Episode: Show 53 - Blueprint for Armageddon IV

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Show 53 - Blueprint for Armageddon IV
Machine guns, barbed wire and millions upon millions of artillery shells create industrialized meat grinders at Verdun and the Somme. There's never been a human experience like it and it changes a generation.

Dan Carlin's Hardcore History
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The planet hadn't seen a major war between all the Great Powers since the downfall of Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815. But 99 years later the dam breaks and a Pandora's Box of violence engulfs the planet.

Dan Carlin's Hardcore History > Show 54 - Blueprint for Armageddon V

Politics, diplomacy, revolution and mutiny take center stage at the start of this episode, but mud, blood, shells and tragedy drown all by the end.

Dan Carlin's Hardcore History > Show 51 - Blueprint for Armageddon II

The Great Powers all come out swinging in the first round of the worst war the planet has ever seen. Millions of men in dozens of armies vie in the most deadly and complex opening moves of any conflict in world history.
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Automated Transcript (Why is this transcription so bad?)
the today show was sponsored by laudable goal or ballpark estimate tom bore slash hardcore history teacher free audio book him what you're about to hear is part four of a multi party resume for for war if you like your stories to have some sort of cohesive lean your narrative flow all born a promising the probably could deliver on that but that's what you like we're probably better off suggest to you go check out episode number one work your way to hear the anger but that can stuff and all you just don't trust me to deliver a cohesive linear nearer to flow and i wouldn't win yet what i'm wyoming start here apart for an checkout the series that we're calling blueprint for armageddon i'm not big government i am going on a day which will live and in my beats his trial however pat i'll are on um would you have a deal games the head what i had had a bad combat unit at our house and he does have had one by a group of lawyers and i will and the only hope who probably it i'm play hide and lose the movie and the new hush up this hit a home that one hundred why would why why the blues and to make good as we were the a little that that were on the help we could be the martyrdom of dog than there who do not use them that from phil coleman hi it's hard for history but you market war honey you sell compact to the people who are actually going to have to engage in it to a hypothetical question but what any military that requires volunteers to decide the war joined the service has to think about how you actually sell the idea to the people you have to take part in it an idea that carries with it the potential for i'm very nasty outcomes in the very worst of circumstances does not too difficult job perhaps to market combat she's you do in peace time though right if you have to sell suntan oil to people in alaska maybe you'll pull it off in the summer december it's really tough sell before the first world war breaks out into china market recruitment into the british army you can sell the same so talking points the same so angles that it worked for governments and monarchies and tried to going back to the beginning of civilization the military's longhand certain selling points that we're all familiar with them you could add regular penny thrown in to that as well the heroism the adventure the status in the other so lot of things some people just like to fight and you never know the problem is is that that's a pre nineteen fourteen in a talking point when it comes to what happens when the first world war breaks out and how that just totally messes with your marketing strategy publisher marketing hello as a travel destination you can't no matter how much press censorship you have in the british had plenty for for more just like everyone else you can mask those coming casualty numbers may be the master reality and so the stuff that some these newspaper reporters who were censored during the war after the war in other would write books tell you the real story what really happened 'cause you could've imagined it was also injured by the press even with the censorship you can hide the death and destruction dismemberment and you see the people returning to your home town with a horrible once you hear some of the rumors of stories you know it's not going to be gone call the sudden the marketers in great britain is to recruit meant operation at the play our baugh no more just throwing out carriage had any use of sticks to you in the u. s. we have the twenty first century volunteer army ourselves in the u. s. uses just carrots to encourage people to join up will pay you more or pay for college you'll make something of your life and all the different things that they used to motivate people but does not very many sticks in the u. s. system once the first couple week to the first world war happened and everybody together find out how enormous this is gonna be in in absolutes donning group wake up call with a light goes on over everyone's head they're going my gosh we don't have enough resources my gosh we don't have enough money for war like this in all my gosh we don't have enough people and even some of these larger stage we think yourself all you know people should be a problem look at how many people are coming up every generation remember manpower in the old here we're cool to means manpower across the board not just the people fighting on the front line that the people that can still be minors to extract the material you need to carry on the wall or people working in arms manufacturing plants and they can build the bomb journeyed to fight the war of words if you take too much tougher on the fighting line up you have a people back home making the staff that the people on the fighting line need to win manpower becomes a very big deal all these other countries in the war germany france russia no problem they've spent decades working out a conscription operation where the draft people yeah yeah so they do do a couple years in the service and you become part the reserves when you become part of the other reserve and heavy you're an older reserve and ill after while the dow the whole world balding self perpetuating system in place was every generation comes up their cranking out new soldiers except for great britain in the last volunteer service in balkans conflict when it breaks out it puts unique pressure's on them the first the do is simply ask people to join up remember nineteen fourteen you didn't quite know what you were in for you could still sell the old selling point the uniforms are wonderful and women you look dashing and just be in opening ward center kill the boschee in all the good method to king need to king and country all the things i'm always worked and still work on the way in law cases especially in peacetime amen thwarted more folks in britain and scotland and canada and australia all these places signed up in the event and all they were looking for a couple hundred thousand a lot more not but that's before the casualties start happening but a patriotic britain's sign up you're not repay trigger injured at anita notches in one big lump but every month to replace the truth she lose in the late nineteen fifteen the british just lou is that the wittily and they walk away after a couple months with two hundred and fifty thousand casualties you don't just replace those by play nice uneasiness in common fight for change in country you're using more hardball methods i'm the laws of always thought was just indicative of something if you imagine did new modern times it boggles the mind using a strategy like to stay but it's absolute genius it shows exactly the mothball herbal point in a young man's as psyche and the place we're juror marketer you're looking for for what motivates people high he didn't hatch these these elements of the influence in the war of the feather the white feather movement is actually growing into that regard and it's a most devious sheik try to imagine our government would something like this today with modern twenty per century technology it's interesting to think about but basically it alone august early september nineteen forty rolls around their schnabel in the british admiral to use crews working like everyone else to think about them huddling for two more people to sign up for this horrible war and comes up with you know in an attack on the motivation of marketing strategy he's going to enlist patriotic young british women to walk the streets of all these towns in rudner hometown in order people they know and if they see men nodding uniform who look like they could be your should be they're gonna go walk surround this person and start saying the most horrible thing york howard all these terrible things to them in a pretty women in public dressing you down if you're eighteen years old that's a pretty good marketing a change in someone's armor to exploit matches that you're probably knew she were on the street of your home town with a passers by now we you or your family this is a profoundly embarrassing moment hill for for everyone around to everyone connected with your god forbid if you have a girlfriend she's gonna think this look pretty bad for her to an end to the effect was was huge and i'm before this little group of women on the word i'm with you they would put a white feather signifying how word x. on your lapel or some were very visible in on you this was not unusual occurrence their account for people that say they were free to go outside the house sometimes because these patriotic and zealous women who were really just trying to help that's the funny part this is the society motivating patriotism all these things tried to all the right virtues but i'm gonna count from a sixteen year old boy lead to go through this and many signed up for the service dizzy was sewed deftly embarrassed unafraid and an inch and a shank and the service person laughed him out of the robot that is any looks so downtrodden eat saturated this height exaggerated is eighty exaggerated his weight and he was in at sixteen hundred hundred and ten pounds on the western front it absolutely tediously clever one at a gala colonel maginnis using it today young these ideas could backfire though the street and marketing recruitment ideas for example the government felt the need to put out symbols that people could we're poor sorry down there serve as our season had been wounded and honorably discharged or work for some really important foreign minister war related industry could be spared because apparently enough of those people were being mistakenly given the war of the white feather treatment to make an important thing for the government to do there were other created marking plans not sticks but care read some more of the another brian we think about on the surface involved the british government's going to recruit if you sign up with your pals your body's you get all serve together as a people joined up from the same street or the same pop up with the same community to or the same for charlie or the same profession they all served together in a wonderful ming caesar with military unit names of bestow mumbai major were the liverpool pap paw or the gleams beach homes in these friends all into the service you figure to get a surveillance what do with your friends thingy get to watch or friends die the part we when we consider we signed up and sammy cahn foreign magistad when these units would get decimated to some of these terrible encounters reasonably be walking down a road with your pals in the open an office and get caught by artillery fire suffer eighty percent casualties and then instead of the losses and the suffering and the grief being spread out to a diluted across the width and breadth of the entire brief giles for pre shi empire for that matter some local community or some fraternity or some profession just gets pounded our villages and towns in britain now that had these terrible days just happen to the whole community and premature family suffers a major loss on one of the other but their own side of that clever marketing plan by nineteen sixteen nothing cleverness to get enough people in uniform losses are so high that the british finally do with gibberish really don't do and they started conscript in their people it's hard to blame the british two for starting the same sort draft of the continental great power issues we have to do is reset the casualties are so high look at the body in the nineteen fifty liberty ships are for half a million casualties two hundred thousand of those are dead by the white for a traditionally naval power was traditionally rather small army buy continental standards culture huge numbers now you wanna see what continental standards look like look at the british ally the french who had a huge army in the meat grinder system for some into this whole affair money in the nineteen fifteen their casualties sir over two million more than seven hundred thousand of those are dead and all these great powers are looking at her principal enemies and trying to figure out how close they are to the throwing in the towel moment the germans are looking at the french in all the casualties they suffered in the looking in the thinking they must be close to the end of their rope the germans and suffered more casualties by the end of nineteen fifteen in the french but they're fighting on more from tried to find the french liberation the west the gigantic russian forces in the east uninvolved the balkans alot nineteen fifteen their casualties but in the nineteen fifty are over to a half million about seven hundred and fifty thousand of those are dead hard to know the germans was two hundred and fifty thousand missing in this war people got blown to bits they got covered up by in a giant mountains of earth that shells and blown up in here falling back on the ground on missing people probably between seven hundred and fifteen eight hundred thousand dead the germans it does put an award the russians have suffered titanic losses for minute won they lost a huge battle in nineteen fifteen call them gourley storm off when the soprano and uh that battle all by itself they lost a hundred and fifty thousand dead almost seven hundred thousand wounded and basically million prisoners does make the titanic losses the it's easier to understand their monthly burn raped by october nineteen fifteen the russians are losing two hundred and thirty five thousand men all martha how sustainable is the gin game you can be looking into russians thinking they're almost on a german high command candidate is now the germans can't be too happy well because their main ally the awestruck gary ins are suffering casualties better every bit as momentous as the russians but they don't have the manpower to back that i meaning one four month period in nineteen fifty one four month period the austrians suffer seven hundred fifty thousand casualties bowl that's in addition to the already astounding casualties they took him a few most right after the war started the germans several times last to prop up the austrians just to keep them able to continue in the conflict and the austrians are paying in the rear to determine how was a lot to talk i mean for eric i'm talking on the german commander in charge in january nineteen sixty he can't stand them they're always getting into some sort of disaster they then go to fall kim hyun ask for help getting out and make matters worse it's usually a disaster that phone call to nine warned them about an advanced i'll do that it'll be a disaster and they do it against his wishes and income asked we bailed out multiple times they can always play their their trump card go against on vulcan kind legitimately considering the huge casualties discovered that they can make others say was i mean you know to help us so we're not that far from drop 'em out of the war and i can guarantee will be here in the county hospital palmer it's a strategic disaster with the austrian hearings drop out of the war right the pond full cannot find as more paying attention any decent produces more worried that the russians they were german generals and what not to keep sending to focus on the russians that's how we win the war fought an end will hear about that thus more focus in the balkans although nineteen fifteen they destroyed serbia to skip that out why look at what you're about the middle east to the church is more talk about austrian her prada donna more know what you please doing he wants to focus on this maybe war winning more war losing gordian knot that used up how's all that must be solved if you or general task with winning this war it's the western front hi you deal with that and it's an unprecedented problem the others of famous german saying that may or may not have happened but it's infused this whole period we're wanting german general support of commented about how amazingly the british troops talk to him he said the airlines and the some commander with him is supposed to have said something to be effective yes lucky for us to lead by donkeys nineteen fifteen question from battles with the donkeys first get labeled with that to sort of reputation at the same time when you realize that they have no metrics for what they're doing in nineteen fifty this has never been done before nobody's ever had this kind of fire power nobody's ever put these counted defense is opening where play with all sorts in the military to always any never been tested in a situation like this how much slack the u. caught the generals and give them what is sometimes called by historians in this case a learning for you're playing with people's lives how slowly or you've got to figure things out we're going in any of the nineteen fifteen battles winston churchill is just one of many people who object to the whole idea of calling those battles in the nineteen fifteen year or nineteen sixteen year for nineteen seventeen your battles he says it's a disservice to what the name means he said the war battles in nineteen fourteen at the start of the war their bows in nineteen eighteen at the end of the war but that stuff in the middle was as c. right ho the sanguine mary prodigious struggles extending over many montserrat phyllis li described as battles judging by the number of men who took their turn in the fighting at different times by the immense quantities of god is michelle's employed by the hideous casualty totals they certainly rank take as a whole among the largest events in military history but we must not be misled by terminology is to call them battles was merely a method of presenting a general view of an otherwise confusing picture it might well pass unchallenged but an attempted been made by military commanders and buy a whole school of writers to represent these prolonged operations as events comparable to the decisive battles of the past only larger and more important to yield to the specious argument is to be drawn into a hole the wrong impression all the military science and of what actually took place in the great war and co these battles on the western front or full three years in the conflict look pretty much like this as described by historian bolger hervey to cope the fighting on the western francia taken on a deadly regularity attacker stormed enemy trenches in a way it's only to be modelo my hostile machine gun firing artillery as they tried to cut the wire entanglements protected the earth works and co here's repetitive next to the fighting on the western front bitter padded goodness that actually is associated with world war want to western front specifically it's part of the tragedy it adds to the pain because afterall if you seen the same event over and over and over again doesn't it the common different kind of tragic if you watch the first wave of those young soldiers leave the safety of their trench go over the top at the whistle other officer get mowed down by machine gun fire before they've even got ten feet that's tragic another level of tragedy when the next wave gets up right behind them to follow in their footsteps having already seen what happened to them that's what we wanted to capture in our discussions of the western front because it became an issue early on how we were gonna deal with all these battles the work roughly the same equally tragic and for the soldiers on the ground you're really similar when trying to figure out what we want a highlight the shakespeare called kept popping into my haberman was working on this witnesses lined up all the world's a stage and all the people merely players i thought to myself all the household we have here we have one of the most extreme stages in human history we've created with these western front battles in nineteen fifty nine to sixteen nineteen seventy eight hello like environment and then we forced the millions of people to act inept but some of the most extreme situations people have been put into amber in history and watching how they endured is sometimes soul crushing at other times it's absolutely life enhancing now sometimes you can benefit quite a bit from the suffering of other people as we sat down only started the series and trying to figure out a creative approach to dealing with all these battles one thing becomes very clear we did some creative experiments and you quickly find out that the battles in an emotional sense reach a point of diminishing returns very quickly you just be calm be nom de by the mall to scale the intensity of the sheerer or rustic repetitive pounding it eventually make she you stopped feeling this rather than go from bomb indecisive and writhing battle to the next indecisive a terrific out we thought we would focus on a few we would consider to be almost signature battles if you will but to provide a very similar backdrop for the poor individuals who have to live in that environment that allow us to sort of examined at a human level what's going on here a little bit as best we can and to explore some of the questions are very intriguing about the story not just about the human suffering what about command decisions and some of the technology in some other things on hopefully inertia burst when little bit of your comment about what's going on the rest of the world while this is happening and part of what makes nineteen sixteen so difficult is there's a lot of overlapping stopped to to tell him he said that she said that he said fashion it becomes very confusing very quickly the first thing that i understand now is that nineteen sixteen comes about obviously because of plans in the late nineteen fifty we'd said you earlier this was or we'll question for the general's about how use all this gordian knot that is the western front well i'm late nineteen fifteen the allied to man's got together please call chantilly and friends to deal with this question their plan was going to be to continue to pound and pound harder but the new aspect was they were gonna make sure that everybody all the different allied powers pounded the central powers germany and france at the same time they were going to coordinate their record swiss going to look nullify what the germans had been doing so far the german seven great army but they can't be every word wants luckily for them up until nineteen sixteen they warned attack every word wants to they would use something called interior lines it's a little like taking the standard square in the game of tic tac toe the germans were able to use a wonderful railway system to transfer troops from last threatens sectors to more hot spots and thereby for st allied efforts of the allied plan for knocking down german fortifications in nineteen sixteen sutter all going to attack it basically the same time frustrating the germans ability to move troops to hot spots the germans had a different plan entirely you see the people at chantilly in nineteen fifteen get together and decide what type in terms for multiple delegation to the same time are still for the most part invasion in the classic military and to this war they see the chances increased by attacking a multiple locations that you're going to crack the germans somewhere and when you crack i'm your guy messenger forces through the breach mucus in the cavalry troop and now the germans are gonna break in the a b. on ron and rod for berlin in a that's how these things and the minds of people having to read especially the old-fashioned view of war there are dissidents to this idea who say even on the allied side you got or wrong it's not gonna happen that way the technology the specific circumstances the fact there are no flying some western front you're dreaming the treasure dreaming your plans are gonna work right on the genocide the people who have decided to do that that old fashioned viewpoint is just that old-fashioned happen to be in positions of higher restore even the descending generals on the other side they've looked at the way the wars going on figured out that the casualties are the difference maker and all these countries are suffering because of the numbers of people that are dying you need to increase the numbers of people were dying not only does it become hard to replace 'em but which he huge stresses and strains and the society's they're losing these people their families their governments bomb some of these societies are fragile enough to simply no fall apart white house apart others could have the entire