight lifting but it isn't everything on the weaker weight lifter house to try it intimate upper with technique and training and will to win and maybe taking some chances that's germany strategy for the rest of this war and in your seems so many aspects of change from the nineteenth century to the twentieth century that you can point to in the story because that's really interesting when you look at this war in a big picture sir and germany has transformed in recent past nineteen sixteen bureau for this time we're in now per million old style monarchy with legislative in a balancing out to do something that looks much more like a twentieth century military dictatorship that doesn't happen overnight and almost cut happens because it needs to be only germany has a chance in this war is to be the technique to mastering have the greater will to win all those things are said about the smaller weightlifter germany has to organize a society more efficiently than the more powerful allied countries that can stand a chance of what the things that happens is when you get a number in luton dwarf in there remember the two german commanders we talked about this military team but it's really only one i pollutant or the he takes on more more the powers that in the twentieth century we see over over again in versions were you have one strong man who sort as dictatorial control of the german star to try to organize their society you make it more efficient like you're being able to tell workers were the reward work in a controlling people down to that level because as one of the german leaders said the goal was to turn germany and one vast munitions factory to do that requires a story single mindedness and analogue of power concentrated one person at the stage in the war that person is the door in a number to call for nineteen sixteen and the first thing we did was sort of do an audit of how abode wars going and what we're doing the fighting in the conditions for the first condition you notice when you take over the entire war is on the western front you have about two and a half million men manning the barricades the other side has about four million men and their numbers are increasing every month how do those trends walk you have food riots at home one minute fighting with police officers in the street as they can get the food they need you have strikes in abolish all the major firms in a bar to the cities and they get so bad sometimes the army has to be called in to disperse the strikers so the government is now going in and sending strike leader to the front to get him out of the way in the society is under severe stress and marie talk about the food minister called for persuasive and that sums up when he talks about this period during our equal pieces called sooner loaded am thrilled us more than the fall of bucharest are some apparent success elsewhere pinnacle these people uneasy shrunk down to the most basic human survival levels will ye greatly to bucharest but the juicy that can we have in the cellar that we found a mean you know that's something any of us can understand if we begin to start the pressures on germany's military leadership to do something you can very well launch an offensive on the western from when you're on never the way you ordered the lucky to survive at all nine to sixteen was terrible for the germs of the western front so you launch the submarines and that becomes your chance to win the war without having to do the impossible the western front in dorf is a very strange guy this is commander in germany know sort of a more every day in the story and newburg is partners to charisma guide the ship bold man he really if you'd been great one time in his life he's in his dodi to now he's he's bill rudyard public spaces government and orson the scenes and we talked about him in peace don't wanna way back in nineteen fourteen got that city in belgium to surrender by banging on the front doors with the help of his sword you know one easily could've been killed walk right into the front door long guideline that he's an interesting guy he's applauding waterways and depending on which his story new grand jury here that the bumbling psychologically fragile looted or for your proceedings this great gambler who was who was fantastic at certain things and remember all these generals are nineteenth century man their adapting under fire at a quicker pace to all these new conditions and just really think you're getting at some new development comes around the new star and understand the physics of land warfare or your tomb of the first four wharf your general and then tanks appeal running gas appears in the war you do with all the spear point start having real impact you'll just have to learn us to be flexible to continue to evolve as these generals and nobody's great act north not bad do your changes by the way the basic strategy of the guy okay him before him on top and strategy was you basically defend every inch of territory glued north is perfectly willing to give up territory in exchange for killing people he'll pull off things like operational re write about this time period started late february nineteen seventeen were he will call back troops better and better in exposed loop in the line the line is a straight because of fighting here and there it's bulging out in some places near kingston it and he begins in early nineteen seventeen to pull troops back there their way out there in no man's land and straighten up is lying a cough like twenty five miles from the western front by doing this freeing up thirteen or fourteen divisions is basically a german army to be used elsewhere doctor complicated maneuver but his strategy in nineteen seventeen as far as he's concerned going to be defects so he's going to line things up and prepare for that money gives him all kinds of images this is one area the be called in denver blinded you put together he eats it's hard to imagine making the defense's of nineteen sixteen deeper and stronger and more impenetrable but that's what they do in nineteen seventeen the kingdom burned line is an example of blood and gore psyche of defense in depth of what that means uses the german defenses go back models and they're designed to act like a rubber band so that when something runs into them into stretches stretches is traditional for the rich stretches the more resistance you find it and and eventually to snaps back it's the us the way it's designed an army to get into all the details against the machine guns in the barbed wire in the pill box of all these things but they just go far back into the distance and is no more trenches anywhere near the front lines because those are too easy to pick out and and she held everybody just soliciting the holes in the ground in the soul of random pattern and there's no line in fact is hardly any germans when he first came to him it's just a few germans holding you walk and taking casualties and assume that they can keep you baby more the retreat back to the next line in the the next line and every step of the way the differences are in the middle bit stronger in the germans are a little bit more numerous as the british were the french were attacking them are getting less and less numerous and then as they are getting more tired of me i thought to myself some of these defenses go back nine ten miles it would kill me you without any resistance imagine trying to do it with machine guns in and rifle fire hand grenades and artillery and it just it's you just can't imagine having much left if you even get the minor ten miles to the end of the defense isn't waiting for you there our german armies we're going to counterattack anything that's laughed that makes it all the way to these defenses it is absolutely almost impenetrable anti be using the only have to have two point eight million men to fight for or four half million on the other side d'souza good way the equalize the odds pieces awake lifter who is bigger than away with more than his big your opponent my favorite part of it in for blind differences as a military history fan he is dead the bill that johnny and malt in front of him and is no other way to phrase it it's an absolutely perpendicular walt trench that is between nine and ten feet deep and twelve feet across it's meant to stop everything tanks especially amigo fall under there will be able to climb up the perpendicular side but it's not an easy job for troops either in behind us giant mold issue might imagine our machine gun positions of all kinds of differences and more wire in all these sorts of things he's crazy to think about having to attack something like that and what's more when let me dwarf has people breach free to sort of toward the end of reclining give up these positions that hundreds of thousands of germans had died contesting over the last couple years he has soldiers destroyed everything you know as they go preening in the end zone from the old front lawn into the new one the scorched earth policy something which by the way upset the crown prince rupert to was the field marshal commanding some of the trip to had to do this destruction he was so upset you almost resigned over it and complained about you have this was for germany's reputation in the in that discussion you basically c. n. nineteenth century to figure with nineteenth century standards crown prince rupert member of the bavarian royalty and wooden door faith early twentieth century to all or koenig guide it to clash of cultures the twentieth century won that wouldn't work on his way and the troops of the german army in a very old-school style began creating a dead zone in this part of france in from the endeavour going in the dead zone that extended in some places twenty miles german soldier ernst junger was that they are watching the destruction take place and he compares it to colonel intimacy you mean it's funny because if you think about people doing this in the second world war you think about the musing mostly explosives and it works most is used to create is dead so much germany needed for explosives has a lot of this stuff was donna by hand and yet our says it had a bad effect on the troops me also blamed some of it on what he calls the economic times we live in or something like that and employee really means by that is this total war twentieth century sort of mentality younger writes about passing through the stands on that was being created by the german army as it moved backwards towards its main line called the villages we passed her on our way had the look of basque lunatic asylum is all companies were sent to knocking you're pulling down walls were sitting on rooftops approving the tiles trees were cut down windows smashed wherever you look clouds of smoke and dust rose firm vast piles of debris we saw many dashing about wearing suits and dresses left behind by the inhabitants the top hats on their heads with destructive conning they found the roof trees of the houses fixed world to them and it was concerted shouts hold until they all came tumbling down others were swinging pile driving hammers and when around smashing everything they got in their way from the flower pots on the window sills the whole ornate conservatories as far back as the siegfried line but to germs called it and it every village was reduced to rubble every tree chopped down every road on your mind every well poisoned every basement blown up or booby trapped every rail lines grew to every telephone wire rolled up everything bernabe all burned in a word we were turning the country that are advancing opponents were occupied into wasteland as i say he writes the scenes were reminiscent of a madhouse any effect on the man was similar how funny half repellent they were also we could see right away bad for the men's more round honor here for the first time i witnessed wanton destruction and was later in life to see to excess this is something that is on helpfully bound up with the economic thinking of our age but it does more harm than good to the destroyer and does honors the soldier