population turn omega vermin to say we know we've had enough that becomes the best path to end the war in the minds of some of these generals a guy like the leader in germany erich von flopping on is looking at what these nineteen fifteen battles taught him and they taught him the modern warfare on the western front turns into a meat grinder no matter what you do he comes up with a brilliant idea again most historians still think of some people say it's been a shooting in their own pinning the bull's eye around adaptor which becomes a bloody brilliant idea that these meat grinder sir happening no matter what it does i'm about to be like with the design the battle to be like a meek lying there what you create amy grinder and then enticed the enemy to come into it if that's what's so effective on the battlefield what if you play and grind to meet instead of having it be a by product of other activities implants and talk annihilate nineteen fifteen to terms of the french are already in on your dear breaking point in terms of the casualties they've suffered any goes to the rest of the military committee start talking about what you'd like to do in nineteen sixteen to try to win the war he wants to set a trap the french army the idea is to create one of these you know modern twentieth century attrition amplifiers worthy sneak grinders and in lower the french army into what that we need bait and the determination of whether this awful battle's going to happen is dependent on what side can be chosen i would best play the role of bait and i should point at this story in two different countries disagree on those americans and british historians often point out that the site chosen has no real military value when all it was soul he chose because it's the perfect emotional bait to lure the french army into the meat grinder german and french is stirrings go off and assert that the site could have military importance in the bad indeed create real military need to do with the french and get one alas the german plan is to use all the search hillary first to pulverize the defenses around this important side that the french you have an emotional and political everything else attachment to you below the french off of the skills that overlooked the c. d. e. the c. d. called for don and in four five the hills bring your gums up their start shooting at the city of bird on it and wait for the french army to show up and try not to eurostat hills and knowing the superiority of preparing defense is the french are just going to bash themselves up against your barbed wire your trench usury sheen guns your cane and everything else in the place that was specifically designed to be a killing field to thoroughly attrition old bloodied twentieth century way we can get warfare but it's not a bad idea it also should be no surprise the battle that was designed to act like a meat grinder turns into one of the most horrible battle of bull tom even the name when i hear it for don it's like stalingrad really isn't one of those names which is conjures up a specific he may june and and level of horror that puts it in a special place in military history no it is soar like it he said you where is the worst place in the world ever be in military history to tie between a million different spots right mankind's have long enough past so that there are recurring examples of horrific places to end up on any given day we like to cite the famous bob between the romans macarthur genius thousands of years ago kenny world romans were surrounded and trapped and killed over the whole war game it's terrible but probably about as bad as a lot of other terrible situation to tears if you were you just okay that's as bad as the battle of kenny's sort of been an artillery mean for don is like nothing that has ever happened really all large-scale no surer gain name tags along history everything's camus tried nothing's new under the sun is the survey rubber donna special burden is so special in fact and so different and so outside the box for that thinking of the time period that windfall denying comes up with the idea that he's going to bleed france white his words it's so runs against the grain of the nineteenth century sort of morality of warfare remember we started this war i'm your year and half ago wearing white gloves with people the tools when they were in school together at the thought of this in almost especially on the western front golan kind of sense right to seek strange sort who surrendered all the stuff now we're generals thinking okay how can i lured millions of men into a confined space and just how old they mean to mama why it took hold one french soldiers way of explaining what happened what the things i love by the way about this period despite the hubbub about the second reward is that we have a lot of the actual words of the general's themselves they all rogue memoirs as we said after the war most of the time trying to defend their reputation against the critics 'cause after this war everyone's point fingers at everybody no because it was so terrible people show angry and and so on man it generals amongst other people that they were looking to blame but all in general rate pieces defending their ideas we have fought can ask me of loot bore free of all these guys members may you can take them knew what they smell you remember that trying to stake out a historical position here in defense of our own historical reputation nonetheless balkan eyeing him in either love fall banner hated me as fancy as his detractors i'm on his fans like i like the way his mind works no way he writes in his book or he's in britain right after the war were you trying to explain speaking on this he runs down in logical fashion you where he sees the war in nineteen fifty it's not that bad for the central power sugar water people that will say after the germans failed with an initial knockout blow in nineteen fourteen of those all hearts all downhill from him unnecessarily nineteen fifty was a good year for the central powers will have some other attempts were the almost when the war later in the war so this is like as we've said all along heavyweight fight and there are times when both sides have the other side in trouble quick look at fault announcement moore show that he takes france is in trouble but it's not that far from the breaking point is with all the right about his thinking leading up to his planning for this battle that he's most known for a burden on top and i'm right quote as i've already assisted the strain on france is almost reached the breaking point but we certainly born with the most remarkable devotion if we succeeded in opening the eyes of her people to the fact that in the military sense they have nothing more i hope for that breaking point would be reached and england's best sword knocked out of her hand to achieve that object the uncertain method of amass breakthrough in any case beyond our means is unnecessary we can probably do enough for our purposes with limited resources within our reach behind the french sector of the western front their objectives for the retention of which the french general staff would be compelled to throw in every man may have if they do so the forces of france would bleed to death that there can be no question of a voluntary withdrawal whether we reach our goal or not unequal british military historian auntie can put it this way cool falk n. r. a.'s plan was brutally simple french force to fight in a crucial buddy narrowly constructed colorado western front would be compelled to feed reinforcements into a battle of attrition with material circumstances so favored the germans the defeat was inevitable that the french gave up the struggle they would lose for don they persisted they would lose their army and court this plan of balkan hein was given the sinister sounding name of operation to read justine translated multiple differ wage usually it's called operation judgment which implies so the banality of it is the high hope of fog i'm going into this campaign right maybe does one decide the war another translation you sometimes run into his court of justice since over the idea of the decision point a third translation of the two sometimes run into is more indicative of the tactics that approach could fall behind in the take to win this battle it's operation place of execution and while at the kaiser and fall guy all the cameras are coming up with his plane in late nineteen fifteen the allies beyond taunt forces are doing the same thank the hour is our little bit lackadaisical about the whole thing at the russians not the people of the balkans they've been feeling german attacks over the last year but the british and french oh haven't seen the german army on the offenses as way back in nineteen forty they're kind of leisure lee planning what they think we're probably be their war winning giant offensive slated for late spring early summer nineteen sixteen over on the river song in enormous joint british and french effort with them on some planning and and just sweeping everything in front of them by kenneth in rosy outlook and the germans in his stead in late february nineteen sixteen go on the offensive on the western front for the first time in more than during catch everyone off guard it's ridiculous that they could the amount of effort that was required to put together modern offensive is something we modern people take for granted but when you hear how much planning and stockpiling and engineering feats are required to pull off something like the battle of burned down you begin to see why it was so different than anything these people would ever known in the past we said a hundred years before napoleonic battle was considered extraordinary to win on for three days throughout most of human history battles take hours these battles that these allied and central power planners are conducting require months of preparation they'll go on for months to you how you get enough stop there to make sure your soldiers don't starve or run out of ammunition wow for the battle over don it was more than seven weeks of actual on loading supplies is the way writer g. j. meyer describes planning and stockpiling for the february nineteen sixteen babcock the germans me why were accomplishing prodigious feat in getting everything in place helped by the hilly would the countryside and the cloudy winter weather recovered on the region they were doing an astonishingly good job of keeping the french from learning what they intended to do or when or even exactly where no fewer than five new railway lines were constructed across the german help portion of the plateau be three to the east of the burden hills in a seven week period between late december early february thirteen hundred trains not railway cars by the entire twain's hauled in two point five million shells are through moving equipment construction machinery and everything required to prepare the offensive and support three hundred thousand troops in winter or can you rolling up your bird on the guns were positioned in the woods in covered with camel flocked to the new development in warfare made necessary by aerial reconnaissance underground chambers capable of holding as many as five hundred men each were estimated opposite the french lions and lined with steel and concrete in the sky above all this was the greatest concentration aircraft yet seen on any flight one hundred and fifty aircraft the german umbrella so impenetrable that even on the rare days when visibility was good the french pilots were unable to get a close look at what was happening the second week of february everything was in place for an offensive with the potential to change the course of the war end quote the german plan was complicated and complicated because this was one of the great defensive spots in french history for don was just a fortress of the support persona multiple for persons all working together grounded men fought over since the days of julius caesar in the romans fortifications that'd been upgraded even as recently as nineteen forty one the lessons of what happened to those belgian for toward corp waited and um the war started the french high command decided that for purses were old-fashioned due to the limits of new technology rather the lack of limits they decided that those belgian fort being pounded by that artillery signaled that these porch were nothing but death trap and would be better to take the weapons on them in the troops that man and then put them to where the hot spots were in the fighting after all if france is a life or death struggle would we put one hundred thousand more troops and never donn region to man a bunch of fortresses better just been a trap bubbling getting killed by artillery let's put a withering he did all he had made sure they bring the guns of the ammunition and everything else so they did it divers relatively relatively quiet sector in nineteen sixteen before the big german build up alicia can hide preparations as extensive as the german preparations for ever the french become aware of the couple weeks before the germans launch their attack on quickly trying to make up for lost ground against off in a tv series because they consent to build up in the germans are wanting a bomb distracting attacks elsewhere to sort of confused afraid to worry everything's coming from an unfair to worry twenty first after couple postponements due to bad weather the storm breaks it kicked off by a giant me hold on whose nickname by the way as long max just like meaning swords can mean the guns to apparently and long max fires a shell the troubles somewhere between fifteen and twenty miles these are enormous weapons and on that becomes the first shall to drop as part of the giant karate kicks off the bat lumber down and right after long max's barrage kicks off all these enormous weapon is open up seat it's not just between twelve hundred fifteen hundred gallons into half of the martian picture to all those guns the powder the fortune belgium the giant four hundred and twenty millimeter gamma mortars yeah the three hundred and eighty millimeters go to pieces from austria and have more of each of them and have an enormous number of two would earn ten millimeters in one seventies one fifty five turning my goodness and they open up all at once and began pounding this relatively small area of the fraud what makes this so incredibly damaging used to have these huge weapons pounding this top relatively tiny area on a map and you've fire an enormous number shells by any standard the first world war a short period of time so if you're on the ground at some of those nineteen fifteen battles and they're firing one point seven million shells but in doing it over to with three or four weeks the intensity on the grounds very different than if they're firing two million shells in six days over tiny area one little wood on the battlefield thousand yards by five hundred yards took the owls and shelves in the first week was that look like there's no human reference for this mantra picture close my eyes i'd try to picture forests disappearing in front of my eyes this is heavily wooded forested hilly terrain bird on and right after the bombard many of twenty four additional force last i've watched forced the logged over weeks and months and it still appalling to wake up and more force does go on with you got to watch the entire thing churned up in front of the matter of hours like a giant celeste you weed wacker the chuan up grass the recounts that say you do you have supper shelling is so intense that it the giant tree would get blown up in the year before claims on the ground in another shell hit it goes right back up in here a veteran said that the battlefield quickly look like an asparagus farley jain shoots shooting up all over the soiled underwear which of the tree stumps and would everywhere needless to say to me this is something i would have to have some sort of video want to imagine our city least one or tsunami looked like an dom now of course we have video that unimaginable what are we see on our it's something anyone who wants to see it can go look upon you to do something that was a very rare sight to natural phenomenon are man-made phenomenon for people to seek shelling is the same why am i wait there's a lot of your accounts and you might imagine of the first day shelling at the battle of britain and um that's in english and i'm sure there must be more german and french but it's important point out that there aren't a lot of people that probably survive the war intact after those battles and want to do probably not all that excited to relive the experience we do have some things though even though it's forty years old ouster horns to price of gloria arm has some of the best accounts in english off what was like on the ground when the shelling started tells no story of a corporal who is with his body isn't there just grinding some coffee when the for she'll start dropping he writes quote suddenly the whole world seem to disintegrate around him with a conditioned alacrity old soldiers the two men with the coffee grinder disappeared below ground cursing and unprintable french why couldn't the bastards way to live finished my copy the air in the bois de carre that little forged a period in our seems solid with whirling material to corporal stuff ain't it was as if it were swept by a quote storm by hurricane attempt is to growing ever stronger where was ringing nothing but paving stones and cool own continues called upon the terrible dean of the explosions were superimposed the splintering crashes of rending lloyd as the great two hundred and ten millimeter shells lopped off branches or operated the trees themselves barely had the tree trunks all woman they were spewed up into the air again by thresher options for ms own position still relatively immune to the shelling the plane watched it methodical progress with a certain mccombs as a nation was like a garden hose he thought and co and he describes how the shells would move like away from one location to another pounding everything in between and then methodically go back in the direction it just came from is the woods continually mall wing the same piece of ground over and over again it shows you what the plan had been before the shelling started to make sure every inch of ground was copper german aircraft are flying over the battlefield having knocked the french air force allred this chaotic our spotting for their guns and keeping the french planes from locating the german got to the french guns could shoot them this leads to a very one sided initial encounter restoring portion koski compares the initial bombardment here to the nineteen fifteen bottle of champagne which at the time seemed a momentous week titanic thousand year ago now a year later it seems like cianci ange compared to what the first thing you'd for donna sort per se je chen koski right quote it was partly because of such air cover partly because it enjoyed such free rein that morning that the german shelling could exceed in intensity anything the french or anyone else had every door to this was the bottle of champagne multiply ten times over but with the difference in kind as well the german artillery schoolboy getting entire zones with their shells they directed their fire or not merely on to positions they wish to take we're on to lawyers they wish to obliterate but into all that nature had grown and that man had erected is while making up the indian city for what they lack in precision they may saturated successive zones within a twenty five mile are between havoc or on the left bank and attain a rape they didn't use with a million high explosive shells of the heavy is caliber known him and two hundred eighty three hundred and five three hundred maybe even four hundred and twenty millimeters wide them with lesser shells bearing toxic gases is while the method rather than rage the system of the power hammer or rather than the obstinacy of the battering ram rolled the destruction the morbid calculus per se to the carpet bombing and later wars but what worries entire city is any guide entire landscapes but for now the thought was purely tactical to devastate so that the infantry could pimple trait in the co now as gentile ski says the difference in the search your garage is not just in the amount of stuff but the way they do it and they are employing every little trick that they've learned in the last year your half of warfare including the one that they probably think was a clever and spend on to the baryshnikov trust of the another example of devious knows only german part of the german star to shut your garage in little after seven morning and a pound these french positions all morning and into the lunchtime our enemy stop at midday the stop on cue all wants not even to the punch drunk french survivors on the receiving end of the were structurally barrage in human history know what this means that always means the same crank it means good german round trip to come in an offensive that's why you stopped shooting so if you don't blow your own up now the drama why right to the french run up to their positions they may and there are defensive stocks the young coverage as they got hit me get ready to push back the german assault now that it's coming except it isn't coming it's a trick and all the sudden organs open up again and start smashing the now exposed french are by virtue shall those planes up in the air among other observers only add that guy's rebuttal there's a machine gun as we can see was an intermission to get the french to expose themselves and the shelling goes for the rest of the day until the late afternoon so from some sometime in the morning before something in the afternoon and in the french survivors shiva for signs of german infantry activity approaching what do you see looks like something out of the time machine from the head layering interact gone are the iconic ago how about the polluted helmets with the german troops were not harken back to the greatness of prussia in europe at the height of its nineteen centuries old colonial dominant it it's symbolic image been replaced was something that looks like a minor should wear it they're really working class nothing romantic gentlemanly officer or aristocratic about it these tip of disappear troops here are wearing the german stahl i'll which was a minor modification or two is the exact same helmet the german troops will wear in the second world war he's storm troopers are called on have been known to his street look like a fair mocked and they're carrying flame throwers come on all other nasty surprises for anyone they might run into that machine guns with them they got men were wearing clothes that have been bags was part of the war they can stop hand grenades 'cause she just can't carry enough hang grinning selenium they've even got in this notion issue with the thing to rub against malay weapons with them and her famous all the storm trip to get mr famous for the clubs they carry were the hatch into the long knives or even things like brass knuckles and stuff these are people who expect to get into physical combat and very close range they're using what at the time seemed like military newfangled very modern techniques on the battlefield enormous infiltration tactics they pretty much on the same small unit tactics every military the world uses today they've been in development for awhile to it's a myth to suggest that the first time anybody seasons with the storm troops but the storm troops on the first to integrate everything into their system here not only have the means he's infiltration tactic but look at the weapons that they've arm themselves within the train with all those other resnick integrated all the various ideas and theories from all the military around the world last fifteen years and are the first to put these troops on the field whose job it is to look for weak spots in a coma field when they run into in a significant opposition the stopper mover rounded and places where everyone's been killed by the artillery barrage babe hundred through there their goal is to capture baked remember this is a trap but she is in the trap has to be captured by the germans before to play the role of cheese that's what this is all about that is if you believe that the standard historical approach is quite a few historian to believe this whole idea of what street this week writer is b. s. propaganda at the time and dom you know mia culpa avoid these later on right mom if you believe that there and try to capture be to try to capture forgotten either way the pointed this initial attack is to get the heights the problem is the germans find out you would agree exactly with the french and british unfathomable whole year before which is that no matter how good the artillery barrage there are just two units that survived then when the strike back at you it's amazing and the casualties mount up unbelievably fast on the very first day as the german troops pour into an area then begin to call lessons from austria's minute and a specific area french artillery opens up on them and this is an account by a french staff officer with the artillery who first describes what the german artillery attack on his positions is like and then describes responding in kind his was one of the few batteries looted by the way he writes quote thousands of projectiles are flying in all directions so whistling others howling others moaning law one all uniting into one infernal roar from time to time in a real torpedo passes making a noise like a giant