and quo and he should be remembered the decision that the war damaged country does this area that they are pulling apart on creating a dead zone was an idyllic part of france was attacked by the war fugard right on the front in the first for war specially western front things were great behind it would become points french soldiers on the eve have you can get twenty or thirty miles behind the front line in everything is like is not even war going on in the sea men with their sweethearts prowling around going to restaurant for dinner in a town thirty miles from the front and it's like it's another world so they're tearing down these beautiful parts of france to create disdains on the destroying everything and then they're leaving booby traps behind because when the germans give up their positions they're going to retreat as i said sometimes twenty miles in this one area all the way back to the main line the allies are going to follow them when they follow them i'm going to run into these towns when they run into these towns they're going to run into one younger talked about earlier booby traps usually said quote i'm on the surprises we prepared for successors were some truly malicious inventions very fine wires almost invisible were stretched across the entrance of buildings in shelters which set off explosives charges of the faintest touch in some places nero ditches were down across roads and shells hidden in them they were then cover over by a large point in her birth to in over them and mail had been driven into the plate only just above the shelf use the space was measured so the marching troops could pass over the spot safely but the moment the first trucker field gone rumbled up the board would give them the nail would touch off the shelf or they were spiteful time bombs that were buried in the basement of undamaged buildings they consisted of two sections with a metal partition going down the middle in one car was explosive in the other acid after these devils eggs he called them had been primed and in the aston slowly over weeks eroded the metal partition and set off the bomb in the core british reporter philip kiev's went through some of these towns right after young or his man in vacated them an allied forces and moved in and get talked about all those same kinds of booby traps and then says this quote only if you are many were killed or blinded by these monkey tricks for engineers found most of them before they were touched off the water went down dug out three inter ruined houses with the sense of the imminent danger all through the devastated region one walked with an uncanny feeling of an evil spirit left behind by the masses of man whose bodies are gone away exuded from scraps of old clothing it was in the stench of the dugout in the ruins that they made an equal the booby trapped the end zone lytton gore physically twentieth century total war commander and this is a big move as pulling a big rabbit out of a hat and it's enough your military history fan like i am it's what makes a bloody door so interesting but not allow the generals would pull the scan the stock it was again changer in many respects and our whole dead zone for example prove to be a huge problem for british and french forces to try and overcome they move into this crater and destroy or a denuded area or even the wells of been poisoned howdy we can supply that the germans on the other hand a move to sites they been workin' on vermont some parts of the hindu burglar i've had half a million workers working hard for monson once a month and building a new front line from scratch foot building a new home it was now moving ready and they moved back into it and the railroads bringing supplies up to the back lou dorf did was wrongfully to be allies he stole one night march he see you the uni she changed their plans for nineteen seventeen without knowing what their plans were he simply figured if i do this all the planning than doing for mars will be obsolete are planning to have me twenty miles closer to paris and i am if you were now like general how would you deal with this problem many few city don't want to do with his prom of the soul stuck in impenetrable nightmare that just put you in the lead with those military fingers of the time were known as easterners these people who thought the tacking on western front was insane look at the defense's who would do that prime minister of britain lloyd george's while these guys here's the thing now you can always find generals the military commanders who no matter how impossible the military task looks would be optimistic about explaining to you how their plan will for comment after all people don't get those jobs by explaining how they can't overcome the enemy's defenses we told you earlier that the french sack the military leader that answers the beginning of the war she also shot for the soviet take him upstairs and before they do they have another one of those yearly meetings were all the allies the russians an abrasion the french all the other allies to get together and at this meeting in the truck coordinate next year's military plans so that when the british and french attack on the western front the russians are the same time attack on the east to the italians attack in the south and everybody's pushing in multiple directions all of us portion the germans to you know maybe break some warning the central powers of disposal ike in a bit and suzhou can break in the any one of their sides east west north south and mean you feel like the war would be over but they're all holding steady but most commander for looking at the western france and that nothing is a steady is that must we attack it all the french and always believed years to marston course to len bias because the germans rominger shortly would like to see them pushed off when joseph joffe our use asked in late nineteen sixteen at the big meeting for the new in nineteen seventy much the planet cha for tells of his plan is repetition of the saum the battle that was just wrapping up the battle that was so horrible for british and even for french forces i'm aware of the germans down in union has several months long battle the force of the metro in the last of their resources french politicians were horrified by the us the last thing they want it is about like that because as far as they were concerned how could anybody know that it would be the french nation that through in all their resources in man this is part of a reason for further kicked upstairs french politicians have enough just when british politicians they were starting to do the unthinkable in terms of nineteenth century attitudes they were starting to interfere with the military decisions because they were losing faith that the people making the military decisions at the right priorities the politicians we're we're worried about the casualty toll voters want to be criticisms especially from the soldiers in the field is that the generals warped the guy who gets the job is to me allied military commander nineteen seventy we mentioned earlier is attorney robert neither out any they'll get this job because he's the guy out there optimistic about victory remember generals do not get hired promising to not overcome the enemy's defenses shudders and being grown bias in the whole process robert newshour tells the french leadership when he takes over that you don't have to have another battle of this on your right to have a quarantine months long battle if you could have a lightning bolt so if hammer shrank to just enters the war in forty eight hours there are sounds crazy cousin who were born to french general some of the new bill leapfrogged over or are they were guys who probably deserve the job at least three maybe four or more than a bell but if val was this he said charm and he's he's won these people they can glean any one over the snarling over these jealous general she leapfrog but there's a lot of politicians that are partial would you val and some of them or even french nouvelle has this grieving major over the other french in a military leaders he speaks english he's treated perfectly speech in without an accident his mother's english so he's a charmer to begin with a kind of a salesman but people like you doesn't feel slightly your sleazy arm he saw an optimist any goes over to brittany wings over even the arch easterner lloyd george those in their explained to the british exactly how this plan to rupture or the enemy lines will work and it involves creating a reserve of like twenty seven twenty eight divisions that are gonna be like the spider in the web and assist the germans are held in certain places and we can en miss twenty seven divisions will go get him to imitate forty eight hours and like any good salesman offering to live among the dark beer indeed there's a gear into minuscule the guaranteed the neural tells everybody is if it doesn't work in forty eight hours will call off after that now that's a promise to get rid of the part of these battles that most troubling to people care by dead people all of the dead people unless you have just tragic for stays with the battle of the summer in the battle of the frontiers of law the deaths happened because these battles won for mom to be cut and i'm after forty hours again a chance to see is what they were not working called off it's not working that takes a lot of the risk out of it you can see why politicians would like a plan a lot more than just a job first and let's have another four or five months long battle the problem is in hindsight is everyone knows nouvelle was workin' on our own idea that might not an untenable nouvelle made his name at the battle over down to the very last stages of that when the germans were being pushed back a new direction there's a lot of historical debate over whether or not anything neufeld did was effective but even if it was affected he was affected a very very low levels all the sudden be the military leader rechargeable it just all of france's forces but kind of britain's forces to help you will clash debello clash with british commander douglas hain they do not like each other the egos of generals are proverbial anyway and these two guys will fight it will create problems between britain and france is allies nonetheless knew that was the most powerful military commander on the western front he's never come in forces like this his first real problem happens when the germans pulled is in operation outbreak and sir peter there was a little of the british getting away and kill the bully and fooling the turks about the church to know that they'd laugh for the germans to scan and pull back from the scallion salient and wave to the british to find out they're gone i love the way it start by the way it starts with with the bridge looking out over their trenches and singing the german trenches being shelled and in coming to the realization that the german trenches and that could that there are facing off against are being shelled by germans had to german artillery blowing up the trenches and destroying everything of value in it and and destroying the trenches of the british to move up in the coming years and of course the probing the must've been here we were like single germans left behind issued rifle off every now and just keep the allied armies for pursuing too closely but once he was clear that the germans were pulling back no miles of maastricht ahead said by fifty miles every prisoner rancid more like twenty at before this but nonetheless to pull back that far been injured military maps raul different the place that the hammer walwyn evils offensive is gonna fall is the place looted or just vacated peso has looted or probably intended you gotta change or plans to argue the conditions on the ground it changed and it fell said i don't have to change my plans this all helps my goal mrs werner reconstruct the fall hardest plan thing at the same time you can see how the user such huge affairs involving so many moans of perforations so much momentum that even if you find out near the