motor car with a tremendous body a giant shell burst quite close to or observation post breaking the telephone wire and inner rubbing all communication with our batteries a man gets out at once for repairs crawling along his stomach for all this place a bursting mines and shells it seems quite impossible he writes that he should escape the rained shells which exceeds anything imaginable there's never been such a bombardment in war our man seems to be enveloped in explosions and shelters himself from time to time in the shell craters which honeycomb the ground finally he reaches the west stormy spot manages wires and then as it would be madness to try to return settled down in the big crater and wait for the storm to paths now he looks up currencies the germans saw approaching quote the yard in the valley the dark masses are moving over the snow covered ground is german infantry advancing impact formation along the valley to the attack they look like a big gray carpet being on rolled over the country we telephone through to the batteries and the ball begins the site is hellish in the distance in the valley and upon the slopes regimen spread out and as they deployed fresh troops come pouring in there's a whistle over our heads it's hour for shell it falls right in the middle of the enemy in country we telephone through telling our batteries of their heads and a delusion heavy shales is poured on the enemy their position becomes critical through glasses we can see men mad need many covered with earth and blog fall in one upon the other the first wave of the assault is decimated the ground is dotted with heaps of corpses but the second wave is already personal and once more shells core bosco gaps in their wax nevertheless like an army of lacks the bushes continue to advance in spite of our more mites term the french and the angels he says quote them are heavy artillery burst forth in fury the whole valley is turned into a volcano and it's exit is stopped by the barrier of the slain and crew that's a foretaste of what's to come home right there the germans have to be on the offensive for little while in this bottle of battle that is probably built upon the presumption that the defense has its huge daily johnny our friends the search hillary was meant to make up for some of them but the germans are taking higher than expected losses for a minute warm this is a problem jupiter member regardless of which historical school you would hear to one the point of this battle it was always part of the planet to loses few people as possible so the germans are concerned with losses and for the reason they're suffering so many is the french are resisting a hero wittily on these first few days every unit to surrender their units there just gotten up from the artillery barrage buttery units including really want but also rather pedestrian was sitting there and dying to the last man to delay this germany dante's infiltration true for looking for places to push through the find a couple but they find a bunch with these decimated defenders resisting heroically to buy the country time to get fresh troops reinforcing that area to that area for donizetti supplied on the french side by want little teeny road the german to build multiple railway lines and their side to supply the battlefield right so as french reinforcements are coming out these heroic offenders are holding the germans off as long as they can there are more big bombardment the germans push more troops in with more tenacity on baby were each wanting it the germans in almost indiana like jones movie kind of drama hampshire in the big fortune this region the shore of overlooks the whole battlefield we told you that the french i commanded the kind of lost interest in force at the germans splash the ones in belgium smash the early ones of france but they still had people in them and we're still gonna cinnamon slowly but surely they were starting to realize that sometimes in some places they were worth having the matter the troops were in this ford which is mostly below ground when a german soldier gets blown me into it somehow due to a shell exploded nearby lansdowne the ground has a pistol with them and eventually will lead to some friends good-bye large is walking around this underground giant fort and as he opens doors into rooms is a couple of french soldiers plane carter would ever need captures the moon walk some inner room and he does this all over and over overeating and finally has everybody can i captured nobody dies on either side in this major feature in the early part of the battle falls to the germans that one of those situations that sort of wasps the french growl and they start to fall apart they've been through eight hundred and now all is this crisis moment we're also and it looks like the germans are gonna break through in the french are just gonna fall apart before your reinforcement can stiffen line this is when things get really waiting in this battle by the way he gets right down to what the hell the pointed ears if you're talkin' are aimed at restoring to think he's trying the creator meat grinder fall that's true you don't want a breakthrough you don't want for don it's not really what you want it to that she's in your trap if you take it then you're just gonna get counterattacking girls wanna troops again and then that's nineteen fifteen all over you would we do differently right if you from the other school of thought though the idea breaking through ter bird on at this point is to muriel be achieved what the whole battle was designed to deal unexpectedly quickly the crown princes commending his army to the excited and there's all sorts of messages with is a hot will take it mean did expected as fast but will take it and then they get within two miles of the city one point and then the french horn new commander in charge a guy who will be famous by the way in both world wars for different reasons the guy named baton and the time that comes you know it's so hard to to separate the myth from the mainland with with his connection to for don but at the narrative is that the time he gets in there and changes the french will raul by himself practically there's all these nino general trouble with the wrong press corps so there's gonna be disguised could have been to people help and dumped upon optimist but he's famous for coming to the battlefield and knowing the situations with the french just been desperate you know looking intriguing going now we have come in we are right where we wanna mckenna thing and you know it's the nineteenth century mentality but that seems to work the famously says or somebody says foreman any stains behind it they shall not pass and is that comes to be nearer to the burden and it turns into like a french there ma bleak but the french are gonna died last may and they're gonna we in the andrei dig in part this does overriding narrative now morale is cannibal hard to quantify sort of thing hard to measure hard to look back in history prove anything he'll have to prove the real world terra firma things that attended the cancer artillery guy is a defense of specialist in the first thing he does is bringing his own are touring consolidated and ask for more slowly but surely begins to build up his own meat grinder or to complain that game and baton start stocking up the french side with artillery to and all those artillery tarzan this entire area into the moon but we're juror the shell holes in your head you think of something symmetrical like a meteorite crater that doesn't happen that way because you get the shell holes which can be thirty feet deep with absolutely straight up and down edges but then they get it with another shell some weird ngor up on a gin and be be within the one in another one and another one picture it he did super weird formations it still looks weird today take a look of modern pictures of the verdun battlefield it looks totally alien that creates a battlefield is a painting by impressionable roulette and as mean call hell and shows a couple of french soldiers in one of these creatures and dead body near them and they're wearing gas masks and the barrages going on in giant chambers are part of this enormous crater in craters everywhere in the distances for she look we said this is like making war wars the nice craters in the grosses thank you could imagine me really just awful they fill with water very quickly everyone of them practically with a dead body or two in them they fill with water this town's a trash tom's us stuff 'em all kinds of 'em under mostly uses latrines a typical smith we get to them the water is added and horrible and greasy from the bloated bodies the floor in it and it interesting in a poisonous because the gaskets used on the battlefield i know it's tempting to think of it as vapor but it's really almost a solid where women dashiell exploded carver's at the entire perry would like to holland white coating and upon my coating is deadly so it's like putting insecticide on a given area to keep you out for juan eventually the rain will comment is all about but to dissolve ron off just goes and all the shell holes that are filled with water and makes them just poison as the ruby writers will talk about how it first and in the spring the burden balcony try to recover little its life in the receivable green shoots pop up for a minute before the poisonous air and soil and water and everything just chill the right why it's a giant burnt out insecticides on it that's what for don ears and indeed the landscape itself is horrifying to a degree that hard to describe english you wanna say the d. a. c. p. is mordor this is jay are our tokens conception of the dark ally at him he was in the first world war he got from there the match is perfect don't you want to search every been going for not even that long at this levels of intensity you have around ji won this battle field and we talked about speech at all the people merely players will look at this stage these people are playing on your very shortly in the battle to lunar landscape it's damone okay and these trenches are places where people meet there and very often in lots of stories about soldiers with a heavy packs in the night losing their way to fall in the kinda want these terrible craters and just round the war stories are these people the hear stories by people drinking kneeling down and twin thing out of these green colored poisonous water food bodies floating in it because the water isn't making it up to defraud the people whose job it is to bring food water to the people on the friday at a meat grinder are getting killed trying to bring it up is a terrible battle it's the battles of nineteen fifteen take him to the next level which is what this war's gonna be about every time the world thinks they've come to the limits of the rangers shortly this is the worst battle there will ever be the standard gets off again and this happens continually it's a pressure cooker it who's gonna break first and nina you thought last year was bad welcome to the next year come on next year's deadlier all the scale is more and perhaps on sustained oblique titanic the pattern is a forgery for the troops on the ground or with ugly familiar about a week into the assault the german attack occurred on stalls just like all these other battles we've seen in a lot more we will see the initial assault is the most tense nail biting openly erica time once it stopped there may be ebbs and flows as scary moments by and large we had descended into what church will call dc prolonged operations are extended operations we're now into combat and for the troops on the ground it's the most horrifying in farmer we wanna study the idea what human beings can do it seems to me you wanna see them in some of the most economists eat just like a product testing you want to put in the most extreme stress is he a behaves look at what bird on the commas over the next many marks for the people on the ground glass to live this how are they endure and when you hear the stories from this place and mean star with the approach march the french as we said to spend a lot of trouble to rotate their troops are not as bad as they get worn down like a pencil with a pencil sharpening she asked that rotate them when the soldiers approach burden they can see it all long way away and they got news of the opening garage were said to be on a bolt hundred miles away so when they're approaching for john it looks like a giant forest fire in the distance one french soldier on the way to ip said that it reminded him quote a gigantic forged it ceased neither day or night and co is the fires of mordor like i said and also the air becomes smoky in a hazy and you don't see the sun clearly anymore at all the vegetation disappears war or is said the only color in the landscape after want is this just overturned dirt and bodies and debris and average churned up concrete it's a hellish environment but there is a smear of raid you're in there with the horses and dispense bladder by artillery and i mentioned that it sounds like hell can't we mentioned earlier all hard it was to get food and water to the troops fighting at the front lawn but he was hard to get anything to the troops fighting at the front line for example to get new troops to the front line could kill off half your troops in his book the price of glory allister horne home takes a couple of different towns and put them together in court a few people who were there about what was like simply trying to get to the front of the meat grinder ever gonna match is suffering enough for your fifty percent casualties trying to get to the meat grinder here's what he writes mom corp come on alert to from the front line troops entered the first communication trenches but call them this was generally both an exaggeration and anachronism heritage gradually grew low or lower until the trench became little deeper than roadside ditch shells now began to fall with increasing regularity among closely packed man in the darkness he says for obvious reasons approach marchers were using may ignite the columns trampled over the howling wounded that lay underfoot suddenly the trench became nothing more than a track hardly traced out amid the shell holes in the minded which the shelling it now turn to a consistency of sticky border troops stumbled and fell repeatedly cursing in low wonder tones as if you're full of being overheard by the enemy relentlessly pursued them with the shells at every step sometimes they were dark boards around the lips of the huge shell craters but more often they were not and heavily laden man falling into the water fill the holes remained there until they drowned on able to crawl up the greasy sides have a comrade paused to lend a hand he writes it often meant that you would drown instead of going in the chaos of the battlefield were all reference points of long since been obliterated relieving detachment often got lost and wandered hopelessly all might already be massacred by an enemy machine gunners don't betray them it was not unusual for leaves two weeks the front line with only half the numbers that set out nor for this nightmare approach march the last ten hours are longer and quote seems to me maybe i can speak for some of my generation if i just spent ten hours struggling through that and lost half our people want doing so just so i got to take my turn on the front lines on going to be severely de stabilize let's put that what is the good will describe it and even though these french in italy rotated maybe only spend five or six or seven days up the front in that was designed to keep them from just being decimated and being shattered but judging from some of the witness accounts well you did more cruel gracious tory junkie in calais junkie in our ranks with them the french officer named august in cochin spend from the ninth to the fourteenth of april on one of these are importing hills anti gay rights corners officer quote the last two days so can i see my duck and a terrible bombardment without any shelter rather than the narrowness of the trench i should not attack naturally whipping too stupid result i arrive there were the hundred seventy five minute i returned with thirty four several half man and not replying anymore when i spoke to them and a crook a french lieutenant described watching a unit his own you know actually coming down and back from per down after being relieved and he says quote first came the skeletons of companies occasionally led by wounded officer leaning on a stick all marched or rather advanced in small steps zigzagging is it intoxicated it was hard to tell the color of their faces from that appear to nick's mind had covered everything dried off and then another layer had been re applied they said nothing the the lost the strength to complain it seemed as if these mute faces were crying something terrible the unbelievable horror of their martyrdom some territorial two were standing near me became pensive they had an arab sadness that comes over one of the funeral passes by and i overheard one say it's no longer run army bowser corpses two of the territorial swept in silence like women and co so what's going on in those guys that they go again one way they come also shattered and sometimes it only takes a couple of days to go from one reality to the other that's where in these first hand accounts from these people are so moving first of all from the perspective of these men on the ground everything seems so pointless 'cause they only know this little world this big battle field there were operating on a perfect example is how old you know these generals were now fighting over the same train features over and over and over marthe after mom doctor mckay take him in the near retaken the taken again under all fighting over the same carnage stained ground over over again and develop names in a war these hills is hill three or four becomes a famous hill with a lot of people paying with their lives to take in retaking again is another one known as the dead man or dead man's heels and were translated that's another one these hills on i mean they've had the tops blasted all often by both sides are tillery there smoking like volcanoes pretty much all times were told to the dual mount doom to wanna keep warm mordor analogy going up and where the unit who read takes a position on for example what those long for over train features then you have that around you i mean for example on in passing him how supreme court to read talks about soldiers having to retake this ground there nothing more than to open cemeteries combined with a butcher shops and he writes quote on the ground at soldiering writer jacques meyer describes the real frightful knows what he noted court everywhere they were disbanded bodies picture feet sank into the stench of death hung over the jumble of decaying corpses like some hellish perfume end quote passing and continues called when the germans' captured health rio for inmate what the first the mayors of the assault troops was for a double ration of tobacco to mask the overwhelming reek of corpses running around them like jack meyer othello french soldier road at this time that quote quote ms french soldier now we all have honest the stench of dead bodies the bread we ate the stagnant water we drank everything we touched our rotten smell owing to the that you're around this was literally stuffed with corpses and co howdy in allusion mind french barrow maker and corporal lee bartow ski arrives at the famous hill for real for one point in istanbul and looks up and contemplates this piece of ground that is because so many people on both sides their earthly existence he writes quote i looked out upon this famous nameless hale our trench lay at the foot of it for several months the helwig been disputed does at and diamond mines on its lumps last call it contained now with thousands of shredded pulverized corpses nothing distinguished from neighboring hills it seemed a good part rewarded at one time but no trace of vegetation remained can boast overturned earth offered nothing bespectacled devastation and co now eventually in for reasons that will get into him in it the situation changes had forgotten the germans go from essentially is sullivan off fences position to woody fences want as they transfer forces to another part of their front for something else that's going on taking your attention as so the french use this as an opportunity to retake ground and now we get the same time the battles we had when the germans were moving forward in the support now that the french are now the germans are taken by shudder artillery ways now the french have your chili dominance and now the germans get to experience what the french experience on the other side any known nine or ten monson did this battle we have human beings living on the edge of what human beings can tolerate as an extended apparel quote from the same guy a german soldier who he is in one of these forts in these boards they're all over the series of four or five is only observer force covering one other rwanda most terrible battles happen over the sports and beer batter down to the pitcher shells of what they were but they could still hold hundreds of men protect them from shrapnel so often taj with tongs minis underground blown up for to applaud everywhere and everything else and here's the way the environment is described by this german soldier quote his name is private william harmon's by the way of the sixty seventh infantry regiment and i get this from peter hart book great war he said quote the entrance was a mere hole in the scarred battlefield the silhouettes of towering men constantly crawling in around look like huge camps in the dark i descended and iron ladder some forty feet into the concrete cavern it was an enormous place crowded with many hundreds of soldiers some light on bonk sleeping snoring and moaning some uncluttered the passages between the box chatting writing letters other sacked or knelt in corners packing iran packing their belongings your flashlight derek handle match or cigarette dotted the dark with flickering islands of light continually shifting in brightness from this subterranean stronghold a small patch of sky could be seen when one stood close to the iron ladder were looked through the shaft which contained the ventilator fans the courage of warm stay away or for forty feet beneath brought to my nostrils the sickening smell of first aid medications everyone of the chicken wire births were filled with mutilated money to warn in both followed uniforms the dismal site there was a mammoth closed our eyes the blood soaked bandage around his head another beside him like twisting in pain i saw some lice ridden man would scratch their bandages off to use the hitching the passages between the bonds were crowded there must've been a thousand men their summit been relieved but could not withdraw to the rear and some would come to relieve the others could not proceed to the front lines all were imprisoned deep within the concrete and rock entrails and co now that's a scene of telepathy could've happened a lot wars what happens next in that underground environment that the soldiers writing from is something federal large-scale between great powers only happened in this war he says quote i heard the cry a poison gas but i saw people around me putting on their gas masks i just did mine which still hung over my shoulder there it was the yellow which gas glimmering near the iron ladder the gas bomb must've been thrown into the internship at the cried gas masks on electrified the whole shelter or soldiers ran to get their masks which they've hung on the walls in the corners were laid on their packs many who would lost theirs on the battlefield began to call the wounded in the bonds tried to climb into the upper births while beneath the gas crept forward along its way extinguishing one candle after another soon many were dying in the bronx and floors were filled with bodies over which the living stepan stumbled in search of a or the alarm surge like away from bonn to bonk bore long it reached up for this man hundred yards away the benigno so great but i saw badly wounded men throw themselves on the floor as though they wanted to drink in the gaps while others tore the masks from a neighbor spaces somehow reddish home wheezing from their mouths and co i wish for lamar myself or more talking about these big grand battles that what this really is is a million stories like that the pain of that incident magnified over the entire scope of the war and while i'm sure there's some people for harder than i am in terms of the assigned that's life and that's what histories filled with all those kinds of things it's hard not to sit there and she was sensible all i think for the people who were face to the s. and that any so the patriotic in a glorification born in yells as i said just sort of the unexpectedly strong limits of human endurance how did they sustain this effort how did they when told they had to advancing into this or just not run away at top speed how'd they do it and let the knowledge that not all of them to there were a lot of people shot in this war for running away but the large majority of them did not in use today uncle had been a rebel how did that revolt will we do today disagree quote from our f. scott fitzgerald novel it's fictional put words into the mouth of a man who showing one of these nineteen sixteen battlefields to his compatriots the touring the battlefield me as a discussion with him he tries to explain to them the almost super that was required