beginning of that of the battle that brings a change there's a momentum that you can't really even stop in this case or reconstruct go on from available for the whole battle starts the most before noodles part of the battle starts the campaign that sort of a diversionary campaign designed to make the germans move away for more needles going to attack starts that's the part of this campaign that involves the british and the demeaning forces it happens on next to the french position of a place called up ours and at this battle for least a few days everyone gets a chance to see exactly how you would go about striking differences as invincible as the germans it looks a lot like world war two and you know several history is a pointed out to buy the end of the first world war the army soprano second world war armies for certain battles know during the war were you can say ha ha there's a big step forward towards that second world war twentieth century in a style of fighting that's what the battle over ross is known for in the grand scheme of things as we said this is the spring offensive this is what the allies do every year right the weather gets going spring we launch an offensive the british and french launch one together with a large one in tandem the italians do as we said the launch of ever with the russians this is the big spring offensive the british party is the sort of diversion as we said and yet they're going to hold us all initially so while they're gonna show everyone that what twentieth century combined arms warfare looks like including aircraft the amount of courtney should know that has to come off quickly to make this work is starting they can't be maintained but for the short period of time they're able to make it work the british tell you that modern combined arms warfare can devastate the static defenses tears away historian peter hart described the many things that we're starting to come together they could be unleashed and allow somehow scientific in modern twentieth century this profession of arms is really becoming he writes cool many lessons had been learned from the saum an artillery was about heart of the plans and royal artillery come along way since nineteen fifty that thousands upon thousands of new recruits and learn their trade well the gun detachment the layers the anzio the officers were all now why didn't you efficient batteries there were capable of increasingly sophisticated and complex bombardments the guns themselves were not plentiful they were vast numbers of medium in heavy artillery pieces joining the masses of ordinary eighteen pounder and for half inch how would your field artillery advances in technology and science also combined to give a greater understanding of the mechanics of the shell in flight and a measurable adjustment caused by different meteorological conditions accuracy was improving and the advent of the was excused meant that shells would burst instantaneously on the slightest contact which made clearing barb wire or great deal simpler smoke shells were also now routinely incorporated into the barrages to try the mask be attacking infantry from german defenders dashiell for key part of the barrages they were less visually dramatic in the clouds of gas release from cylinders but they were far easier to deploy and much more predictable ameritech's progress in the linked tasks of photographic work on wasn't an artillery observation allowed targets to be identified and destroyed by indirect fire new techniques of flash body and sound ranging also assisted in locating the exact positions of german batteries and cool the record nation of has to come off quickly to make to stop work is astounding and should be surprising if he usually does it mixer ross different is that in some cases in the end of the battle about take for example the creeping raj the creeping barrages of fantastic military invasion and he'd been trying to make it work before this battle in this battle they got it right in this battle they were able for awhile to create the burkhead the of the explosive force field around british troops wayward issue we get a town of guns anywhere from several hundred two more than a thousand firing giant cannon needs in the font of your advancing forces creating a wall of explosions in front of them and you have accorded it really would have there been watches synchronized in the true for me to locate in the first twenty minute you were to move it along hundred yards forward and at this time the barrage will shift another hundred yards in front of you said this is all worked out so bad you'd be protected barrage supposed to keep the troops safe as deep as they advanced toward the enemy and the very last step of course is the barrage will land right on the enemy and enabled us to the last second in the enemy will look up in the british forces will be right there standing in front of them having march the whole way with a giant explosive force field protecting them pressure might imagine coordination is critical you screwed this up in one of two things happened is the better thing that is that the barrage gives way ahead of the troops in there exposed all the machine gun fire all the stuff the barrage was supposed to protect them from that's the good part that's the best outcome the worst outcome is that the barrages short and a giant explosive wall that supposed to protect you from the enemy instead decimate you when it works it's fantastic to the battle of our rescue workers initially don't be a bunch of innovations of his bottle another one again it's been tried before but never quite like this is a whole batter we use a machine guns were used in what's called in direct fire meaning the point i'm up to the sky so that the bullet to end up falling be no right straight down trying to be sure for he'll slip away not even seen which are shooting at is one historian explain it it's like hosing down an important piece of ground they would have thousands of machine gun bullets fall and every second on some of these important world crossings and and what not all through this battle one important element of the store the battle is that so many of the troops that are going to initially rushed the german side are underground at the start of the bottle there's a lot of chalking ground as part of france unlike a lot of these battles they will be a town of digging in fact for most the germans and the british on both sides have sort of telling war and occasionally in a british titles toward the german front running into german toddlers going the other way may have the turmoil gonna fight to the dark underground you know like trombley died fighting some sources say that the moment the actual ground battle at ross started some of these titles had gone up although we german lines but just a couple of feet separated them from the german trench lines and that at the second about started exploded charges in those those little walls of juror blew down and the canadians who stormed through the breaches it doesn't matter what exactly happened begin a new storm dumping your rage now and talk it on the first day reach that on untold numbers are french women died trying to take back in nineteen fifty it's a huge canadian victory and the germans were in terrible trouble for short while at the battle of ours them by the way it's not just the canadians the islamic renewed and deservedly so but there were scotsman for example on the same mail bomb dealing with all kinds of problems and yet for the first twenty four hours it looked like douglas hain the british commander was going to have on his hands the long awaited much fantasized about in his head breakthrough none door free to his diaries that he was a dangerous moment and then and then lamented the fact that here it is brand new defense index system he come up with all this work and all those monies that was apparently useless against these new british combined arms tactics that was until he figured out that his commander on the scene again in balkan how's another seventy something your old guy hadn't quite figured out what he was supposed to do with these new tactics they were still way to you and he had done a bunch of things that were part of the old typing tipo dollars guys for the most are way up front with the could be your taken by the artillery more than two one half million british yells by the way fired by a short time the battle the salt and then he put his reserves that are supposed to be employed any holes fifteen miles back to florida waiting for short three time it'll look like the british were gonna break through with this battle and then just like all these other battles it slows down once the troops advanced beyond were under gunfire can help them then the guns behind them have to move to and that takes time and everybody gets tired they began to wear out em while they're resting in the rejuvenating so for the next push the germans are bringing up the reserves and the battle of arrows with this wonderful first in his capture this important the new rage turns into just another one of these battles and by that time itself or more than allmond later you have like a hundred and fifty thousand british casualties of like a hundred and thirty thousand german wanted by the way i found interesting that the new or histories members of the casualties these battles is significantly higher than the older ones i was on the same as seventy five thousand british dinah despite all that's a big discrepancy in the numbers nonetheless the judicial numbers you come out today are well over a hundred thousand for both sides arm be the joy over he knew were short lived what happened to spell out what happened that much of an effort were about it shows the difference between how well the first stage you should've first twenty four maybe thirty six hours of these my new bleak squeeze in cleveland encounters go the part that's all been her first and trained for firm on simonton most goes great you're able to make the courtney should work but then the next jump in wherever you are in these battles is the part that becomes much more improvisational much more ad hoc you can have a plan that in oman synod dance for which you do you wanna second day of the battle could you not really sure where you're gonna be the second day you may have some of the dead doesn't mean that torture gonna do when as many historians point out when you look at the next jumps in any of these offenses the urso much more haphazard and all that coordination falls apart but you don't see the wonderful results that that mom's a preparation gave you for twenty four or thirty six hours i need you can't break through these kinds of deep differences in a shorter period of time you would have to have that combined arms activity work as well as it did for the first twenty four hours of a ross and be able to carry it through for weaker too nevertheless it was a new one thing gone down in history as a as a deserter we're waiting to are mostly for the county is the largest and everything for dissipated in yet on the western front ally was after my myself no you look at this in an almost papa's field marshal type fashion he studied this for military history see the way the general's often deduce advanced and so on these maps what worked and what didn't you know the coordination question that the technical side of war which after member thy wished for my myself to the people on the ground this is not so technical philippines was there he was in the town halls with the troops as they came back from these encounters upon the new region places like that gives the usual real feel for what was white he writes quote there were tom owes money the roster which are many advanced to the german lines and i went along them one line of man was going into battle and another was coming back wounded some of them blind bloody vomiting with the fumes of gas in there long's their steel hats blinking as they groped past one another vaults on each side of these passages men played cards on their roles to the lighted candles stock in bottles for slept until their turn to fight with gas mask for their pillows he says outside the citadel meaning of the city there were long queues of wounded men taking their turn to the surgeons were working in a deep equipped with a high vaulted roof one day there were three thousand of them silent patient mahdi bloodstained blind boys are men with smashed bases swapping bloody rags grope forward to the dark passages leading to the vault led by comrades on the grass outside lame man with leg wound to the stomach will end norman columns is an officer with the scottish for c. fourth highlanders and there they are too and collins just tells the stories that remind you of i'm very strange moral positions these kinds of conflicts which you in columns talks about the fact that they were actually shown how to kill one of their own man on the battlefield because of the pain and suffering that they were doing and this isn't specific to this bottle this happened on the battlefield drop the first for war in basically every army unit they got caught in these conditions caesar human problems the physics of humankind on the twentieth century battlefields the results are predictable horrifying and pitiable columns writes quote after such an intense fighting you always had men lying out in no man's land probably would their testicles blown off and crying in agony and laying out there all night long in the dark in the rain most would never have survived but you had a choice they could die in agony or you could shoot them you were shown how to do that thing very cleanly you would take your forty five revolver and talk to them in an annual behind him and whilst you were talking pulled the trigger put a bullet through the back of his head and immediately the whole front skull came away they were dead instantly there was no pain about it but i can honestly say this but i never had the courage because that's what it took i never had the courage myself to shoot the wounded soldier i carried out the operation many times afterwards on animals like a kilo pet dog for better than a bad good that i was never able to shoot the wounded soldier i probably should have my friend all romer re dixon was wounded in the stomach in the iris attack in april he was in great agony for what was told the kindest thing would've been issued him on the battlefield instead of that they took him back to the hospital and he died days later it's a tremendous think issued a friend even though he's in agony and i just didn't have the courage to do it most of them died overnight but of course they didn't thank you for it i'm sure and co there are battles coming up with the numbers of people what were either shot by their own man or begged to be will skyrocket nonetheless this battle was too often off the initial stages of relation and taking things lightly me reach became nightmarish as the month when dawn and the casualties piled up before long the british were suffering four thousand casualties that day eros and getting to the morale of the troops it tells a story about arriving on the scene right after abortion just behind the front of him blown up in their bath together in the baptist strewn with body parts in london he and a soldier you know sit down to talk about now how things are going in the soldier is clearly at the end of his role as far as what he's willing to put up with he writes quote a few minutes before our meeting by shell had crashed into a bath close to their hot women were washing themselves the explosion fill the back with blonde and bits of flesh the younger officers stared at me and the tilt forward of this deal happens said the podium is i'd played chess with immigrants cafe in fleet street in days before the war i went back to his heart had tea with him close to bed bath hoping we should not get caught up with the cake in court now this battle as i said is known for how wonderfully competent the integration of all the different elements were to make this battle so effective that's not the guy on the ground season though jim says that his friend he's having tea with cisco i heard before some harsh words about our general should the staff work but never anything so passionate so violent us from a goner officer his view of the business was summed up in the word murderer waged against the impossible orders sent down from headquarters against the brutality with which men were left in the line week after week against the monster is abominable futility of all our so called strategy is mirrors were in rags as i could see by the way which is hampshire we lighted one zig run after another is the word was in the flame of revolt against the misery of this sleepless nights built an imminent peril of death and quo if bridge for poor philip gives thinks that that's a high level of discontent and perhaps in the british army units he oughta see what's going on the french army at about the same time in france ugly drama is unfolding during this time period because right before these offenses are scheduled to start the french government falls and new political leaders take over new president and you wore minister all the civilian leadership changed any civilian leaders have a very different attitude towards us offensive it's about to start than the people they succeeded this causes you to brahms the first thing is they're not big fans and the owl join the club there are lots of people wonder why this guy got the top job when they were several you know so pure your figures really august people who could've gotten a bad hand polish people like that were sitting in the wings and any gave it to a much more junior person but but for political reasons and keep it that last government in ways that were good for the last government but now that last government was gone in the new one that comes into power would rather have any one of those other people what's more they don't like his plan is idea for this great thunderbolt us all with all the circular route in an award forty eight hours they're not buying it what people are by the way a lot of people are drinking the robber nouvelle kool aid and getting into this optimistic mood about this thunderbolt ending the war but the new government's pretty sure that that's not what's going to happen and you got some people are now sending the message is warning them there are other military commanders and friends were saying call the standoff to be a disaster some of them are people who were actually subordinate to the allen who have jobs to do in this coming offensive that's scaring the government issue might imagine this is all part of this grueling interference with politicians in the affairs of generals and is one of us times we're sort of a face off meeting is called between the new warminster nfl in late march in the new war minister was to convince the bell to call this whole sense of all an almost impossible thing you do as we said earlier by the time you reach these the stage is we're just finishing the last touches twenty dollars taken months and months no training in rehearsals and the money spent on all the stock and now the government the civilian leadership in all anything about war any general would think was called off my reputation relies on the middle of personal motives and the war minister has some good arguments he tries to tell him look everything's changed since you first formulated his plan we could just be prudent to re evaluate we the germans pulled back from the role positions to the new position as intrigue line in other places right there's one big change but not just that the war minister tries to make the case that all of these big events are happening right now these trends committee gather everything we've talked about on the spur weren't up to date are coming to the four at the same time in late march when the war minister stop an nfl about this the united states is just about to get in the war in everyone knows it the russian revolution has just happened the submarines are about to enter into the moms with the sink eight hundred and forty thousand times of allied shipping there's a lot going on and france's war minister tries to tell them listen i want to hold you and everything's changed maybe we should be evaluated tells us now the government gets even more desperate as the offensive years and pursues him and he polls that take away card he says to the government he do you back me on this right resigned and everything every answer is that this is a crisis for the french government is poised for all sorts of internal reasons he was likely to bring the government down if the fire nouvelle right before his offensive was supposed to take hold and everyone aboard the optimism trying to correlate them almost literally shuns confrontation between politicians and generals and the government backed down but it was even worse than the government knew because the germans knew all about the veils plans in detail two major incidents problem involving captured documented never should've been anywhere near the front lines of the germs got their hands on the inner worried and an officer that they captured reba find out more the germans knew all about the french plan to win the room take poison was gonna happen and they had no warning general for months here reconnaissance and told him i mean these giant affairs are like china supplied them to go on for miles and miles and miles it's very difficult to keep the enemy from finding out about it in january the germans had about nine divisions opposite novell's or muse by the time the bells about to launch is attack the germans have for yates and they're waiting and it's a disaster historically riverbed writes quote after several delays due to fall whether novell on sixteenth april unleashed his artillery for nine days and then mounted is infantry charge in driving rain were portrait agents and french kyodo news and stupid germans off to the coming of president given the news of the offensive in the difficulty of the terrain the germans were able to hold the main attack before got beyond their first law and we're as the velvet forecast the penetration of seven or eight miles on the opening day the french rarely advanced more than one or two miles losses were for windows were as neville said coldly predicted ten thousand casualties for the first day the number was ten times greater after the war the historical service of a french general staff placed casualties but the first four days of the offensive at thirty thousand killed one hundred thousand wounded and four thousand missing and cool the story of what happened at this battle of novell's is rwanda fold your demonstration of how many things can go wrong when you're trying to synchronize everything so carefully star with the weather just like that or rossell week before the weather was bad we know who has no during the spring offensive but that's what the french face sleet snow wayne creating minded slowed the progress of the infantry which you've been calculated precisely to keep up with the bomb explosive force field of the creeping garage which this guy in a valid pioneered back in for donna but never on this kind of the scale and in this case the u. campbell raj to force field got way ahead of the troops exposing the troops to just unbelievable mounted machine gun fire there's one part of this front where the french have to travel for emperor mean miles to take this you know hike in the distance and and in the news reached in the germans are caught all these little holes into the silent new to to add to the red beans in the gorges and everything memory in the stock machine guns and every hole the chicken feed into this hillside began about four thousand of them trained on this friendship country trying to get across the space and and for ross and here are when you read the history books sounds like a relatively productive first war war battles 'cause the soldiers actually take quite a bit more ground than they did in the earlier battles but that sort of deceiving because this is