to bring up the generation of people who could do this in other words it's matches yours truly wondering how people sustain this effort even right after the war people were trying to figure out how people could do this and here's the section from the escapades gerald mobile we're fitzgerald character explain to the point in the distance to a little body of water runs a school to see that little stream we could walk to within two minutes it took the british amount to walk to what the whole empire walking very slowly dying in front and pushing forward by heart and then another empire walk very slowly backward a few inches a day even the dead like emily and bloody rugs no europeans will ever do that again in this generation on the other characters as why they've only just quit over in turkey and in morocco to respond school that's different this western front business could be donegan not for long time young men think they could do it but they couldn't they could find the first morning tea and but not this this took a religion here is a plenty and tremendous surety is the exact relation that existed between the classes the russians italians were good on this front you had to have a whole sold sentimental equipment going back further than you could remember he had to remember christmas and postcards of the crown prince and speed on say a little cafes and balance and your gardens in winter day in london at weddings at them read and going to the derby in your grandfather's whiskers general grant invented this kind about what petersburg in sixty five came the reply meaning general grant admissible warning to sixty five the main character says quote no we didn't he just invented mass butchery this kind of battle was invented by lewis carroll and jules verne and whoever wrote on dine the country deacons bowling and mary ann's inmarsat a girls seduced in the back lanes of bird the bird and the stadium why this was a long battle it was a century middle class lot spent here and co a century of middle class love spent here that is found and that's how the generation that lived through this warsaw pact so basically fitzgerald's into that question of how to these people into war is that she had to have grown up away they didn't with the same cultural influences in expectations including societal in class based ones in the hadn't seen the world the way they did have a similar concepts of in a duty and expectations and even manhood when you have to have in some ways same allusions to because in her new circumstances having allusions could help you carry out military operations that people who were more cynical unrealistic would never do and when you think about the interest to mean it's so are all the focus on my were thick war side of this but the simple he'll life part of this is sometimes what pushes people over the edge hill you hear stories sometimes we're they will say well they were able to adapt to the shelling they just couldn't handle the rats or something something gets to them sometimes on the bottom beyond what schumann think that a perfect example is start looking at what they did a life was like for these people who'll any of us who did were focused on staying alive but sometimes you get down to even more on base level than that lily bar tell us fighting in the burden inferno writes about at night we knew more the strangers when the rangers comes pouring down the cisco we were crouching down so as not to catch a stray bullet to shell fragment passing by this war benefit the heavy rain started to fall it didn't take long for the water to fill in the ditch and to submerge our shoes are helmets were transformed into drains out little waterfalls rain down our packs on or hits off for shoulders and along our arms we know what or a new we're waiting for the night was pitch black with age is going to leave the stock in the sewer and quote so war is such an apt name to besides the bodies and the poison in the decay and the lice and the rafsanjani window with them they're both absolutely beyond imagination living up to lie sleeping with the rats you also have the problems of men fighting in inferno we're getting out of reach frenchman to pretty good chance of dying would have to go to the bathroom report as writes quote and make it worse 'cause i've already described all of us one after the others suffer from an epidemic of intestinal disorders the resulting dire reassure cleaned us out but inopportune only as soon as one of us got over it is next door neighbor was afflicted with a gun had the bad luck to have to climb out of the trench and head for the shell hole which served as our latrine of course we did this only in the last resort the last moment of agony stretching our guts until they were about to burst one of us was surprised in the latrine by one of the sudden fusillade and collapsed into his own excrement so as not to expose oneself to similar incidents some used sardine or monkey meade kansas chamber pots so as not to have to leave ones hold on the ground or even sacrifices cast iron dinner plate and co have you keep your sanity after risk your life that i mean to the whole thing candiotti are willing to battlefield their mind and in one horrible day work if you're lucky enough to have dysentery that day it's a horrible day in the ranks isn't the day after day after day things people are putting up with a pounding on their psyche but understand what they went through is in large part what makes this story so incredibly compelling the extremes of human experience right at talk about all the time is wonderful paragraph by a historian derrick storm burrows who tries to describe why it is season gratuitous to talk about this why it's part of being astounded by your ancestors here's what burrows says quote most historians today depart from the traditional practice of omitting casualty figures was once left out for respect to the dead and to avoid any indecent hint of criticizing are questioning the sacrifices they made it is now included in order to eliminate them magnitude of the horror men faced by citing numbers in other words the story is begin the process of turning back toward describing what war was really like annie do this despite the understandable molding of the veterans themselves to remember or speak about traumatic experiences they've tried it usually unsuccessfully to suppress problems historians encounter with casualty figures however especially the astronomical numbers of deadening digging twentieth century wars is the number seven numbing quality to them all shocking to read initially they quickly lose descriptive affected us as mine is failed to grasp or in the abstract in order to do historical justice to comment on the ground therefore is necessary go beyond the numbers to the gruesome eyewitness accounts shaking off criticism that to go there is gratuitous the great war can only be fully understood it all looked aspects are exposed dimensions of the front experience that not only effective soldiers' morale and eventually the outcome of the war but also homefront under critically important willingness to continue shouldering the war effort all wars are horrible burrows rights tragedies for the dead their relatives and friends hobbling sometimes disfiguring injuries for others turning wyatt sheldon and karin to be care givers for life and psychological minefield for veterans who may have escaped death and injury but not the terrible memories which loved ones to have been forced to live the great war was especially hellacious however because it was the first one we shuffle mechanized fury of sophisticated industrial technology end quote man had never been asked to endure anything quite like this some of these french soldiers had to go back to burn down more than one time was that duty what i read somewhere where them said the first time you can handle tissue dona which ring fortitude to be hard when you're gone back to mordor after you've been to mordor so happy to have survived and i get to take a chance is all over again to the majority the french army get to chester rotate to syria to the swans and they never get over it the town himself will say about the burden experience to the french army court the constant visions of death had penetrated the french soldier with a resignation the board on fatalism unquote the fighting one in for ten months about half the time the germans were on the attack the other half the time the french were on the attack and by the time it was over this is disputed by about a million total casualties both sides that that together give or take two hundred thousand either way at the end of the war he will be mandated in the treaty but when mr battlefield is clear to enable taken decades just to get the bodies off of it to shelter still there and many of these areas are cordoned off until well probably could hundred two hundred years schnabel bombed tree stipulated when french bodies were dug up and they're eating you to be buried singularly was white crosses for purity the germans didn't have to be in a single grave in their graves were to carry black crosses signifying i am the depth of the motion that for don created in the immediate post war generation but even in france today is unlike quite any other military endeavour french arms of the dissipated in and the myth making about this crazy battle starts before the fighting seated on and there's a whole group of revisionist historians who been trying ever since the battle happened to poke holes in the myths that obscuring the reality of bird on it's got such as sacred hold on both france and germany it's hard to separate the fact from the speech in there's a huge my heroism and sacrifice connected to the summit it's understandable that you would get innocent myth making in the revisionist historians often portrayed fault i'm on the german commander on the one behind as plain as needy yet those tomboy an attitude in competently and after the war when people went to fall confines of what we're thinking gary said was trying to lock people out michael mission accomplished one of these revisionist arenas arm paul didn't ask is a perfect example will say something like to make over don out to be any worse than any number of terror world war won battles us to play in the myth and he says if it's being in a trench with the rain falling on you with your feet up your knees in mind a hundred shell fire and sniper fire day after day is terrible wall there's plenty of fer for war battles were sold you were found herself in that situation and bodies all around me that's not that abnormal for for war the right about that you would you know maybe it's bearer to say that there are several willie on unbelievably horrible unprecedented battles tougher for work there are equally holy she soon you would not want you to any of them we each have their own awful unique flavor to them that makes them different and often small squat piper down and if you said to me you have to be what these horrible battlefields for don is the lowest on my list and on is the last place of all comply wannabe if you ask what burden achieved again there's a wide variety of opinions on this the most popular is that each evening arsenal what a broad symbols of the general wastefulness of this war about a million people either are killed or wounded or yet never returned from that battlefield and nothing of it usually quarters was gained because of that one thing that's really did happen is it moved up the timetable for several other battles that we're going to happen a little bit later when the french have pressed by the germs of predominated the british and he said that the russians in all those balch were planning on starting could you move up the timetable mostar the sooner we could use the help over here and finally the one thing in nineteen sixteen you're beginning to see you leave a duty to this before is that these people have put up already will lot more pounding than we would probably put up with today there's a breaking point for all human beings in my mind breaking point it's coming was quick and by the experience that burden and we mentioned that the french had a policy of rotating troops during the battle to keep them fresh and for donna what that meant was virtually the entire french army at one time or another was rotated through that sector predominate took the french and ratcheted up the discontent levels and why is there were probably out of proportion to what you could've expected from one or more battle it got to closer to the breaking point the idea of pushing your adversary to comply with their society leader william clothes is a thoroughly modern idea by nineteen sixteen most of the military leaders in this conflict see that as the end game in this conflict the reason it's a thoroughly modern concept isn't because people of the past can understand it was because they could never take enough damage to get to that point as we said drop the series nations in the past but the most part couldn't take apart want to call it stand out like sore thumbs the roman republic for example what makes it so unusual in the military history sense could sustain the defeat after defeat after defeat and not capitulate they could lose a battle of kenny they could lose the battle of lake trout some meaning the same more and keep coming back for more carrying usual you would generation before those defeats alexander the great defeat the massive and the greatest empire the world has ever seen the king in the persian empire with a couple of big shots there's never enough time for the society to implode the society collapsing at the foundation's work wires that they be able to stand there in exchange in upon just to get to that point by nineteen sixteen the grinding down of nations is well underway as author david frum comes as the real war and the common economic and social survival contest and the generals are beginning to organize their strategies to quit in in hasten this outcome for example when talk to nine talks about you the idea of using attrition to bleed the french white he explains that you don't have to worry about the russians anymore because they're well on their way to having your entire society collapse he says quote according to all reports the domestic difficulties of the giant empire are multiplying rapidly even if we cannot perhaps expect a revolution in the grand style we're entitled to believe that russia's internal troubles will compel her to give him within a relatively short period in this connection it may be taken for granted that she will not provide for military reputation meanwhile we need not be anxious about that on the contrary it is probable he writes that any such attempt in the law says it must involve would only hasten the process of disintegration and co i should also point out that in the nineteenth century for example backhanded disintegration not only wasn't the gold it would've been seen as a negative byproduct in the arrow where are the military defeat meant it when general gage is sort of the other general we change some provinces russian colonies or what not to go wasn't for the society to collapse it was now and military leaders begin to employ strategies designed to make that out calmer reality for example on the war starts the british use their navy to clamp down on blockade on germany now the french don't look at that is a very useful strategy because after all something like that's gonna take a long time and no one win this war starts are we not a very small minority would turn out to be cassandra isn't prophetic not wanting to war's gonna go long enough for something like a blockade to actually take effect by nineteen sixteen everyone is starting to understand that those long term anaconda don't like strangling strategies a very viable and the british are not the only ones who can do this after all the germans of awfully to write and this is the point in the story where he becomes west talking about began from that you see this german fleet was a key reason the tensions especially with britain increased in the pre war years red call the anglo german naval tensions but it was considered to be worth it by a kaiser and a government that thought it was important to be able to hold your own red sea so the ships were built on the cost an amazing amount of money a huge amount of industrial capacity is sucked up into this as we said you'd you're determined that and basically friendly britain into an enemy and now what you got what you wanna get sitting in porto continually can you get your country straining every fiber in a to sacrifice for the war effort at the civilians ishtar neck cut back on their caloric intake in years this fleet so expensive to build in every month sock enough resources and sitting in court this is the time in the story where because the germans getting us armor all things start to happen on the surface naval frog for really the only time in this war and if you are not for this period like i am i like to call the battleship era somewhere between eighteen ninety haitian nineteen for use by fifty years the error when you get these are heard leviathan and sputtered just to either fascinating right under such incredible vehicles that you may have the fast for the show when i start going off on some detail tangent that uniformly i find interesting bomb but i think these vehicles are incredible under so little evidence of them actually being used them a few occasions know where it happens i attend a look at the rather deeply there's only one occasion history at the guy count the russo japanese were pre dried up and only one occasion in history where these armored ships from this error to fifty years bob shapiro actually fought the way these admiral said invasion of the wall and in long lines miles long lines stretching off to the horizon you know lord nelson's style pirate to the caribbean style and facing the fleet similarly you're reading shooting you know in the distance between them that only happened once in this whole fifty year battleship era can only happen once in this war obviously it's a battle in nineteen sixteen called the battle of joplin to coax like yours truly this is a fantastically interesting encounter moore thinking about organizing the story in argued the truck corporal places to take a little odd direction change a momentum changes you go from the carnage ever done and those of you who know the story know what's coming up in the future of it and you take a little interlude to talk about other elements not just been able to sign this but also the fact that the navy really is a wonderful canvas on which to represent the technology of this era and how big a big deal that is to the people here that's a perpetual problem is not going back in time and seeing what looks to be ancient technology does looking at the way it the people back there looking at it to whom that it's cutting edge stuff i mean first of all which i think about the best way this would explain create an analogy for how these people see the fleet's they have an athlete to the navy's along with this new thing these aircraft bomb puerto real cutting-edge technology out there and the reason why is because it's just death to be too far behind and this isn't the best maybe from nineteen hundred would lose to several maybe he's from nineteen fourteen that's mere fourteen years al because nineteen forty names loser ship at how quickly things are changing robert massie in his book pregnant has a great line were he says in nineteen hundred that's in your fourteen years before the first for war breaks out every single british admiral commanding a british battleship been trained to when they came up in the navy in the age of sale that's an example how cutting-edge this is common if you're going mental image think of the titanic the ship that struck the iceberg and went down and everything that's from this area it's so the steam rupaul keyed sherlock holmes he kind of the old io we stink about it as a meat eater work in the command center want these battleships it's like star trek meats the sherlock holmes her steam potted meat instead of having a digital display you'd have more of those around dials with one of those arrows that looks like the elevator arrow in a nice new york hotel the goes around on a gold background meet in a very very beautiful action the ships were beautiful polished war the whole thing they were just gorgeous and they were the cutting edge technology of their day and i had to resist comparing them to spaceships the way to try to have us feel like the people back then felt the enemy that would be to be so means we just like a starship but it's a little like one but not enough for the comparison right isn't it thought to myself i thought you know those people saw battleships officers really cutting edge but not as much as we would spaceships with an equal number of new crew members on board that would be bigger deal but then i remembered submarine for the people again hard for us to get all wild about them but to the people back then that is science fiction the very definition of the work on a jewel burns twenty thousand leagues under the seat in all of us and we have ships to go underwater are like they have cloaking devices to become an invisible and worse if you're no unable to show back then is that they now carried new weapons the threat and everything you have this is what really counts for the cautious nature of naval warfare in this period right why they should just all come out blazing unnerving well there's all these uncertainties part of this period attraction is that you begin to see a showdown in naval warfare when you haven't had any test of any of this technology long time no one knows what can happen when you get whole fleets are your blazing away with this modern technology hasn't happened before one other thing is everyone's gonna scare about is these torpedoes for example when these mines release floating mind that badly in the water and the ship runs into them and boom explode because these weapons are very very cheap red can make a lot of 'em and they can sink these massively expensive our ships to take years to build and whose losses catastrophic they can sink tell us that's a huge changed as in most enable warfare generally there are acceptable when you wanna sink a massive expensive first-class ship you generally neither another massive first-class ship or a lot of other wants they have huge survival strength right they begin justify their cost an investment now all the sudden resemble churchill talks about the british and procedures being petrified that you would turn around one day in these great huge expensive ships that took forever to build and julie had limited number were just disappearing in the blink of an eye boom quick explosion now they should go on and i'm on the war starts to let the first couple much that happens you lose a super dread not the crime the crime of the british battleship forces on the h. m. s. audacious strikes a minute like in oman to do after the war starts and that's about to pre bring new ship almost until he goes down one minute one bausch and wow again if you're in the admiralty you're going ok what is this mean and then a submarine like sings a couple of old british cruiser to a woman one right after another and all the sudden these people got these big expensive should circuit petrified about using them the military history said martin van for bell have spoken about this we just have this strange dichotomy we you you spend so much money on these vessels with every important that the cashews been so much money among you don't wanna race come and so you have to germany in the british navy dealing with each other as maybe two snipers hunting each other would deal with each other waiting for the other side to make a mistake and then when they do counsel the problem is is that when the war starts to british clampdown that blockaded and that's all they need to do the pressure is on the germans to do something about it and as we said winston churchill who was the civilian head of the navy for while most complete wrote down that really while they would've been a lot of the damage is descending be you know numerically superior briefly to go when they're just take german tale the down side if you fail to do that was so bad he wasn't worth the city idea which get all these good things up we decisively defeated the germans because but if we lost and remember this is all on try technology and mabel comments we're in an unpredictable anyway you could bring the superior fleet in there and somehow loons or just lose enough so that you don't have the numerical advantage anymore you get carried the with the enemy in that was unthinkable and churchill said the chances of that happening we might not be great but if that happens it could cost us the whole war charmer reading that thinking to myself i'm off i'd buy it but all whole lot of interesting thoughts come to mind if you believe what churchill says about it basically having the potential to end the war that is how explains in this book he said if the german navy were even have a nice victory against the british and cut down the numerical superiority suitable have the same number big ships then the german navy would be able to interdict the stuff heading for britain churchill's isabel would result in court the trading floor supply of the british isles when been paralyzed our armies on the continent would be caught off from their base by secure your naval force all the transportation of the allies would be jeopardized unhampered the