all part of the new german strategy this defense in depth with the germans are supposed to fight to death all obama from lines elena acumen injured glamour supposed to fight to reasonable degree and then retired to the next line of defence so they're letting the enemy have more grounded they're just killing more of them while the retreat the french actually stumble in to these first lying areas and think that there were any 'cause they just are finding that many germans and the germans open up on them from the second one positions as you might imagine the government had been assured then we'll call this thing off in fourteen hours he knows going to try to cash in on that guarantee you they actually gave nouvelle an extra day on his quarry our promise he is a writer g. j. meyer describes the situation with the politicians come to the general and tell him that call whole thing off now you guarantee he wasn't gonna be another song you guaranteed we're gonna win the war with this ponder vault and here's what my right school on april nineteenth three days after the attack starts the war minister rerouting trying to get novell to stop the general when demanding approval of israeli plan had promised to call an officer breakthrough were not achieved within forty eight hours refused the very next day he found a chagrin however the had no choice but to pause the divisions of the frog for breaking down both their morale and their supplies and ammunition dangerously low laid on the day after that april twenty first a new phenomenon appeared and cool john cheating among other historians is going to great lengths to point out how there's an accordion light come back up the indians what's the timetable isn't held to strictly when the when the fraud elements of these french forces get bogged down everything behind a good strategy and we've courtly bartow suffering shum corporal in the story several times embarked asa zappa's battled but he never sees anything he didn't stop to one of these traffic jams as far as he knows something's going on i'm why would you in front of him but he doesn't ever get to find out what is the soldiers to find out what is go begin to react as one might imagine from the horror in this case the tip of the speedier in one of these aliens are french colonial troops the story of what happened was relayed to british journalist philip gives right quo talking about the french infantry her gibbs talked about how the french were lured into the lightly defended for zone only to be attacked by the germans and the second zone of defense he writes quote they were to be allowed an easy walk through to their death trap that is what happened that friendship they treat advancing with masses of black troops in the colonial corner from one of the salt all exultant uninspired viable be thin victory swept through the four result of the german defenses astonished and then disconcerting by the scarcity of germans and jelen annihilating barrage fire dropped upon them and smashed their human waves from bridge officers and nurses i heard appalling tails of this tragedy the death whale the black troops froze the blood of the frenchmen with horror rome losses were immense in a bloody shambles an equal the french colonial soldiers which had been thrown into this disaster ran screaming back towards their own lines yelling peace al what the war death to those who were responsible and all the sudden the french army began to collapse traditionally been developed and to be seen as the straw that breaks the camel's back to the french military and it's ironic it would be their wages and it's just judged it really should all be other french bowels of the development is not terrible the casualty bill was horrifying with pretty normal for these big battles remember there are people being killed every day on so called quiet fronds and british casualties every week to what they call we stage just living on the western front was snipers and palms and trench reusable ones five thousand people a week so and even between the big battles of horrible but in the big battles the numbers are astronomical by that standard of elephants is not that bad any day again you're pretty similar ground rule three miles in some places but this was sold in a completely different way the salesman robert no doubt sold this is the founder of all the wins the war everybody can have this last push of optimism in spring and resources and and goshen to end the war in it all go home and sufferings over a lot people drink the co lead in the crash after they drank the cool lane was worse than if they'd never had to kuwait and all all but optimism boomeranged back on the valve who started to try recast the marketing just been a twenty four hours of the conflict was no longer talking about we're winning thunderbolt you're talking about hey it's going very well be modest gains in the sector in this sector and no one was binder retracting of the marketing strategy the french government has wonderful little drama on its hands were tries to get rid of the ballot he won't go quietly they put it on who's very competent to talk about him earlier in the bells old job and they have a face off in you see these wonderful again change in the guard between politicians kind of trying to assert to restore your good generals and push in thailand was going to be the ultimate authority the one thing that the politicians have in their favor is that their concern about casualties in the general's up you're not be concerned about casualties and the people or were icing up in french units up and down western front are very concerned about casualties the novello fences traditionally is what kicks off or called the nineteen seventeen evasion evasion nineteen seventy that to weir trial and it makes it sound like one in the rebels in the rebellions the house transfer of like wildfire rock and elma frightened at all these unit tracking simultaneously get that happened the war would bend over for for it when we do to stop rebellion revolution when it's the army units rebel and if that happened it would all over and the french government you would and acted accordingly instead of yeah to imagine a burning roof with the embers everywhere you're going off to the we've been waiting all over the dry grass on the lawn at any of the french government running around stamping out fires as they catch hold a news media six of these units a day we're involved and as i said with the french called acts of collective in discipline which meant a whole wide range of things some designate getting drunk as an entire unit not listening at that we're not going anywhere and other times they just refuse to go up to the front one nino forced to sign the march on paris was talking about the last minute and a lot of this was high into the russian revolution going on simultaneously the french in the field saw that all the sudden russian soldiers maybe we're gonna get out of fighting this war is that somehow with the people acted together to go after the people that were as leave our toes explained it insulating them billy bartow this was a socialist and we beauties happenings in bed for grad in russia i'm with great enthusiasm this right around the times the outbreaks of collective in discipline are happening in his army quote at this time the russian revolution broke out those slavic soldiers only yesterday enslaved and bent double under the weight of iron discipline on knowingly marched off to massacre is like resigns slaves had thrown off dario to proclaim their liberty and imposed peace on their masters their hangman the whole world was to both by petrified by this revolution is collapse of the immense empire of the czars these events had repercussions on the western front and rob the french ranks we need of revolt lacrosse almost all the regiments and cool and as i said it was a non humans sort of an affair sometimes involved whole units large numbers of troops other times it was a decision made by single individuals alone that they just weren't going to have their lives thrown into a meat grinder running more historian carried dorm rooms tried to give you a sense of feeling he writes quote already on day two of the nouvelle often served seventeen soldiers of one regiment left their post them went to the rear and an inmate thirty thousand infantry men abandon the long line junior officer record the scene at one train station receiving men who'd been rotated out of line their burrows is quoting an eyewitness the eyewitness to the troops are getting away from the front during this rebellious times as cold as soon as the train enters with what he would say no horde as savages all the doors open on both sides in men flat out on the platforms shouts in selves and threats lionel direction deaf to the scher present home murderers and pigs that they are long live the revolution down with the war it's peace we want etc now burrows picks up a mirror to quote the troubles were in the sixty eight i'm a hundred and twelve divisions in the french army in june each reporting one of five mutinous incident but no killing of officers the rank and file demanded an end to further attacks better pay and living conditions and more for loans and cool john g. give him a couple of other historians have an interesting way of describing this this act of rebellion was breaking out all spontaneously although influenced by other break out all across 'em up and down the western front he says it's like a labor strike but the soldiers had just decided that they were going to do certain things anymore he said it wasn't defeatism it was defenses i'm meaning that the soldiers were not gonna let the germans coming invade france they were gonna abandon the line and they wouldn't stop fighting but they were going to be involved in any more these offenses or a hundred and thirty hundred forty hundred fifty thousand of the morgue or become casualties in a hopeless cops it's also remember that it didn't get to this point until the french army had suffered in three and half years and as many killed as the united states has suffered in all thwart put together how would the united states today the nation of three hundred million friends about the ring on her forty deal with one point five or one point seven million dead in four years you just did for population size could be more like seven seven and a half million somewhere around there can you imagine would you expect us to be hanging over forty for the rest of the century in terms of military affairs the french had some lingering damage because of this first world war anyone else wallet it's amazing they got back on their feet at all it's also sort of a wanderer for the allied cause that the germans are on aware of that somehow it's it's by yet undeveloped and sid that everybody in germany for talking about mistreated so well known and yet the french army starts falling apart rebelling in the germans don't know if you're the french high command and you got gerard meet you know starting to catch fire like a bunch of rooftop embers are falling on dry grass wahid you to stop that to be very careful don't you be given too much it becomes like what the russians are dealing with we can even have the troops in order randy start electing their role little governing originate do what they want to have that but if the crackdown again all tough on them you might spread the revolution it's a death in terrible tight rope to the french government to walk this new military leader that takes over for novell bhutan is considered to be so the soldiers gentleness about helps hill famously go around all these units speaking to them and actually promising in delivering some of the reforms they want for example reforms on home leave food drink and a bunch of things that he can manage to perk up in and take care of that help the troops engraving on the front at the same time he has to show was still in shards is still a military laws are broken the blood must be maintained the french star crackdown in july nineteen seventy they will court-martial almost twenty four thousand soldiers for collective in discipline bill issue about five hundred death sentences they will actually carry out less than a hundred but this one thing to town can change he cannot make his army capable or willing were trustworthy to go on another major references this is an army disaster regroup be rebuilt three fourths find a tom's gonna do i historically famous job of this pituitary time and in the meantime the number one thing that he gives to his troops that they were asking for 'cause he's got no choice is that they're not to be thrown into murderers hopeless offer incentives anytime soon this leaves the western front in any sort of offensive activity on it for the rest in nineteen seventeen to the british alone the british commander douglas hades fine with that as he has a plan many want to carry out for some time and out of the french are not in his way he casts his how batista hey on the pro and the belgian ports yet again doubtless hate the british military leader watch the british to launch an attack on the german defenses in belgium and eat at withers already been to bowels of the perkins war already now i ain't got a great army do this with the british army in late nineteen seventeen in nineteen seventeen he's he's maybe the best army in a war to stop at stake in years to the british in traditionally you see power buildup ally in power but by july august nineteen seventy nine dollar great job and doing just that and it's millions strong integration boutique army win this war started very very fine professional volunteers but but a boutique army but they have in nineteen seventeen or bon jovi mostly conscript stumbled to a mostly conscript will sing on their way to and from battle anymore like in nineteen fourteen out of saum that'll stop the serb much you bring him up professionals cooperate with deadly efficiency and have a sort of a plumber well that's hard to describe it and they suffered a terrible the ordeal the year before the battle some terrible lost a lot of fantastic people but came back with even more artillery pieces your nineteen seventy it's a great tool in the hands of hagen hey what's the use of new belgium in years the germans but there are people that think that that's a stupid idea and after several years of war when you've watched you know the same thing happen over and over again in all these battles there are people that are known to push back we're starting to see some of these political leader start to question what the military is doing openly to their face and you won't mentioned this earlier i don't see new way to this never happens i mean abraham lincoln for example famously would argue with the civil war general sani would resent it but in some countries like germany politicians in germany do not interfere in military strategy when the only just started doing that in france with the collapse of the middle offensive learned that can develop into the store brought them into saying are you sure we wanna do something like this again in in britain in i i would pink as a modern person reading the story that they need you probably thought the same thing you're wondering why it took the small how many times can you lose hundreds of thousands of people in what appeared to the nonmilitary i'd be very similar kinds of attacks in the little strange if there were more people questioning is in britain there are led by the prime minister lord george now george to be fair is viewed by history very similarly to the way woodrow wilson his it's almost as though there's a good lloyd george and is an evil we george new different histories will portray him differently but taken at face value lloyd george present himself as the person who did this in the soldiers on the generals he says during this holy handed to whether or not hate gets to have his belt in the fantasy of court the cabinet must regard themselves as trustees for the fine fellows that constitute our army they're willing to face any dangers and they do so without complaint but they trust to the leaders of the nation to see that their lives are not needlessly thrown away another not sacrificed on me and campbell's which are resorted to merely because those were directing the war and think of nothing better to do with the men and they're coming it is therefore imperative before we embark upon a gigantic attack which was necessarily entail the loss of scores of thousands of valuable lives and produce that sense of discouragement which might very well rush nations into premature piece that we should feel that they're confident that such an attack as reasonable chance of succeeding on your gamble would be bold of bali and a crime and co i must confess into the modern observer having just witnessed the several years previous to this war you think yourself when you hear something like that about damn time but many modern historians wanderer they wonder if haiti he'd never pretty good feel for this thing and that these politicians were barking up the wrong tree maybe for their own political purposes hey it sure makes it look like lloyd george's know what he's talking about what he opens up an operation on june seventh nineteen seventeen to take this high ground but he needs to take before you can have his keeper battle it's called the senior rich and the british had since nineteen fifteen minutes humbling hundred this eight miles of rage lines and planting explosives underneath the incredibly deep uncomplicated german defenses up to they were impenetrable to the british when underneath them on the germans knew they were doing some of the study found one of 'em but on june seventh nineteen seventy one hey decides he's gonna take this high ground he starts off as attack i'm blowing up that eight miles of racial lines with these nations there's more than a million pounds of explosives underneath those hills and when they will walk all within twenty eight seconds of each other supposedly you get here in london i've heard some people say was heard in ireland it ought to be the biggest man made explosion before nuclear weapons recommit weapons can vaporize is ten thousand germans instantly the second those mines are blown up thousands of british artillery pieces on the horizon opened fire on the same line reaches and the british eighty thousand of them o'connor other trenches and and and marched toward the high ground have a pretty darn easy time taking it by first world war standards i'm gonna always driven because to the naked eye it still looks like a wannabe bill died but by first for war standards that's a pretty darn good attack him once again it seems to show that the british if found the secret sauce the magic formula of how the tanks in the artillery the aircraft in all work together perfectly in boom the singer reach taken for not that much loss of life seems like hey knows we still in a bubble forgets approval for this battle would be brief and paloma the guns you get ready lloyd george in company take him into a back room and make him padua powerpoint present haitian for britain's civilian leaders paid so the grits his teeth and does it explains why it'll be a good thing and white why we should be doing this why it should be walk over to dc that wonderful but we just bought into the senior ridge hague will end up getting other generals and admirals to sort of side with him against the political leadership there we're always politicians who sided with the military and compare the professional to leave things to them for guys like churchill or laurie george who were the ones questioning military leadership they were not very tough position can you imagine what risk they would've ron if they had overruled all their military professionals and in two hundred thousand geigy killed in battle which by the way is almost the default result of all of these battles to you could pretty much be assured that that would happen if it happened at the general's all well it just happened again into the generals but lloyd george overruled all their generals and happened because of him you can be sure he would've been roasted on so predictably arm unless he gets his offensive he starts by starring in military bombardment on the area right around july fifteenth july twentieth before the ground attack starts the british will shoot almost four million shells to to show you had the progression is going you're going to psalm we were all saucer eyed and so was the rest of the world at the time when the british shot off a million shells before they started that battle for this when the shooting off almost four million you can see why germany's concerned we have finding a way to turn their entire country into a munitions factory as we said was de gaulle on july thirty first nineteen seventy the heat for offensive starts very soon afterwards so to rain you want me to rain they will give this battle it's unique standout character and you're so many battles not for for war that sound the same that only if you stand out in the toe which precipitated your recently become associated with something special to him horrific way the most casualties of emotional southernmost the shabad me everyone knows for don is the great artillery meat grinder rough and the psalm is that horrible tragic situation with maybe tragic incompetence that brushed off offensive in the east is known for its scope passion dale which would be the british name for thirty per is known for its mind and my doesn't sell into terrible thing but when you think about living outdoors and finding might make some terrible situation worse policy just the just because this is probably the worst minded anyone has ever fought in the first war war bed mind as not been a problem for soldiers on the other france and other battles it's been sort of the bane of the existence for people especially in trenches but nowhere is the mud like it is in flanders the soldiers fighting you describe it as having a consistency of portage were cheesecake there is no bottom to it than you stinky and it slowly as you would in quicksand there are a lot of people who died in the first two battles of the perot by drowning in addition there is a complex very fragile system of dykes another war or flood control measures that have been implemented in that area over the centuries to keep the water from taking it over the artillery has done great damage to that before thirty up right now with his wonderful barrage of four million shells with a birdie should have launched into this area they've destroyed whatever was left of that system but when the rain starts to get horrifying the tissue taken already horrifying first world war western for about a filibuster we describe what the jury in trenches everywhere the vegetation all gone except for the little twig son sticks to use to be jarring trees is terrific hello mordor like the landscaping you flaunt it now we have battled with us all more there would be raining you have moments of plotting bikinis and white is this battlefield will start to flaunt it will stay that way there will only be three dry days in the month of august in fact they did double the normal rainfall and this turns to you react into a swamp the swamp of quicksand and very quickly will be no casualties mr cropping up into the same gonna situation we talked about the solemn word the shell holes which are everywhere are filled with water or become like toxic domes with human bodies detaining them in the remnants of poison gas and trash and the results of them using these things is latrines immediate is the most sickening stop you can think of as a matter for drama the proms confronting the british at this hour is they don't have water for the troops they have water everywhere their water coming up their ears but not to drink in the shell holes on the minded we'll form as nasty an enemy to the soldiers fighting in this as they are no opposition i was suggesting wasn't bad for the germans even that may be the overlooks on passion dale it's so horrible and mrs see you again to breach consciousness