united states could not intervene in the war starvation and beijing would descended upon the british people rule in honour ring final would overwhelm the allied cause he says the great disparity of the results of state in a battle between the british and german navy's can never be excluded from our thoughts and quo so if you buy churchill's fury that means instead of being the most secure of the great powers but i think most of us assume brittany is asteroid you talking about an island nation in the country with a motor rounded right in the new had the greatest maybe in the world looks pretty secure to meet the churchill's idea here is that yeah but when i was lucky poncho away from that situation changing to stay with her boxing analogy that that's true the germans maybe are justified in keeping that fleet safe importing case you need a lucky upon to maybe you're losing the war all trying to decide ilsa injured in a ship's on a death row on it and take your chances maybe you get lucky right maybe get a knockout blow it again you buy it would churchill say means of the germans will as long as they still have lead somewhere maintain the ability to win the war with a lot he pointed anytime i find that fascinating donna viable we didn't find it fascinating now the only time in this war that the act and i'll lock keep conch happens it was a throne that way but the only time that this decisive in cowardly could be potentially a horrifying if it totally went the wrong way for britain the only time this happens in this part the story we're in now nineteen sixty had happened because whenever we mentioned earlier his name is right or she or he takes over in early nineteen sixteen and he feels about the german fleet pretty much the same way everyone else does it's time there were nikita let's start acting more aggressively with it as we'll start trying to amen the best whipple is trapped the british the british have more big ships of the german so shears ideas let's see we can ambush small numbers of those big ships overwhelm them and slowly but surely whittled down the damage in numbers of the british have and it's one of these attempted traps dead results in this really only time for him to see us like yours truly to see what these fleets could do an all out encounter with both sides hurling steel of the horizon and with all these weapons that you know from a spectator standpoint you just dying in the sea you what the heck they didn't do i mean let's start with the gardens the guns on the ships at the same pentagon's you saw leveling the belgian fortune that the germans were using ed for gondolas on the big naval guns being used on water and white in the column naval guns right these new battleships and for example the british are are bringing in four five brand new ones that will fight in the second world war two that have fifteen inch guns and multiple funny like eight to twelve fifteen inch guns that's incredible fourteen inches of armor they would like thirty thousand times the new queen elizabeth plaster called the kid you like twenty five knots if they're really smoking the serene credible incredible modern warships when you realize that they can hurl the shell the size of the small volkswagen eighteen miles across the horizon and a target that's a hundred feet wide while both schubert and target are moving and hope to hear did reasonably well that shocking i'm nina spanish american war on less than twenty years before this time period they would fire hundreds of shops and about just less than three miles distance and every now and then they'd scoring at tina hundreds to get a few in the russo japanese war they broke or records when it opened fire each other at eight miles distance that's eleven years before the battle job and eight miles break in our records about what joplin how should the gunfire eighteen miles i even paid anything on the horizon will both sides british and german are incorporating against like steam current technology may be your rudimentary fire control computer you might call it and both sides have different versions of the germans have to cure your optics assault bill school or the early hits in him we indians encountered that happens in large part because the pretty sure weeding naval communications of the germans some of the battle job one for a couple aris is not just because it's the battleship encounter of the war but also because it's rubber meets the road moment put up or shot of historical acid test where are all of the military theories in the debates in the the philosophical differences amongst exports over the proper way to build the ships and what the naval battles can be like in the next war all my stuff leaves the realm of the theoretical and gets your laboratory tested on the naval battle field the land powers are we saw this happen to them right in the start of the war their military larry's the reason all that the people have speculated about for decades got their acid test in the first mont places like the bottles of the ferrante years where are those so high minded all academic debate that military war college is about whether or not charge and how far we will have a nice over we're all modern battlefield with machine guns are bidding me that camera stuff gets tested the first model war and the results are rough course bloody and decisive even if they will be absorbed right away the naval side of this war has not had the scan the acid test yet them in a little encounters what the falkland islands in the wood doctor bank between a few cruisers you're in battle cruiser or two they are but nothing like what can happen a job and when you realize how carefully sat roger be because of the nature of naval combat i'm mean you could provide an opportunity for someone to get lucky pontiff you're not careful solemnity saddles wants to go out unless the happening to us they have a bandage on her side favorable conditions would be cool the british don't have to do anything they got this blockade don't so worse case scenario if things to stay as they are they're wearing the germans down with this blockade didn't create the disintegration of the state just like we told you it was the goal now of these leaders to know if the germans begin to start at home and caloric intake is already being reduced kurdish civilians you will see revolution street so this burnished ratatouille blockade will eventually bring germany to it's knees so it's incumbent upon the germans to do something about the situation when they get their new outdoor right archie are in nineteen sixty who want to be more aggressive he decides to create his own edge now the conditions for his own advantage on the naval battle feel so we set traps in late may nineteen sixty cents wanna for woody hopes will be a detachment of the british warship to get fiber sticks a battle cruisers and enticed them pasture submarines are indeed are mine fields or eventually marry were they think they can feast on some of your white forces menopause drama which your big fleet and that's what she your plans to do so he sets out all these forces in prepares us will ambush and what he doesn't know is that the british as we said our reading all these naval communications by the british the greatest krypton prefers on the planet that just the twentieth century sort of color in my view because boy would agree that twenty century the second world war they will famously be reading all the german enigma traffic among other things in this war in the first couple of monster german naval code to fall into their hands and while they may not be deciphering every single message when the entire erman high seas sweet as it's called a hundred ships about decides to weigh anchor ago while you're looking to play in the north sea the british know about that to be big communications spikes in everything so wish you decide to set this ambush the british reagan enable codes tell the fleet is what the other germans are held there and they don't know that we know they're out there and so the british grandly things ok now we have the the image we wheeled trap the trappers and so lead to reach graham fleet which is like twenty eight in a super dread knots and dread don sai mean it's the biggest lead the world it's the most powerful fleet in world history until this point in terms of size in tiny jade may be the biggest we'd ever it weighs anchor it starts making its way to wear this ambush point is and it leaves so early by the way because it's got all this advance information that totally screws up a lot of our bush years in a bush is his horses anybody submarines to bergen to be outside the british ports and they could shoot the breeze ships as they left the harbor number that stuff's ready and so the the british it's maker wing of the rendezvous point we're the good the germans and you're setting up an added for football career i mean if the british fleet emerges into view and catches the german fleet there you could sink half of it before they get away and then murphy's law joins the battle hardly saw take center stage in this encounter by the way which would make a great dress for her soul for early twentieth century naval warfare unfortunately it's opening night and you know you had troubles on opening night with all the loose ends and fixed in imagines of opening night you do in the dress rehearsal and yet she had two hundred and fifty ships in about fifteen square miles when these things come together mean things that can go wrong to go wrong effect is bottle mightily and it's a good argument for why the saddles are so cautious they notice so how are these lawyer beams will the british are about to pounce on the germans because the briseno message back to their intelligence service during the confirmation the shabad any intelligent people reading the german naval codes tell them that they made a mistake earlier this at all yeah the german fleet nazi like we thought there still safely in port don't worry about it so now the saddle to five minutes ago knew where the german fleet was already to pounce on it don't know they're there anymore but of course they are as of now we have both mean fleets close to each other in the north sea none of them aware of the other's existence so the rhythm of this battle joplin is wonderful starts off as a trap flipped into counter trap and now he does serendipitous lee morph into an encounter battle and that's how it gets started german like forces on one side of the horizon british like forces on the other side of horizon spot a civilian for all war between the two of them they can see each other 'cause they're so far way the curvature of the earth limits are cited the kimball see the trawler to these white units in a converge on the trawler to investigate a discovery job is start shooting and send messages back to the main fleet same guess what i've found over here on the other side of the horizon the enemy fleet right and so this creates like the war vortex were all these naval forces are converging on this area that ships that arrive first or the battle cruisers this is an interesting side of the story because the battle cruisers are experiencing a test right now and it's the test of whether or not the admiral's the back to this entire designing a in the decades before this period were correct about it this is a theoretical argument until there's dad out there hasn't been a chance to have any doubt in our urban have dad had or the ship's a viable for someone you know what they are about crucial is a hybrid design it's supposed to combine the punching power on the battleship with the speed of a cruiser so if the battleship is like some giant lonnie n. for example or tiger these battle cruisers are more like a panther rich at this can be confusing because they were all named after my giant cats and so the flagship of this battle cruiser squadron the briseno's the law and so don't get confused by stirred talking about the law and on but that describes him pretty well the hypothetical problem here though is that you had to give up to get the speed of the cruiser u. had to give up the armor of the battleship so we have here is a to put all the striking power of a battleship but one that can take upon to buy a battleship or its counterparts another battle cruiser when this was carried out before the war the admirals who liked the battle cruiser concept waved off this were read by saying don't worry speed will be their armor and that's what the argument and because nobody knows of speed will be their armor these battle cruisers approach this battle with twenty six to twenty seven knots which is amazingly fast for worship their size there are six of them on the british side and five of 'em on the german side and we may meet they began to open fire and only about like eight miles which is short the british have a longer range dollars by the way but don't open fire first this becomes the first of many things that the british admiral of these bow curses again in baby will be critiqued about you know after this battle the battle opens up at about three forty five in the afternoon visually he is hard to see the ship's if you have to see a picture rum bum at full tilt or smoking like we're on fire or when you have a bunch of them they're putting times of this dark slipped into the air add to that the fact that we're over by denmark in the north sea there's fog mirror squalls beyers meanest there's rain there's all kinds of things that inhibit the ability to see you very well and sometimes one fleet will be a position with the c. b. s. air fleet really well but the other three dozen see them and vice versa so the part of being a good emeralds try and ranger fleet so that the other fleet has highlighted against the horizon or in some way that makes them easier target than your fleet is kind of obscured in hard hit but ships had not tried to shoot each other in some other ranges they're gonna try to shoot each other here police battle cruiser start shooting about three forty five the british shoot long initially over the heads of the german ships to german ships or disconcerting only accurate the strike the battle cruiser tigert like six times in quick succession little leavening shells and about four o'clock the strike the flagship the line in with admiral baby on board the shells penetrate the tower act which is the source or word bob dole that the contains the big guns that jury to rick's bolger catches on fire and there are photographs by the way up moments in the battle job and they're not great and i always imagined them soon be inimical arise but you can see the lion barney and it looks back at it and admiral baby didn't realize at that time how closely he came to being blown to kingdom come we'll find out later that a guy who was dying and who'd lost both his legs on on the line and save the ship by flooding the magazine last story gave us to to flood the whole area where the 'em explosives were to keep them from blowing the ship but now if the baby was wondering why would be like to see one of these modern amazing ships explode he only had to worry about two minutes if you actually look at the moment by moment rundown of this battle on that's part of the spawn of naval battles all the ships kept a theory scripted and detail blogs about their movements moment by moment by moment of reconstructed this entire bow from almost each individual ships in viewpoint and the part that straight shooting you read randomness how quickly everything's happening to the suffers this head on his own terrain it like for clocked two minutes later the h. m. s. indefatigable me some more in the twenty thousand times of battle cruiser explodes just explodes in a moment it's churchill on the admiralty is nightmare come true me in a blink of the night you have an eight how ring cloud reaching up like fifteen hundred feet witnesses say you could see him but a bottles i'm gonna isn't everything shooting up the end of the horizon and both sides german and british watch this happen together but the more than one thousand sailors on board the indefatigable to survive it's hard not to include an account by one of them i mean an couldn't account of the survivor of the ship whose magazine gets penetrated and explodes with him on and i guess he was way up high in the top observation o'leary diesel color the crow's nest the city was a hundred eighty feet high his name is c. fullmer and here's how he describes the explosion of the h. m. s. indefatigable why he was on board called there was a terrific explosion aboard the ship the magazine's what i saw the guns go off in a year just like match sticks twelve inch guns that were bodies and everything she was beginning to settle down within half a minute the ship turned right over it she was gone i was a hundred eighty feet up but i was thrown well clearly the ship otherwise i would've been sucked under i was practically unconscious turning over really last i came on top of the water why came up it was another fellow named jimmy green we got a piece award he was all morning and and i was on the other and a couple of minutes afterwards and shells came over and jim was minuses head so why was left i'm lonesome in the court no about twenty minutes after that the h. m. s. queen mary another one of these battle cruisers explodes same way you mean little bit different money she gets hit him in there's this pause and sailors are jump in and of the water and they knew she explodes the count from singers who were in the water who said that this guy was all the sudden just deal with all this massively heavy debris that was now falling down on them in the water under all diving into the water trying to escape giant bottles and big metal objects fall in on them and probably a lot of them didn't escape again more than a thousand of the sailors on board a small handful rescued afterwards less than less than twenty five one point admiral beatty turned to us aboard and says it seems to be something wrong with our bloody ships today nice right they're not passing the acid test the hypothesis that you know was that philosophical underpinnings of this entire class of warships at least on the british side is proving to be flawed they don't have enough or more speed is not turning out to be their armor and when their armored gets pierced you know the way they're handling this ammunition in the lack of flash protectors and some other things means that the magazine is catching on fire exploding way too easily you can tell that it happened too easy because my german side it's not happening they sacrificed in some other areas their guns are smaller for example there little slower in order to know slabs some more armor over some of these vulnerable points and they're not blowing up again these germans build ships like mercedes undertaking a pound while they are running away that's that's what you have to notice and what's happening in these battles in the shooter not stationary there at anchor in staying in the same spot they're all moving there all moving in a specific direction the british are chasing the germans and the germans are moving away not if you were the british admiral this makes perfect sense to you you've got the bigger she had tried and until they start exploding around do you have more a bomb besides that she had a bunch of big brain new the new west most awesome battleships in the world the queen elizabeth class i've already mentioned war spy italy of dalia don't blame the ship's a double all fight in the second world war they are fresh off the docks fifteen inch guns there a thousand times thirteen inches of armor and the stack them with him so you're darn right these germans are gonna run away never mind that you know i tried to communicate with those battleship using flags when we talk about murphy's law here posing its will on this battle part of it has to do with things that just look so silly and hunted unity ships have radio sometimes these apples or not that cool by using it sometimes it has problems by the way so sometimes the boy was a lot times these apples are like the old guy trying to use the computer and if so much more comfortable with the way they were brought up and and the things that they did in the maneuvers in peace time alone in the ways to ease the ship's communicate is by running the course of the admiral up on a flagpole them all these different flags in each one means something different so many other wants to communicate that to the fleet his waters they run a flag up a fly ball on his ship the flagship and and every other ship is supposed to as they see one of the same wanting you get the message across but this is a method that was used a hundred years before the lord nelson's time when they're fighting napoleon it ranges there are exponentially shorter does that make sense exponentially shorter than the distances and the spout off without a small can all these other things and again the peace time training it seemed to work fine in the rigors of combat it's not working fine n. b. b. battleships don't see the flag change and maybe tell them to do things and dom they're not here when this battle first happens to them playing catch up all about but now the other riding on the scene in the shelter fall insulted by the germans and now the british think they've got these german battle cruisers pinned down even if you know you're losing the future battle cruisers why you chase them or they don't know is that those battle cruisers are leading them into the mall of the entire german navy which is coming up from about forty miles away moving towards them which started off as the german trap flipped into the british counted trap you've all done morphed into the encounter battled has now all by almost improvisational lock the common german ambush again if successful the german fleet could wipe out four or five battle cruisers and four of the new waste ships in the british navy it would be i'm sure winston churchill was saturated speak for him here catastrophe and the germans around the verge of making it happen and then a light cruiser scouting for the british c. is the entire german fleet on the horizon and radios the message back to admiral beatty and the grandly venerable calico farther away and apc's those germans very quickly to with the naked eye the first thing he does when he realizes he's been debated into the strap is turned his battle cruisers a hundred and eighty degrees in ila directed and starred bulk and how they are once again murphy's law said that many times in this battle fight go too deeply into it and once again he runs a tough like sang turnaround in the big battleships the brand new ones don't see it they will end up exposed out there to the entire german fleet for a while taking a pounding and do shingle on how to do it should be pointed out unless one al gore baby is down by turning a hundred eighty degrees away he is turn himself in to bait and the germans are following and maybe is running back towards his big fleet which is coming up i'm also about forty miles away listen now he slipped the ambush once again and now the germans are heading chore did the only fleet that is still invisible on this naval battle field to anyone the germans don't know that the british korean fleet is up ahead of them but now the british grand fleet knows that the germans are coming and our role gel ago it a very brave move army celebrating without enough information once again have a baby gets blamed for not given in good position all information or whatnot but a lot of this falls under the category of it's a dress rehearsal of these guys one other errors of the kind things they will correct it if they had a chance to practice it in a combat situations unfortunately these are lot of you know what you would be called a rookie mistakes but but you would correct these before the next battle nonetheless gel ago takes a chance to poor ways entire british graham fleet which you as he's hot more than a hundred ships over his fifteen twenty square also shoot it takes fifteen to twenty minutes that's how well trained this week is he deploys the whole thing annie's waiting for the germans to arrive in the germans are now in the midst rapist battlefields barry miss teen u. you want to fall banks he won't see things for wop the germans can't see what's going on and famously admiral hipper who's the german admiral in charge of the battle cruisers radios admiral she you're the head of the entire german navy who's with the german fleet you're any famously looks off in the midst until she year something large and that soup we would do well not to thrust into it too deeply too late the first thing that happens is is that your mr taking somehow i really don't know from where big guns and all the sudden missed parts for second annie it's a another british battle cruiser the invincible and as soon as that is part of the invincible becomes clear it doesn't take ninety seconds before big german guns are opening fire or the shells pouring down on the invincible unlike the other two battle cruisers be invincible explodes so if anybody has forgotten in the intervening in all our report to says the earlier about cruisers exploded that this design is proving to be somewhat flawed the explosion of the invincible before the two main fleet collide he's a historical reminder nonetheless it's only soon after that that the germans emerge from the mid east to find the entire deploy a british fleet waiting for them in like a crescent rama horizon in sheer says i'm in it that they can see what's happening the entire horizon are brought to me she's aflame but the shooter long way from each other almost invisible to the naked eye smog is up against the hawaii's and you see like the smoke all the ships and then you see you like the flash of the gums and just like lightning and thunder were you see the lightning and understood the wind them up on arrives same thing you see this flash and it's silent and then buena buena which you have the shells party passed over and in other destroyers in these ballot evening and talk about all the white ships running around in a slump carrying in my gut the budget lewd acts between the battle fleet and destroyer sometimes describe what it's like when these giant shells pass over their heads in the city still like locomotives when the school reach over your little shithead but when they fall in front of your little she appealed like your little destroyer they raise geysers of water the times a hundred sometimes two hundred feet up into the air it's composed of han's public wade which then falls back down to earth in these destroyers these little ships are sometimes beaten up pretty severely by all this water smashing back down into that some people are in splashed overboard obese kinds of things nonetheless admiral july co has performed a famous naval maneuvers that you never wanna be on the receiving end of called crossing the t. e. where he's formed the top cross bar the tea and portia you're in the germans warm up the arm in a vertical line of duty and every one of the british ships can fire on the german ships individually as they come to the front of ally it's a disaster very quickly she your gets hit with more than twenty two heavy shells facts to within ten minutes your hands or a tactical he adroitly by the way turned his leader round and disappeared back into the mist once again with our radar novak and stop all hard to ignore yes at that point he sends out a bunch of white unit to destroy your someone to cover his escape so that the bird cages right after the midnight run into a budget torpedoes mines and stuff and inexplicably not to a long after that she arrives back inter visual range and you know bugle fire rigging in finish your escaped again to the dentist he crossed for a second time in one battle which is almost unheard of the children gilligan's pretty darn good admiral an initial light action between the white units but about this time admiral shears had enough to duty cross twice in one day it's time to call the bottle and she you're in the germans manage to limp home when all is said and done the british lose three bellcore's hirsch tree armored cruisers and a destroyers all one german battle cruiser or one pre dread not battleship for likely gerson five destroyers percent of the bottom the casualties it shetland are not significant that'll hurt either navy badly of the british learn their lesson about the battle cruiser design but the germans are humble no they don't come out again in strength and adobe a little encounter here little try there but but this is it they gave it an attempt and they seemed permanently shaken because of the the german surface fleet will not perform another militarily significant move in the war the only part of the german navy that's going to be relevant to the rest of the war is the party uses torpedoes to go after nonmilitary targets economic wants by nineteen sixteen the economic side of this war is coming to the fore we begin to see what we're all wore on this scale is like when it becomes part of the normal life of all of these countries you know this isn't a new phenomenon anymore by nineteen sixty by the middle of nineteen sixteen we've been doing this for two years and it's been stocking up more and more the energy of these nation states that are involved in the conflict it's very unlike the way most wars by these powers had been fought with the civilian population might not even know war is happening it was happening they certainly were directly or importantly impacted this war's different first of all it's life or death the stakes are so high that everybody's involved in the armies are requiring such immense amounts all stops the germans recall is material schlock the war of material that the entire civilian population in the production capacity of all these countries get to warp trying to provide it as historian one dire says quote is significant that the phrase homefront came into use during world war one when the role of munitions workers in the civilian production more generally was becoming as important to victory as the soldiers in the trenches without a constant flow of supplies equal to the blast consumption at the front the soldiers would soon be helpless and since the mobilization so few ajinomoto minute left the vast gaps in the normal work force france input twenty percent of its entire population in the uniform germany eighteen percent in the other major powers not much less the remaining middle of civilians had to be directed by government into whatever jobs were needed to keep production going in effect the civilian economy he writes was conscripted to the government of your quickly took control over labor and raw materials imposed rationing on all scarce goods and created true war economy it's women flooded into factories tripoli's the man at the front and most production be on the basic needs of subsistence was diverted into the war effort and quo tires also blonde that said by this time in court battles had become an industrial hopper worry she's in reverse in which the rates of destruction at the front matched the rates of production in the industries of home and quo i think you guys like the british military leader haiti or even the german military leader general marathon talks on and i think about all the skills that they required to have now above and beyond which you would think of as a normal generals skills and you saw this in your reward is famous story to general sherman in the civil war in the united states being extra qualified for modern warfare because all these very old jobs in private industry he'd had taught him all these lessons that no one knew what general would meet in modern warfare things about logistics of stuff like that by nineteen sixteen eat a guy like haiti get a cavalry commander looks like he would be too horribly out of his element by dealing with the modern production needs of warfare as indeed he was followed in ita bit more scientific of the guy and he's in a highly stripping defy war or general fall contrivances world war to a minion or play lot of those are my time it then and i got assigned because i'm the guy we take germany i if i had a choice about which started working on the plate but let's say get assigned germany at command amply germany in this war game and i'm talkin' fine you know the estimates are especially during this time treated if you include the colonial subjects of the of the powers in europe during this time period my enemies in this war find fault and i have seven hundred and fifty million people they can call on him you know for their value in their effort and in some cases their lives my side of the alliance has about a hundred and fifty million my enemies had the greatest athlete in the world and i just learned about what gel on that my navy can come anywhere near touching them and they shut down all of my overseas trade so far in general if oppenheimer already on sydney you're going wacko now you look at the line up in terms of the time the countries in each of nitrogen the british and french and russians as the three big guys in the allied on taunt why it's these are all first great powers bessie power best way empowered the biggest power all three together while and then in the budget of the countries like italy and once more powers that's a very powerful force who i have on my side austria hungary and bulgaria and turkey basically none of those powers are first rate at least the turks are asking me for help all the time from four come on up to put on a pretty brave polite they've managed to keep the british french south africans indians new zealanders australians out of glibly in january nineteen sixty that's unexpected they've managed to beat the british out forces mostly indian troops in a place called coaching marnie walk trapped them in a fortress bayer forced them to surrender and come on and death march but really doesn't impact fault and hybrid much one way the other it's just nice ring to know that the turks are winning as opposed to losing because they are losing against the russians but it's a mixed bag remember the turks are taft but they are not quite the twentieth century army so those are all that gravy to fall in to big a problem if you're for confine he sure you're close allies we are strong gary at they're a pain in the rear they don't listen to you to begin with your having fights with their main military leaders then they go do what they want anyway and then they screw up 'cause they didn't follow your advice and they come to you assume you bails out your pocket i'm their pain and we are these continually having to take scarce troop from places like over dartmouth and instead do not taking the train send him over east and and saving the awestruck and earrings they can i can't really blame them that they're in big trouble anyway they may not have been a country in nineteen twenty even if there hadn't been a first for war there made a bubble levin major ethnic groups in that state some of whom don't wanna be there and their army is a microcosm of their state and you've got troops who don't even wanna be in your empire at times on the front line the you're asking to die for your empire it's not a good situation there constantly getting into trouble and as one german diplomat famously says about germany situation with austria hungary we are feather into a corpse were tied to a dead guy that's the austrian gearing force now in your favor repeat your fault in town and you probably have the best orly in the war in nineteen sixteen german army is fantastic the combination all the best aspects of the nineteen fourteen force to germany went to war with but battle hardened by experience here's the way writer in passing him described uncorked it's true that the german army on the western front by early nineteen sixteen was more skilled and better were equipped for trench warfare them either the british or the french this is not too surprising he said it as the british expeditionary force only just expanded its army from around two hundred and fifty thousand in nineteen fourteen to just over a million largely been experienced men and the french he writes have always been uncomfortable with the notion of defensive operations rather than the often says spirit he then says quote many of the german veterans of the inconclusive though bitter fighting it eat bread where chapelle ottawa champagne n. los in nineteen fifteen had survived and stiff and an army that that will lead the sharp end and remained resolute against allied effort in the west they become close to beating the russian army is on the eastern front and that you're also in short as john to wane as noted it must never be forgotten that the german army of that period was very good indeed and co so that's what you're going to the table is that enough he's having the best army in the world and not by the way that something you traditionally think of when you think of the french and it safe to say i think that since about eighteen seventy the germans have the best army in the world will that compensate for all the down side to the central powers have hard to know what the worst is the fact of the left hand on the right hand don't know what each other we're doing in the central powers the austrians go off the reservation all the time don't tell anybody what did you wendell getting approval don't work together with anyone and it's a handicap especially when the allies slash on tom forces are pretty darn good at this the agreement that they made in nineteen fifteen to come to the aid of each other one hard pressed when the germans launch for diana within them on the russians come riding to the rescue in lithuania try and help the launch an offensive that they are clearly not ready for how could you be there would be very short time in this period to a planned and stocked up for carry out an offensive in more rich nineteen sixteen the russians perot shimon leave attacks at the germans and predictably get modena on the germans are looking at the court to stop these people totally untrained cannon fodder as all the russians were willing to throw tones of human meat at the germans simply to scare them enough so that would pull some units our forgotten takes a pressure of the french it was so inept some of the casualties the russian soldiers suffered more because of being shelled by the roadside artillery which is always a tragedy and twelve thousand russian soldiers froze in one night are these were wounded by a bond for people that just you know we're out there in the cold without the proper stopping the russian logistics are additionally pretty horrible especially in this period it shows you the nature of operations there the russians are not generally thought of this hand when you sort of things well and in march nineteen sixteen they don't handle it well again the worst part probably from a russian perspective though is they went all that trouble when it didn't take any pressure off the french i'd forgotten the follow up effort though by the russians on june fourth nineteen sixteen will be handled much better surprisingly well if you're a guy like balkan are in an you've written off with a lot of your other generals any chance the russians have of doing anything seated in nineteen sixty on june fourth nineteen sixty the russians do something very significant led by their own unquestionably best general my first world war a guy named person off we mentioned earlier episode that the russians simply couldn't happen in the word they were okay sometimes on the defense but they couldn't attacking the problem is always the same they just have such an old-fashioned not up to date logistics system that the farther you moved away from where you started the harbor was to get the supplies necessary for modern army to ron but brasil off he is the emotionally army commander the russians have he's been learning from fighting the best army in the world the germans all this time and even though we see cavalry commander never reputation for always being sort of old fashioned person love embraces the new systems out to renew technology for example he does something almost no russian army ever does in the first war he uses aircraft to help as spotters and to locate positions behind the lines and for reconnaissance ratepayer he's acting in a much more modern way than russian army to remember we're talking about an army that for the entire length of the first world war will still be wearing cloth kept they'd never get metal helmets during the duration for sure we're judge is a very old-fashioned fashioned army bush you love takes what he can do that to modern and uses it he launches his famous offensive named after him on june fourth he does so with a very modern artillery barrage intense but short he's used all sorted camouflage to hide his intention to as far as painting take a trenches on the ground behind his lines to confuse the germans ning are strong hearings on the other side when you want uses attack he does so long in enormous brought the eastern from three different in the western front the stabbings really constrained small area which they can build a wall from side to side really easily it's a huge area so with much more thing he defended the rubber seal does is he attacks across this giant front without half million men it intending to break upon the defense's of the central powers like a way of brakes on a break water and knowing that in many places his forces will get pushed backwards but we're he needs weakness they should burst through here's the way writer g. j. meyer explains what happens on june fifth when hours after the artillery bombardment starts the half million russian forces step out of their trenches and move toward the mostly austro hungarian lines buttery german troops to cool his infantry would attack on june fifth valley austrians in confusion it's advance spawn of them with its scope extending as it did along the line of more than two hundred fifty miles priscilla's idea was that by attacking everywhere he was sure to find a hole somewhere and he indulges reserves scapegoat they were close enough to the front so that they could exploit opportunities as soon as any peter it and co he continued school and the result was from a first down or the success of almost incredible magnitude the awestruck gurion fourth army disintegrated when it hit seventy one thousand of its man more than half the army were killed or wounded or captured the seventh was wrecked even more completely losing one hundred and thirty three thousand men it was the same almost everywhere after three days percy law found himself in possession of three hundred thousand prisoners before the end of the week more than half of the austrian defenders to become casualties and quo percy aloft shattered the austrians and then he ran into the typical problem any russian commander runs into the inability of the russian army in government to give him enough stuff fast enough for him to not slow down and have his offensive peter route but this maneuver had a domino like effect on the war because at verdun a balkan how i now have a crisis on his hands in the east room news going to have to pull troops out of burden that to go save the austro hungarian army which was disintegrating and let's understand the austro hungarian forces we told about those those troops who were microcosm of the empire as a whole would you wanna be there you had the whole units nineteen battalions regiments of slobs throw down their weapons and surrender to the russians who by the way our schloss to lead us not forget that this war began when the slavic international assassinated the ostertag area near to the throne right in our asking slobs to fight for that empire many of them threw down their weapons they need more would die miserably do or die fighting with a vampire and they certainly do what i've quite a bit empire against their slavic brethren in fact some of these units are said to jump into the trenches with the russians turned around and trained their guns back on the side that had just affected for home the germans will manage to contain witter wonderful for me the russian threat and they will halt to barcelona sundance and even dilutive feet to the russians but already the single minded focus of balkan high number donna's been shattered the russians who put in such waterfall effort in the bristol offensive indeed such terrible damage to the austrians suffered immensely though wall doing so well over a million casualties suffered in the persian gulf offensive which once again takes the russians and begins to ratchet up the level of dissatisfaction getting them closer and closer to the breaking point you can almost feel it in the air in nineteen sixteen a couple of these major powers are within one good poncho going down in the spring of nineteen sixteen french military leader joseph joffe for tells his british counterpart but france is one of those nations within a good shot of going down remember by this time they had a motive to labor down the french are severed like two hundred thousand casualties and at least this early tomorrow's independent nobody knows yet a bottle of forgot looks like a german leader faulkner and planned to bleed the french army white is working why he can take your eyes off first world war they like to prize fighters and just when you think one guy's taken over the side yet again when the good shot somebody sneezed buckled and spring nineteen sixty sharper tells sir douglas hague the current commander british forces it's france whose misa debacle the urges hate to start that summer offensive that he'd been planning for a long time on the river song early does it even started early the french army will cease to exist get so worked up we're told that he can only be consoled and calm down with lots of eighteen forty brandy in a funny you're eighteen for a cure for needy good brandy to come down the last hague speeds up the big offensive player for the summer of nineteen sixteen discussed with all the other allies in late nineteen fifteen this is a long term plan a.'s can launch utterly his long term plan results in the most controversial piece from the british standpoint of this whole war may be aroused british military history in its entirety first of all that was hague after understand that the field marshal which offers talking to is the new guy it's just like most of the great powers in the first world war by nineteen sixteen they've fired the person they got them into this mass rape and the war is terrible everybody's who preaches we're on nobody's fighting it was also one by one all these countries are sat in the people that got him into this mess the russians drop there's the germans have called amounting to get rid of almost killed while the war was dino in its early phases the french still have shot for crazily enough but i'm in a bad reputation of the miracle the morning nineteen forty will only to reduce soulful reagan of long to go either and the british in late nineteen fifteen sack search on french what we told him the last episode the guy who gets his key is a guy named douglas hate to be a field marshal he's another one of these cavalry commanders to which we we're war work how do we become something you keep off to the side no abuse 'cause he just gets killed in the horses are more important to mustafa his crazily enough and we haven't talked enough about the sun will get to it horses are everywhere there's millions of them in this war an air casualties to bother why but all these cavalry commanders french hague all these guys have these visions that we're gonna break the german lines somewhere in the mccaffrey can go rushing in the hole we create an eagle and the back it's it's the creed no they're mocked or blitzkrieg version of that but the strategy continues throughout history right arm goes back to a pre alexander turned smash the counter we in the whole world blinds it's blitzkrieg before yeah motor vehicles a masterpiece cavalry commanders are still dream of two years into the war that porch the final nail in the cost and the idea that this cavalry has any off pensive world apply probably after member it's still is the fastest moving thing on the battlefield in large numbers giscard me get motor vehicles bud in a tough to the more vehicles to handle to rein in the very unreliable horses are still the fastest mobility you have so they're valuable just for that what alone they're very vulnerable don't the stories of of of dead horses and the suffering of animals in the story is on your discussed no less douglas i need the british cavalry commander tom has at his disposal some of the largest reviewed the largest army is the bird has ever had ready to go to war because those volunteers that star adjoining when lord her ratio to cheer you remember the british military leaders in the beginning the war the guy when you see his picture screen is nineteenth century man on it i mean what the giant mustache from another error you could almost see him in a british red coat and he's the big race in the recruiting poster telling britain's patriotic greatness to sign up for king and country in a shilling cage there's another one of these pre war early war generals and military leaders has been hit hard by in other conduct in the war the other linda block in seoul genius like when the first rewarded start with you right so as kitchener of reputation is starting to wayne he still got one real feathering is cabinets couples army said he helped recruit nineteen fourteen in nineteen fifteen and that he is protected like a proud parent and ascended to glibly dogs and the western front or we don't throw them in the meat grinder like everything else save ahead and really make use of their patriotic contribution the people wanna when the war let's put them in a position where they can do that he's got an admirable job at about three weeks before those soldiers known sometimes they pitched our armies of the kitchener divisions after him we're gonna lose the guy that was probably most responsible for seeing that the warrant you stop already in the first place kitchener dies about three weeks before his legions are thrown into the fray the crazy story on to hold that he used the same as any one of those big modern guess so so the same as a princess really diana dying or winston churchill diner j. f. k. dying in onstage seniors of two member when that happened in britain's of the pure you remember when they were when they heard that lord ratio kitchener british military leader and almost demi god at least at the beginning award has gone down at sea while worship on the way to russia on some military mission any double goes down at night enough force nightingale you're getting a mine and there are survivors to say take is with the green assault that they saw kitchener on the deck is the ship went down impassively sold accepting his state understanding on the deck is the ship goes in the benita waves that really works about all nineteenth century military leader reputation doesn't end nonetheless dabbing conspiracy theories ever since about this believe it or not it's won't agree conspiracy