that so horrible for british troops which much remember not just english folks there welsh scotch pine ridge newfoundland indian australia new zealand canadian and i'm leaving some out they're all their suffering but the germans are suffering to you the rain is so bad that we can just a few days a gas to call halt operations the gardens are sinking no i get the horses are stinking up to their chest the people are sinking what makes this battle particularly horrifying did you know whether battle i'm a first world war do you routinely see the soldiers put in that unbelievable situation the record norman cousins that scottish soldier you're saying he was given the tools to kill louis palo man if it were badly wounded on the battlefield with their slowly sinking in mind because that was happening we talk about battles with scorn nation is what we mean by that well in the first world war hundreds of thousands sometimes millions of men would go through the east herbal places passion dale's won in overtime was another assault was another the brutal offensive and people who go through these horrible experiences number in the hundreds of thousands or millions for survivors been golf home are minutely changed how many human beings have to go home permanently changed for that to ripple across their entire societies passion deal do just that and par the reason why was because what these people saw just destroyed them i mean the most widely in the lampooned a poetic law and is widely lampoon because it became so associated with this battle is a fried sassoon wrote i died in hell call the past and it all you can see pictures by the way of this battle on the battlefield to try to keep soldiers from getting stuck in the mind they laid down doc boards and so you haven't you have to imagine go look at pictures in his amazing that the battlefield that looks like the moon that if the moon they had been turned to mind and then on the mind to try to keep people from sinking into it as though with quicksand they put these little teeny planks in in in the in the make them look like paths enough or for were people need to go what does does it means that says the soldiers have to actually walk on those of machine gunners can just target them and that the stock border blown up every night by the artillery and every night the broiling junior's common reek rebuild the next day the fire here are hard in his wonderful book on the first world war the great war court private norman clipper british soldier in the first grand your guards describing it was happening in it happened thousands of soldiers quote the approach to the rage was a desolate swamp over which were good and evil menacing atmosphere that seemed to defy encroachment far more treacherous than the visible surfaced dispenses with which we were familiar such as barb wire deep devouring maud sprayed deadly traps in all directions we splashed into the beard and drag their feet from the pull of an invisible enemy determined to suck us into it's depths every few stab someone would slide is stumble the way down by rifle and equipment rapidly sink into the squelching mass those nearest grabbed his arms struggled against being themselves in golf and if humanly possible dragged him out what helpers floundered in as well and doubled the task it became hopeless all the straining efforts failed in the swamps wall of its screaming victims that we had to be ordered to applaud on dejected we can fight this relentless enemy as stubborn as we did those we could see it happen that wanna blows leading us was lieutenant chamberlain and so distraught that he did commit the spectacle of men drowning in mind and desperate tends to rescue them that suddenly he began hysterically belaboring the shoulders of the sinking man with the swagger stick we were horror strapped to see this most compassionate officer so on strongest resort to brutality they're loud protest fortune to desist the man was rescued but some could not be and they sank shrieking with the urine agony the u. were to go ahead and leave a comrade to such a fate was the hardest experience one could be asked to win to war but the dejected had to be reached and we plunged on the inner anger riggins the evil forces for bailing piled on your exasperating this was as near to hell was i ever wanna be and equal in brian cooper's the ironclad sitcom parade the court to soldiering be pursuing called our men was unfortunate enough to step out of line and fell in the wannabes mada holes we manage to look for world securely under his armpits but it was useless the poor fellow now knew we was beyond all a bit and begged me to shoot him rather than leave him to die miserable death by suffocation i'm not afraid to say therefore by shock this man and his own urgent request and equal in you counted clear that this particular mold of dying affected the soldiers no worst and most of the other was this is that the true facts roar of passion day above thirty perhaps writer alan hawke's child in his book to end all wars equal to british major at thirty brock this is called the party of a company man passing up to the front line found a man bald to above the knees onto him and he needs he says quote the united efforts of four of them with rifles beneath his armpits made not the slightest impression and to date even if shovels had been available would be impossible for there was no foothold judy compel them to move on up to the line when two days later they passed down that way the wretched fellow was still they are not only his head was now visible me was raving mad and co and just like most of the other band were were won battles in other people's stock out in no man's land that you couldn't go get drove the men in the trenches dear comrades just almost insane with powerlessness historian jaunty tune called british soldier and one born who's at the thirty per up and who describes how the rain takes a known who were sick situation the people stop in no man's land and the suffering that they went through in the suffering that they've been transmitted to their powerless comrades in the trenches and made it worse by just adding water soldier von talks about being in a shell hole woman says quote from other shell holes from the darkness on all sides came the groans and wails of wounded men faint long sobbing moans of agony in despairing shrieks it was too horribly obvious the dozens of men with serious wounds must've crawled for safety into new shell holes and now the water was rising about them and powerless to move they were slowly drowning warble visions came to me with those cries of man lying named out there trusting that their pals would find them and now dying terribly alone amongst the dead in the inky darkness and we could do nothing to help them don't um was crying quietly beside me and all the men were affected by the peace prize and cool the timid and bone in his manner relieve the couple hours later mr walking back down the line he notices called the cries of the wounded had been much diminished now is we staggered down the road to resume was only too apparent for the water was right over the tops of the shell holes and co now if you want to look at this battle which went on for months in military terms anyone look at it positively has some modern historians do you could say that he killed between two and earn twenty and three hundred and fifty thousand more germans nothing wrong with that in a war of attrition right or she drew the british political coming into little nobody killed about the same number of british soldiers it gained a few miles in some places the canadians who were awake we captured the town of passion dale against all odds and true much you're suffering in and persevering janet it's not quite apparent how old is really pushed the end of the war any closer it definitely pushed along the soldiers go closure to the transformation that they would eventually yes they lived to make it home transferred their entire society pre shoulder world skirt was for ever transformed by his experiences in flanders nineteen seventies as were so many others it crushed the underpinnings of so much of his world view he writes about the battle quote i said the man is morale was breaking i suppose i should include myself had long since lost any desire to continue was a fine soldier idealist and howard sort of much use on a battlefield and i was a bit of both at nineteen i found my standards of conduct obsolete my ideal shattered and lost all faith in institutional religion my church in authorize me to break the sixth commandment in the name of patriotism and co he continued school eventually i worked it all out at least for myself god was all right it was we you were whirl why the hell shorty care what happened was locked we had brought this war evil into existence not god the reason evil and ugliness were triumph in over goodness and beauty white pitying compassion were considered weaknesses and ruthlessness and cruelty regarded as noble the reason for all this was the wickedness in ourselves and not the indifference of god that's why the more murders you committed the bigger the hero you became that's what major secure your officers slap you on the back and say splendid old chap jolly good shooting when you're she also destroyed in minutes the duty which craftsmen that toiled lifetimes to create the solution is very very bitter when you're young thoughtful imaginative insensitive end quote in the postscript to his memoirs reining in the third person skirts as squall before nineteen seventeen ended so on the belligerent sensitive youth an escaped death by eight inches a dozen times had seen his comrades die in dreadful agony had seen and heard man who should've been dead many broken torn blameless this symbolic screaming for anyone with a load rifle to enter unbearable sufferings and watched his friends and others slowly choke and for all of this poison gas suffocated them could not believe it possible and to lose all rise to all of that was that half a man could live for what seemed to him hours them by the time he was rendered unconscious himself had come to realize that every frame he'd made every man he'd worked with and become cannon fodder for years afterwards memories of these horrors haunted his dreams and disturbed his sleep and awake he could never bring himself to talk of them what he thought of those wounded men and the comrades you've been with when they were killed he always came to the same conclusion it must never happen again it never pinnacle there were hundreds of thousands of survivors like the xiang mary ann they went home and greatly influence their home societies mean there are literary historians that will point to the influence these people had in the writings of the nineteen twenties and nineteen thirty's everywhere war orders to paul match was another one permanently affected by passion dale a. b. and other areas and stop the war quite nice and then went to passion dale and had his entire world turned upside down this is as related by david reynolds in his spine history the long shadow he starts off by saying that nash enjoyed all these other areas of war and writes called but when nash returned in november to the rain in mind of passion dale he was transfixed by quote the most frightful nightmare of the country more conceived by dante your poll of them by nature with no glimmer of god's hand to be seen anywhere summarizes on center blast bunnies reynolds says he exclaimed quote they are maucher reached a man and equal reynolds rights to the scene he says was gilded with the colors of howl yellow stinking minded shell holes filled with green white water or black dying trees an unceasing shells the churned up the land into what graveyard quote or nash now i am no longer run our next interested in curious i am a messenger who would bring back word from the men were fighting to those who want the war to go on forever feeble the inarticulate will be my message but it will have a bitter truth and may burn their lousy souls and cool british