fountain and to come out of the first four or five nonetheless it meant that three weeks later when kitchener is no rental he preserved army is refining thrown into the fray he's not there have any say in the guy who is douglas hate the new diet now known to saw me in history as the butcher so that should give you an idea of orbit to get into the key you're on a wide variety of fronts this battle is won that sir douglas hated been preparing for since the year before when the french told him that they were in danger of disintegrating he's moving up something he's been working on for awhile metal and everyone knows it the big nineteen sixteen offensive is no secret hackett in newspapers basically nick that when you find always everybody knew this was coming it make you wonder writing in our intelligent is to be launching something that everybody knows is coming but it couldn't really be helped if you're gonna fight at this bahamas salt river with the british and french forces in the meat on the western fraught with with the british linings and the french wine begins that's what they're gonna hold this joint offensive may he be for the sole reason that the odds were both armies are that would be really silly reason to attack the greatest differences on the western front which of the greatest defense is ever in the world right now these defenses that made the old roman it on you'll lines that you would cross you were up with these giant wall and we need money here there's never been defenses like as the germans are to point out with a building creature comforts into there are a lot of fortified lining up would wallpaper on a new gown electric lights and ventilation and you know running water mean it's crazy that the trenches are in some cases all lined with wooden boards don was about as much fairer unassisted germans are known for these are huge modern fortifications and some sense in east germans on the other side is lined with the french and british are thinking about watching this big nineteen sixteen offensive have bonkers there are thirty or forty feet underground cutting to the chalk of these hills that the germans occupied they are looking down at four months as the british lower up all the stasi no need for more offensive all that stuff we said that the germans needed a bird on the british needed to solve like the french to you but why the late prime railroad lines no new tracks to the battlefield 'cause that's how often and how many trains are the running just on lowering stop for months three million shells millions of pounds of food me crazy mckee engineering course they're building things you know fulani permanent structures while the germans watch the whole thing and play in court and training for their having drills every day now how quickly can we get up for more underground bunker get up to the truncheon in the machine guns before debris soldier on top of us right everybody knows this is coming and everybody knows how to quit before the british take these armies with many many many green troops had never been a battle put them in the trenches opposite these german lines again a position so strong that winston churchill says it was called on undoubtedly the strongest and most perfectly defended position in the war old an accord and start to bombarding it with artillery starch june twenty fourth nineteen sixty four lead by the way a lot artillery doesn't affect us on becomes one of about four or five first world war battles they compete for like the guinness book of world records for the biggest largest worst more intense most numerous you know picture category artillery bombardment of the war there are now has a history he can be arguing it would either history geek friends and it's always about criteria right are we talking about the largest number of shells walked right into our battle before you sixty million a bird on maybe were we talking about the most number of shells used in the initial part of the battle for the most number shall drop in the shortest period time or the smallest basin mean there's literally measurement of how many times of shells fell on each square meter of these battlefields and by the way to use that issue or and criterion for dawn is the worst artillery bombardment on any street nonetheless the fact that this all mean isn't this argument shelley's reliable barcelo we were talking about here when it opens up on the twenty fourth it's it's incredible when it's all young but the germans laugh little in a dish huge bombardment the germans are mostly underground under covered and most of the mormon is once again and shrapnel shells sounds ago little teeny point doesn't it for backup battle to turn on the head though shells been high explosive instead or maybe even gas this battle may go another direction and every story and brings up to the shrapnel was pretty much pointless it reads like a giant anger nader shotgun shell exploding in the journal is dull pellets hit the ground it's devastating to infantry on the open but the germans are in the open in addition the artillery is meant to do more than just kill germans artillery has to clear the battlefield of all the stuff that there is defenses so that the troops on the breeze shy connection get to the german trenches it's all barbed wire no man's land at another trench that another no man's land another trench the trenches we're all going uphill and these no man's land here is besides being filled with concrete bunkers are being told about before the killings owns they have yards of barbed wire stick asia thinker it's a physical impediment it has to be overcome by the generals the general's a figure it out in their minds and an artillery barrage of this you know caliber the amount for talking like the barbed wire will just explode into pieces and lobby in impediment when the artillery barrages over excepted shrapnel shells don't really affect it now there was a benefit to the artillery barrage that opens we've court before napoleon has disagreed on that comes in handy all the time the quantity has a quality all its own and the sheerer intensity of the spur watch began to have an effect on the germans even though they were physically protected from being in the injured by it it began to play on them first of all they know they've got something really nasty waiting them in their future it's gonna put yourself in your sheets okay they know that when the circular barrages over the british are going to be on them they been trying it for this moment from wants right brought up the stairs how quickly can you get to and from the machine gun in time to stop the grecian taking retrenched to dig on either be killed or be grievously wounded see a friend killed or wounded or have to kill someone didn't have really nasty day in there during your future in the meantime you're going to have a lot of the greatest artillery barrages in history going on around you reached the owner who will be at the spell field about a month and c. n. n. artillery barrage that is not as bad as this one he will compare it to the roar of the ocean he will say that need you're there are no individual style is any says it will be will achieve the times and last for hours and demented intensity but he says would eventually calms down calms down to me you're in drama fire which is you know the sound of abudrahm role at how fast it your shoulder dropping he says he is alone if the drummer week he had paganini individually to pollution just as one big loud sound but the demented fury did it reaches sometimes the blows them away literally and that's the kind of intensity the soldiers of living with no one at the baptist her horrible moment in your future it goes on for days and we're told that the german soldiers who were colonel laughing at the back of the british reusing like seventy percent shrapnel shells on them aren't laughing anymore i'm getting tired and stressed in you'll put yourself in the position does not sleeping for five days and now you know and all the other things on top of that so there is an effect of the surgeries having in the germans or write about it calmed the british commanders this is part of the controversy we're told that there were lots of people saying that this artillery barrage was to make this a cake walk and you've heard that before right the lobbies bells began to sound like you sit there repetitive news to the story if there is you're getting the right feeling out of it because that's how you know it's always been played in it seems like the people of the time fell to all no not again haven't we seen this movie before the general seemed always to what more stock in us more utterly give us more men give us deeper depends you will fix the situation so here's the biggest artillery barrage debris should ever launched they shoot off two million shells and on time and as for comparison purposes hundred years before this time at the battle of waterloo napoleon is estimated to have about twenty thousand campbell's with the french army so in two million shells and we could to verses twenty thousand it's it's crazy to level or to revoke m. c. here and a good law was good commanders into the sense that it's going to accomplish so much more than it does it's the soldiers on the ground know that produced be an historical reminders that most of them were too realistic and too savvy in too cynical to buying any of that rosie thinking the general's could afford to be rosie the guys on the ground going in for example but first wave of this assault that the germans billing waiting for you for months they know better and you could tell because there are absolutely heartbreaking last letters home that needed and the history books peter hart wonderful book on the great war palm has wore these letters from a captain charles many who fight to the twenty second interest richmond and he's writing to his wife rainbow for he goes over the top in this battle and and and i can't imagine imagine how would affect you to be in the position also writing a letter like this i listen to that but the permanent scarring your soul even if you get the proverbial reprieve from the governor right captain charles many of the twenty second manchester regiment was about to go over the top on the first day of the psalm and writes his wife quote i must not allow myself to dwell on the personal there's no leverage here also is demoralizing but i do not want to die not to my mind for myself it'd be lined ago one ready the thought that i may never see you or darling baby again turns my balls to water i cannot think of it was even the semblance of equanimity by one consolation is the happiness that than ours also my conscience is clear that i've always tried to make life a joy to you i know at least if i go you will not want that is something that is the thought that we may be cut off from one another which is so terrible and i'm babe may grow walk without my knowing her or without her knowing me difficult to face an end all your life without me would be a doll blank you must never let it become holy so for you will be left the greatest charge in all the world the upbringing of our baby god bless that child she's the hope of life to me my darling are of war in maybe eventually have to read these lines as one's a passing interest on the other hand they may well be my last message to you they are no for all your life that i loved you and baby with all my harness all the u. to sweet things were just all the world to me i pray god i may do my duty for i know that whenever that may entail you would not have an otherwise and quo i'm peter hart was remarkable sensitivity and to postscript and says quote charles made the loving husband of bessie many in father to his baby paulina would indeed be killed the next day he is buried in the dance a galley british cemetery small scale tragedies littered the history of the war sandra miners that the necessities of the war when the lives of millions and co because we said all this pain from those wars or like hubble's drop in water and ripples out word affect the rest of the society sweden millions of people impacted like is the ripple effect of text hands or who he be even hundreds of millions of people for while the saum becomes one of these pebbles dislike ground zero for huge ripple effect that will affect britain to this day i tried think about what mental state i would be in after writing a letter like that and when you think about millions of people young people mostly being in situations where they're writing a letter like that how does that change you mean they're going to be noticeable changes in this generation of people in the four years during this for shrub or i'd been comparing this period to historical estuary right where one generation another generation swimming pool the the old world and the new world but maybe it's more the warm hole through time and when this nineteenth century group of people in a transitions to twentieth century it's not coming keep intact it gonna suffer damage on the way through it's like a birthing process to the marrero and i can be bloody and painful and potentially fatal to the british have thought drop this war that they've taken large casualties gun battles nineteen fifteen places like the little league pulsar large casualty for the british which are a traditionally naval power an employee relatively buy continental standards small armies this is the first time they've had a large enough for me to suffer the timing casualties that some nations like the french and german to the russian to the sufferings hold on on july first nineteen sixteen the shelling subsides the whistles blow and these troops in the morning or poultry get out of their trenches and head across into no man's land i continued to take the german defenses and this is where they find out they had the assumptions made in the planning stages of this conflict haven't come to pass the way the military experts assumed they would and because of that british forces on the di re first day the battle of the psalm what's sauce for sixty thousand casualties twenty thousand dead there's never been a day like it in creation street and now all of a sudden they can understand how the french belt on august day in nineteen forty one may suffer twenty two thousand dead in an afternoon these are thoroughly modern casualties and to people not accustomed to complete our style the finger stir pony neatly what the heck happened generation of people who felt this miserably as kept this debate going any continues between historians even today what the hell happened pushers possible for this what happened at the troops will they get out of the trenches only to find it in most areas the assumption that this artillery would smash up the wire wasn't true on the wire which they are it was a physical impediment in no man's land trapping troops in the open so they could be worried by machine gun fire marshal ray for two but mainly machine gun fire from those germans were not as badly affected by the artillery either as the planners have assumed they would be thompson thousands of british soldiers are being mowed down all the time one german on the other side is this human tragedy at the battle of the psalm the first day is courting in passing and all the kaiser's man any says quote the leading way of the british troops was now halfway across no man's land get ready was passed along or fraud and heads appeared over each shell crater ranchers final positions were taken of the best view the machine guns mounted firmly in place a moment later when the first british line was within a hundred yards the rattle of machine gun and rifle fire broke out on our whole line of she'll call was followed soon after by deadly accurate shell fire the advanced rapidly crumbled under this halo she alone bullets all along the line may need to be seen throwing up their arms and collapsing never to move again in the extended lines go badly shaken with many gaps now came on all the faster instead of the leisure we walk they covered the ground in short rushes at the double within a few minutes bleeding troops had advanced to within a stone's throw of our front trench again and again the extended lines to british infantry broke against the german defense like waves against the cliff only to be beaten back it was an amazing spectacle of one example gallantry courage and bulldog determination on both sides and crew now the laws of the troops who made it to the wire there were places where gaps had been blown in the wire the problem was of the troops were congregated those gaps 'cause they're the only way to the other side and then get stocking giant backups is as a small stream of troops made it through the court or in those those backups in those globs of soldiers just waiting for their chance to get through the court or the water would be mowed down by shell fire and machine gun fire this day has so affected the british in fact it's their version ever don lockwood grid honest to the french sold this all means to the british won and in his devices historians ever since then you can see normally common sedate rather cold sometimes british historians lose their head over the subject mean john keegan who alm as i've said is not my favorite but but to the two world wars are thinker for his strong point when you can tell he's a guy who's hung out with some of the enlisted troops that were trapped a bad day at the song because there containing the anger and the incredulity about this whole thing has rubbed off on him and by the way if you were trapped there like a sitting duck on you and open plain be no man's land watching your body's get blown to bits and you're freaking out you would be thinkin' to go to help put me here who's responsible for this if i ever get out of his heads will roll of course most of these i'm british troops up this bottle or not all the cost increases i could've made much of a boss but they got oil defenders who will win this is over tea games one of them by the way up you can you can just be healed the anger what he writes quote in all the british and lost about sixty thousand of whom twenty one thousand had been killed most of the first hour of the attack perhaps the first man at the trenches world robert keith fifty years later now he's quoting roberti court or the concentration camps of the first world war he can talk again though the analogy is what an academic reviewer would call on historical there he is something troubling come like about almost all accounts of the first of july about these long das idolizing young man shot only uniformed heavily burdened numbered about their necks to identify after they were killed plodding forward across a featureless landscape to their own extermination inside the barbed wire counsel the soul mate he writes producing readers an audience is much the same range of emotions as do descriptions of the running of auschwitz guilty fascination incredulity or discussed petey and anger and coke and he goes on to say that this is not just from the p. snakes and tender hearted out there not just from the military historians were you getting from your body goes but from the professional troops to he says quote anger risk the response which the story of the saw most commonly evokes among professionals meaning soldiers why did the commander's not do something about it why did they let the attack the wall and why did they not stop one battalion following the wake of another to join in dat pinnacle the fingers and save some battalion were stopped but that's one of the things of so many people got angry about it what you saw for example that the wire was still there why'd you let more lines of troops get about the trenches and fall of the people who just got destroyed in front of them this is how someone like hague gets a reputation for a butcher now i've gone out my wings permanent ag probably noticed two in nineteen fifteen copies general slack because they're learning reduces all new stock fund into a huge barely or are you said you know why can't you but it was pointing shark holding these people accountable for not learning there was a great line from home the civilian political leader germany a guy named best men hold it was telling the kaiser were the end of nineteen sixty nice talking about fall can i get the german military leader but he could equally would apply to a lot of military leaders in this war especially at this time he asked the kaiser called where does in competency and in criminality began and a coke how many allies are you allowed to lose experimenting before you learn the lessons but you're a great many military historians to that he who are trying once again to this and that's what they're doing we're still holding them to too high a standard too much hindsight going on here is what peter hart writes quote for many people the saw many equally oddly for donna have come to symbolize the great war few child battles fought with other people's lives by incompetent an uncaring generals in particular for the british he says the disaster of the first of july on the song and has become the sole prism through which the conduct of the whole big rewards been viewed there is no light and shade here are just a dark disparate the numbing horror the teeming casualties explanations of what went wrong why you're thrust aside the in the past subdued references to a quote unquote learning curve for the generals had been seen as an insult to the dead there remains widespread belief he writes that there must have been a better way something else code or should've been done someone must be blamed much of this opprobrium has fallen on the head of douglas hate was at times been reviled as a mass murder were yet this was the inevitable price of engaging in continental warfare on the mainland field of battle against the primary enemy france was well accustomed to the pain of continental warfare but for britain it was in new experience germany had no exposed likes just the imposing fortifications of the western front defending their nineteen fourteen games wrested from france and belgium unfortunately for all their tactical improvement in technical innovations the british were just simply not able to breach those defenses or kill sufficient germans even in concert with the french have forgotten to bring germany to it's knees and quote it also makes you wonder a little about the quality of the shoe human beings who wore a commanding these endeavors were making these plans and we're watching all these people die and be wounded because of these plans which how bad is the general feel the next decade well it's not something you can easily figure out again john cheating seems to be so angry at the field marshal here or i'm still for this conflict that he he he writes an answer to that question colonel command you have to be to suffer those camera casualties in the next day think about continuing the right chord haig who his contemporaries found difficult to know has become today an enigma the successful generals of the first world war though she did not crack out right or decline gradually into pessimism willing hard lot as they had to be with the casualty figures accumulating on the desk some nonetheless managed to combine toughness of mind with some striking human characteristic joffe rock he says you patrolled ability and the burned gravity falk fire amirault certainty hague he says issues public may entering private diaries no concern for human suffering losses or is discernible compensated for his aloofness with nothing whatsoever of the common touch he seemed to move through the horrors of the first world war is if guided by some your voice speaking of a higher purpose an appreciable destiny that we now know he says was not just appearance haig was it devote she bolted spiritualist practices and a fundamentalist religion as a young officer get taken to attending seance is when the medium put him in touch with napoleon as commander in chief he fell under the influence of a presbyterian chaplain who sermons confront him in his belief that he was in direct communication with god and had a major part to play in the divine plan to the world his own simple religion keegan says he was convinced was shared by his soldiers were inspired thereby to bear the dangers of suffering news which were there part of the war he was directing and cool wow welcome to the controversy and the heat the battle of the psalm has generated amongst those who write about it but justifiably so i think truthfully i think there were military people we're certainly willing to forgive douglas hague for suffering sixty thousand casualties on the first in the battle of assault if he inflicted something like sixty thousand on the germans instead the british suffer those coming casually and german casualties mabon as low as six thousand twelve thousand at a high number you sometimes see split the difference in eight thousand sold take sixty give it a teacher face ripped off not exactly the position you want your brand new general the new blood the person is gonna bring in new sense of success to the war or western front of a sudden douglas hagen look a lot better than the people who came before him hey john french could i do sir for sixty thousand casualties on the first it is all right the previous commander now put those numbers in perspective designed to do this for myself sixty thousand as amorphous number one was that compared to get this deal with the british for a hundred and one years by the battle of the psalms time had been talking or or bladed suffered no finishing off napoleon at waterloo right