war correspondent bill cubes was they are sniffing fumes all over the battlefield and he had a true admiration for not just the english troops pull the dominion troops to what they accomplished here two of the doomed heroism and gibbs was just blown away by what human beings and in these gallant soldiers were able to achieve and nothing upset him more than cure later that sir douglas hain the british commander had proclaimed reports on the battlefield a passion dale is being exaggerated this is how i'm very angry gives responded quo sir douglas hague things that some of the descriptions about six months horror were quote unquote exaggerated as a man who knows something of the value of words and so many of those battle scenes in flanders one out for me bring many times during those months an games all the places that he'd be an an answer by saying and beyond to polly gone wood and passion dale where his dad laying in the dead dead haig was responsible for where his deadline in the swamps and roam the pill boxes that were tanks and wallowed in the bomb mire were shot in the scrap iron by german gunfire where are all in the arms were being flown up by the harassing fire of eddie shells icing now but nothing that is been written is more than a pale image of the abomination of those battlefields and no penner brushes yet achieved the picture that armageddon which so many of our men perished and co many people began to doubt british military leadership just because they would think you should ever fighting conditions that were that bad there's a story in some people doubted ever happened use to be something that was mentioned by almost everyone running about passion dale his book in flanders fields leon walls tells the story his way and says quote the following day lieutenant general sir lancelot cable they disperse ms into the fighting zone as his staff car lurched through the swamp land and near the battleground he became more more agitated finally he burst into tears in modern good god did we really send men to fight in that the man beside him would be in through the campaign replied tom asleep it's worse further on top and co some say would be ridiculous to think that these military folks had not been out to the field and seen the condition during know what they were like i'm not we take a position on that all it will suggest is that there were a lot of people who look to the conditions of passion dale and wondered no one was going on in the heads of britain's military leaders passion daily use one of the most often cited nightmares of this war to britain's along with the psalm in just like the psalm it did terrible damage to britain's army british military historian jaunty gunman's definitely in the anti hate camp world court almost saw me and said the fly or british you to death or mutilation and passion dale he had to piss herb ivers into the school despondent and cool for those in britain's political class they wished the generals would pay more attention to casualties they would get their wish i'm not for an entire generation the junior officers in places like passion dale would be permanently affected by that battle each military writer brigadier peter young wrote quote the memory of this battle affected british leadership in the second world war causing many commanders to go to which dreams to try to avoid casualties and quo this attitude will calmly generation too late for leaders like lloyd george he in his allies had tried to call off the passion dale campaign after the first order of the victims was spent only to fail wanting him up against the military leadership was heard to say milan in mind lot in mind they didn't think of nothing better but it should be said even though the british shuffling the scan of casualties so what the germans they're soldiers are being as tragically affected by this fighting the british soldiers the german general norman vaughan cool bro news report about the troops fighting in flanders court the sufferings privation and exertions which the soldiers had to bear were indescribable terrible was the spiritual burden on alone remained in the shell hole or trench and terrible the strain on the nerves during a brief bombardment which continued day and night the hello bird on in the song was exceeded by flanders the battle the whole flanders has been the greatest martyrdom of the war and looking back it seems that wall was born here was superhuman but perhaps it may still prove to be too great a courageous sacrifice and cool well what general cool do know one december nineteen seventeen was that something was taking root that would end up leaving me to the german military commanders getting their hands on between five hundred thousand in a million fresh veteran rested soldiers fate is about to put the dice the iron dykes back into the hands of germany's leadership it's well-known they're already inveterate gamblers and the chance to try to throw a knockout punch you know war where both sides looked like badly beaten up and permanently damage fighters will be irresistible seems like no matter what lloyd george does there's more bloody minded the world's future in nineteen eighty wow i love what i can recommend books on orbit we used in the production of this program today or bold course be here next largest provider of spoken ordeal entertainment no more than a hundred and fifty thousand titles to choose from every genre you can think of and it's not just all audio books of course magazines and periodicals i'll stand up comedy routines old time radio shows i'm always quest out of my goal may find recommendations how much stuff they have that i wouldn't think they have for example a couple of wonderful memoirs move for for warp i'm not sure we recommend you more these before i know we haven't recommended the other but all i think you'd like a bolt of them warning is a classic him we use it too raucous and tires series it's storm of steel the account mind german soldier ernst young are in your ears kind of a famous person and he became an individual after the war that was much talk about his book was very famous and young is what the strange individuals that went through the war survived all these horrifying experience is and actually came out of the thinking of it as being somehow positive experience he can enjoy some of the salt the upside idea she could say made him a kind of a rehearsal with juries good to have for balance when you read this other book or listen to this other book i'm suggesting there were locked in tommy the memoirs of ramos correct and he's the opposite of younger he someone that reflexive those individuals that were so changed by the war and then went home completely transformed he became a pacifist and was forever changed by that conflict when you listen to his experiences in the way he recounts them you can understand why it's a honest introspective and you know in it's own way completely scarring sort of testimony to what your average people can find themselves experiencing both younger in skirts are fascinating very different reasons fatigue or or ballpark asked outcome for jewish hardcore history you get to free your new book out wow be sure to follow us on twitter the address is at hardcore history get more hardcore history again carlin dot com event they show you discern is worth a dollar deanna dad would love to have it about the shelf it's all we ask canadian carlin that calm for information on how to donate to the shelf i'd like to apologize for a couple things right off the bat the first thing is firm silly little purse need to be mistakes you can probably tell specialty way for these programs to be released as we make them the bit of a not when it comes to detail in yet to people around me keep telling me that there's a certain failure rate that should be expected and i'm not really good except in an especially when i catch the errors before the show gets out nonetheless this one will go out with me saying the word train she is to describe the principal efficacious that the british are lean and passion dale and course shell holes would be a much closer permitting trenches to those british soldiers would be no luxury on that battlefield nonetheless those of the piddling little things that slipper worst rainer you're even when we catch them so that the show's come out more than once a year which we're just barely beating that i think right now heading toward want to europe as these keeps up so i apologize for that to in winners in the past wanted the shelling in the future bomb we try hard but we're not perfect mom the other thing i'd like to apologize for his four perhaps ignoring your favor part of the story whatever that might be brought up a favor region favored army of these are people with the event taking a topic like this is a humbling and you know it once again shall issue some of the potential downsides with our leap before we look topic picking policy you're on the program tom nonetheless i will forgive in advance for now on i promise i learned my lesson every historian and author who talks too much about the western front at the expense of other areas of the first war because you start to realize why that becomes important says a very confusing story there's a lot going on it would be so easy to go off in the weeds and lose everybody i i have the time without losing myself in the story you manage sticking to the western front and russia in the united states as a sort of an anchor you keep the story he helps to clinging to some sort of structure in some ways i think it's probably the week hosts answer to the problem on the other hand every time you introduce another theater and other people another norwegian and more names of individuals you make the story more more confusing the first world war is a giant topic which are getting here and i say this about all of our productions don't injure getting the damned harlan version of the first world war unfortunately that's leaving a lot of things out but you want as a friend of mine was said perhaps we should look at this just leaving a lot more potential future hardcore history topics available force to handle down the road in a nutshell women make up some of the deficit for the things we haven't talked about and make up for some lost time in the middle east are there are many things going on that create in other than the beginnings of them are world in that region including an important foundational events that lay the groundwork for the modern re creation the ancient state of israel in that region in russia we get to see what an intellectual contagion that might be a good way to describe it drop down into the middle of the very fertile petri dish that is provisional government russia can do to a country like that and in answer to that question will perhaps arise as to whether or not an army can actually function if the soldiers get to vote on whether they will follow orders or not and finally good to see the arrival of u. s. troops in large numbers on the european continent to the first time ever if i'm lucky and get what i want to move get to delve little bit into your power and how which three dimensional icing battlefields and i'll bet technological race is a little like to know steve jobs and bill gates in those guys were involved in technology back in nineteen sixty nineteen seventeen they might very well be an airplane development cheeks these pilots in these planes are no half technological geek in half medieval night we'll talk a bit about that if i get lucky and i can make the time and finally will talk certainly about the difference one both sides are exhausted on the western front but half a million to one million fresh troops can make and i'm not talking about american troops i'm talking about the german soldiers better ride from the eastern front of the western front can make on tired french and british army's before the americans arrived unannounced numbers to make a difference the last year of the war it's full of surprises all that and more one part six of blueprint for armageddon