in the scene fifteen on the bullying killed eighty four hundred british soldiers eighty four hundred compared to twenty or twenty warner nineteen thousand that's huge difference right out of the second world war you we sink the second world war being worse than the first when the british americans landed on the beaches of normandy on june sixth nineteen forty four from famous d. day landings and pushed inland may not enough attention paid to keep order that whole thing you know winding up the bridge it was hard combat was historically hard combat but it took the british any merrick is combined monte de it's to reach twenty thousand casualties what took him to one gays combined british americans to reach one on the third the amount of casualties the british along suffered on the first day of the bottle the song that while crazy that sounds like for darnedest at those numbers start to select with the french are suffering or bolt in a battle to bleed their army white well data from guinness book of peace to handle peace courts norman stone bout how large these battles were compared with the people in your pre used to he says quote it is been estimated that the total of the military and civilian casualties in all of europe's domestic and international conflicts in a hundred years between eighteen fifteen and nineteen fifteen was no greater than the single days combat losses in any of the great battles of nineteen sixteen and co that's an incredible statistic we think of all the battles the europeans want in your opinion colonies in all that all of that put together all the european countries raw hundred years doesn't equal one of the bad days had forgotten or the psalm the societies that could handle these coming casualties or remarkable but they took their toll pleasure might imagine the time five months of the saum is over have another million casualties basically in five modest sober don gives you the roughly about a million and a song the usual roughly about a million all at the same time the burn rain on the western front as horrified in nineteen sixty and remember all of these battles are like a lot of littler battles sugar lump together and at the song for example the germans will counterattack in that five month period more than three hundred times the town of those counterattacks in ancient times within about an all by itself right toward the reason why it's so hard to follow the nature of these battles churchill has an overall description that is just horrifying olive conceptual view of the estimate she went to spain was really going on if you could you would soar from space and he writes about both to saum hamburger unquote the anatomy of the battles of bird on this almost the same battlefield had been selected around this battlefield walls were built double triple quadruple of enormous cannon behind these railways were constructed to feed them and mountains of shells were built up all this was the work of months' thus the battlefield was completely encircled by thousands of guns of all sizes and why in the oval space prepared in their midst through this awful arena all the divisions of the charlie battered ceaselessly by the enveloping artillery were made to pass in succession as if they were in the teeth of interlocking cobble heels clanking each other for month after mont he writes the ceaseless cannon made continued added but most intensity and mont that come on the gallant evasions of heroic human beings were torn to pieces in this terrible rotation then came the winter pouring down rain from the sky to clog the fleet of men and drawing bales of me just before the hawk eyes of their artillery the arena measures to happen in the coliseum in those miniature roman days was flooded with water of vast sea of an sanguine maud churned by thousands of vehicles by hundreds of thousands of men and millions of shells were placed the blasted dost still the struggle continued still the remorseless wheels rubber ball still we auditorium of artillery roared at last legs of many could no longer move they wallowed in floundered helplessly in the slime their food and ammunition lagged behind them along the smash and choked roadways and who i keep corn churchill because wasn't that positively to hold can ask by the way there are people who you say that hawkins experiences with the first for a war influenced in his way of writing and thinking but if the day he would've been just want millions of other people that had their outlook transformed by this conflict and how could you not as we said so imagine writing that last letter home words essentially a goodbye letter that can change you can to binomial lot of people had terminal illnesses had monster know the death was in the near future it often changes come doth and creates this introspective mood for all of a sudden they're focusing on subjects to people don't usually spend our afterall or day after day focusing on bridge right in front of the right to the terminal cancer it's going to be on your mommy and the thinking about it changes you what if you had a terminal disease at all of us and the last minute the doctor's degree out we cure you when you were dragged back from the brink but you'd spend a couple milan stinking intensely about life and death and the meaning of things of which we've done differently always really heavy duty thought that most people can only stand to think about in short little burst usually there are exceptions now imagine millions of people during his nineteen forty nineteen eighteen period who would've found themselves in a similar short of the situation pretty much shoe or they were going to die in the near future be horribly disfigured thinking about the heaviest the subject writing letters home the loved ones saying in on them is not going my baby daughter and then some of them getting a reprieve and getting a chance to live this life they were all the writing off during the war studies war experiences that is a searing personal experience that millions of individual persons went through is that not change the society when they go home and you know one of the things about battles especially beast first world war battles estate showed our court the initial industrial under so unbelievably horrifying the trial how zombies graveyard feel the battlefields in the first when we're making that but take your glee in a mind bending you'll see a lot of art around the first one war that shows corpses decay and it's not so you feel sympathy with the dead figured it so that you understand what was like for those people living amongst all those decaying corpses to deal with that reality mind bending battles mind bending enough right you add all the incredible artillery which is disorienting as as all get out and then thrown in the bodies and pieces of bodies everywhere when you're living as we said the unique experience it's a lot of hell and yet to someone like yours truly that creates the circumstances where human and brotherly love up here is so like a light in the darkness part of why battles are interesting to study is because as you probably figured out you can see the worst human behavior names inhumanity to man in them you can also see these pieces of humanity slip through him when they do they're all the more bright and noticeable because they're happening in how was opposed to us he was on that happens in your neighborhood rival peace humanity not that surprising your neighborhood probably major daily brighter apiece humanity and held these battlefields has a u. rejuvenating effect for one's feel about men take for example the sacrifice these no man's land mines in between the fighting lines of the two sides of the western front created something that the battles of hat forever in the second one we get these crossroads for example were some machine gunner had set up in all the sudden it was deaf to cross this crossroad of the western front is hundreds of miles all of trench lines all of them with his dead zone between him and the really big firms were law was happening there was towns of drama in those dead zones things would happen that would challenge men's more morality which you're willing to do a perfect example is in the battle of the psalm when the sixty thousand casualties ally of other casualties over the course about about war happening the germans are often taking pity on their fellow human beings and the british write about it i mean when it he's british attacks would break against the german defenses and in the wounded were star back toward the safety of the road trenches grabbing even worse wounded people with them in trying to ponder machine gun and artillery fire get back to the wrong trenches are times these terms which is start shooting on the first terrible day there were often times with a machine gunners and officers which is a stop let me get back to human thing to do right on the other hand if they had just machine gun and that when the surprise to anybody either the one he do now bob those people or stock out there in no man's land after the attack is over there all sorts of stories about people who will simply it became drag themselves to near shall hold wrap themselves up in the tarpley keep to keep the rain out in open up a bible which is diana shell holes when they don't they can often have a terrible effect on the men in the trenches on both sides the apaches on in the american southwest you to be able to make such could use avraham hostages and if you threaten to torture or hospital you did torture hostage could get all kinds of sessions from the other side of their hostages that they eat is holding in the middle blows no man's land areas and what you do you want more bombs start asking for help and they're basically calling do you your bodies from no man's land if you wanna see heroism and sacrifice as human beings can show hindi nice hellish situations read you count over and over about home and dealt with as screens for help from no man's land a perfect example of the car no moral dilemmas and self sacrifice of these situations it'll create is the story the robber graves tells him goodbye all that when he was serving at the sole mama western front as soldier names samson gets hit in the wave before graves is wave goes over the tops of graves is just getting ready for this intense experience and cellphone gone over the top of the trench with other human beings radiant heat that machine gun fire and all the sudden you hear the sound of somebody from the last attack from no man's land in a word to death to stand up and move around asking for help were screaming out in here for graves right remember he's a he's in the state himself of thinking okay got it walking machine gun fire and i've just seen all these other people dying from an equal my mouth was dry my eyes out of focus of my legs quaking under me i found water bottle full of roman drank about half a pint is quite a bit me in my head remained clear samson lay growling about twenty yards beyond different trench several attempts were made to rescue him he'd been very badly hit three men get killed in those attempts to officers into men wounded in the end it is all already managed to crawl out to him samson waved him back saying he was rumbled through we're not worth rescuing he said his apologies to the company for making such a noise and co now sources guys out there screaming and it's so driving his own comrades crazy that they keep running out there to do something and everyone runs out there to do something gets killed at one point if you're the wounded person to try to just stop making noise so that they don't keep trying to help you out of sympathy when you probably are dying anyway now you've lost three people or more simply trying to the upper band the inevitable you're going through so at night when we are told in no man's land here we are comes to life and in a word of yours deserted during the daytime ignite the trench patrols go out the people who look no fixed the barbed wire or the intelligence folks the people conducting train train to mean supposedly there's a lot of activity in the dark even though star shells why the disguise all the time the dark grazing his unit moves on to gold reroute any wounded in front of trenches me red coat at dusk we all went out to get the war ended up leaving only sentries in the law and the first dead body i came upon the same sins hid in seventeen places i found the borscht is knuckles into his mouth to stop himself crying out attracting any more men to their death and co this poor man out there shit seventeen times suffering horribly are unable to keep from crying out can't stand the thought of attracting any more than men to rescue him and dies with his hand in his mouth to keep from crying i mean you it it's it's a beauty that did not finds its way into the rough ignace of this war if you're that person's parent there's nothing i can soldier that doesn't make you feel any better but in being you look at that and say there's something about that man sacrifice it's beautiful now graves tells another story which not only shows the heroism and the beauty of one of his compatriots but the same sort of an attitude on the part of the people the british car with a bad guys the germans as we said the german to be holding their fire quite a bit you know during this bottle and you see it on the french side of the british side to him this is not abnormal it's a little bit like a christmas truce we talked about nineteen fourteen pilot error of this war were spontaneously troops got up and sort of gave each other really little christmas levin between the showings read you see this humanity appear even in this hell greatest talks about another soldiering no man's land wakes up dubbed seemingly get in the most ardent is crying for help and when this happens every man in his trench feels like he's going through some sort of a moral taxed and one man passes it with flying colors gray's writes quote on the morning of the twenty seventh acquire rose firm no man's land wounded soldier with the middlesex united recovered consciousness after two days he lay close to the german why are our men are didn't look to the charter we had a tender hearted lance corporal mean baxter or he was the man to boil up a special dixie for the sentries at this section when they came off duty made a little super t. as soon as he heard the wounded middlesex man he ran along the trench calling for a volunteer to help fetch him in the course no one would go is get to put one's head over the pair of it when he came running to ask me i excused myself as being the only officer in the company i would come out with him at dusk i said not now so he went along he jumped quickly over the parrot it and then strolled across no man's land waving a handkerchief the germans fire to frighten him but since he persisted they let him come close actor continue toward them and we got to the middlesex man stop intended to show the germans what he was asked me what was up to any dressed the man's wounds gave him a drink of rahman some biscuit the happy with him and promised to be back again at nightfall he didn't come back graves right with the stretcher party and a man eventually recovered i recommended baxter for the victoria cross being the only officer who witnessed the action but the authorities thought it worth no more than a distinguished conduct medal and co sounds worthy of the victoria cross to me and that's one of those incidents were you see the opposite of man's inhumanity to man in and in the firemen designed to foster the former it stands on all the more chestnut the baxter could easily been mowed down and if you don't think it happens remember three people were mowed down trying to say that wounded samson character in the first craves story i can help wander how my generation would handle what these people were forced to do you think of the first day on the battle of the solemn think of yourself in the second way it or the third way you've been here all this stuff from the officers about all the ochoa old story everybody can only be left alive and in the first wave in from the u. units to chew now walk go over the top and don't even get near their objective before they're cut to ribbons it's an absolute catastrophe and screw up and everybody can see it happening and they turned the next wave maybe that's not you maybe you're in the third and tell them to go to the same thing in the doing the same thing happens right it's suicide now they've turned to you may say okay it's your unit stern what he'd do you forget how orders for second because there are people who simply ran away or who's a nurse failed him or whatever this is not a question of no what cluj you do you physically this is a question of what would you do see i think a lot of us would think yourselves there's no way am surviving going on to that battlefield this officer was in here tell me do this in my body's and i just sort of decided all together we're not doing this may be something would change nope the first war novel to come out of the first for war actually came out and join the first world war or frenchman named henri barbosa and he wrote something where he has a soldier had served already he was a disabled veteran he wrote this piece wobble war was still going on it's surprisingly anti war for the government to put up with it during the conflict and he implied that the soldiers on both sides the common soldiers just agree with each other to the notify you knew what they gave or no one came right what that soldiers on both sides say the mall the government can justify born of fight anymore i'm barbara said that in the book did the truthfully the only people who really understood that the french soldier and a british soldier we're going to be nice hellish conditions with the german soldiers on the other side of the no man's land living under the exact same hellish conditions when the germans all fire on the british were getting their wounded a lot of times it's because there's this unwritten deal that says and leave you alone right now to get your wounded people monitor in the hopes that when it's my wounded people in no man's land on trying to get them out of there you'll let me one of the real phenomenon to this war is the fact that one left alone lot of soldiers on both sides decided to adopt which what's officially known as live and let live attitude in this warning was it was common everywhere but the western from more than any other where for example soldiers would be required in the hague this job to go out at night and put more barbed wire pop in the middle of no man's land to sneak out does it start a new breed wire which you why recovers all these things enough to go hang me why are the next really dangerous job and all sides hated it right the la times they just wouldn't shoot at the other people were putting why you're now the officers hated us and what the big scandals was after the christmas truce the so called christmas truce in nineteen forty one both sides of fraternize the officers had to make all these arrangements so that next christmas nothing like this happen again in a minute preserve the proper fighting spirit would be the way most of these militaries with phrase about the troops often thano lot more to like about each other than their own officers corporal lee bar thompson french army right about this incident were flawed encouraged all the sudden the trenches on both sides in no man's land have to clear and how you have one of those moments where you just look at church in the mean he looks at you when you realize the socks you put us into this mess and why are we doing this in your house right up bart as a socialist like a lot of these troops in the trenches are so she has a world view the courtesies the upper classes the corporate groups all that is the problem and that the average soldiers in the trenches were orders come up common workers being exploited by the man and he writes about this famous flooded the experience is awarded doesn't out freaks out you know his mind the upper classes in the officer corps of all of sudden you know both sides in this combat or starting there have some sympathy for each other any rate quo one night when the rain came down in torrents the tide invaded our dog out and cascaded down both sets of steps height of the storm some of the men had to devote all their wrapper to building a dam which toward them broke three one three or four places we spent the rest of the night battling the flood waters the next day december tenth and many places along the front line the soldiers had to come out of their trenches so as not to drown the germans had to do the same we therefore had the singular spectacle of the two enemy armies facing each other without firing a shot our common sufferings brought our hearts together melted hatreds nurtured sympathy between strangers and adversaries those who deny entering or in human psychology frenchmen in german see right look to the job there and saw that they were all men no different from one another they smiled exchanged comments hands reached out and grasped we shared to back up the canteen of coffee or lawn if only we spoke the same language one day he writes a huge gamble of the german stood about amounting gave the speech which only the germans could understand word for word but everyone knew what it meant because he smashed his life form a tree stop breaking into when a gesture anger applause broke out on both sides in the international was on the suspense be national anthem of the socialist comes and educated workers come on he says quote well if only you'd been there mag kane's bloody generals fanatical ministers jingoistic journalist rear echelon patriots to contemplate the sublime spectacle but it was none not he says that the soldiers refused to fight another what was needed was for them to turn back on the monsters who were pushing them one against the other and to cut them down like wild beasts for not having done so how much longer with the killing go on meanwhile he says are big shot leaders were nephew or what in the lord's name what happened at the soldiers refused to kill each other our artillery men received orders to fire on any assemblies again which were pointed out to them and a modem indiscriminately both frenchmen and germans just like when in ancient circus is they slaughter why obese two were too intelligent to tear each other's throats out and of our reach other furthermore he says what bro moron was established again for better or worse it was forbidden under penalty of death to leave the trench any act of familiarity with the germans had to seize it was over was really needed was a second biblical flawed the universal delucia stop the war to appease all the anger in the bloody madness of our leaders who knows he says maybe one day in this corner of our top they wore gray is a monument to commemorate this period of fraternity among men who shared the horror of war and were forced to kill each other against their will and co there are multiple accounts from socialist soldiers that sound like that but it's more complex than that until the p. and tries to make this statement in our can be told we talked about this horrible wife peace corps shoulder forced when two or ten about the complexity involved in trying to make some statement that the soldiers are all of warmonger view born about anything we george we're stronger the german glitter all this terrible stuff antenna finds it uplifting gibbs writes these horror stories in the news is this about the solemn and soldiers there cope but however deep the knowledge a tragedy command would be a liar if you refuse to admit the heroism the gallantry of youth even the gay idiot many nice infernal marks psychology on the psalm was not simple and straightforward men were afraid but the year was not there dominating the motion except in the worst hours man hated this fighting without excitement and often exhortation sometimes an intense stimulus of all their senses and passions before reaction and exhaustion men became g. bring a huge with shell shocked as i saw some of them but others rejoiced when they saw our shells plowing into the enemy's earth works laughed at the road narrow escapes and grotesque comma kelly's of this monstrous doubletree the officers you wretch we're proud of their man eager for their honoring achievement the men themselves were in rivalries with other bodies of troops and proud of the wrong prowess they were scornful of all that the enemy might do to them yet a knowledge does korea to power they were quick to kill him yet also quick to give them a chance of life by surrender and after that were nine times out of ten shovel risen kindly but incredibly brutal on the rare occasions when passion overcame that some tail treachery they had the pride of the skilled labor or he writes in his own craft as machine gunners bombers raider trench mortar men and we're all keen to show their skill whatever the risks they were healthy animals with animal courageous well as animals the year and they had some of them a spiritual and moral fervor which gave them risk death to save a comrade we save the position would kill both the u. detritus better them or lead men with greater fear then there's the live from our that our and forgot the pair or the misery that had passed i did not forestall the future by apprehension unless they were sensitive mind with the worst quality men might have in modern warfare imagination and co well the imagination i can see being a down side if you were in the trenches under fire you're looking at your watch as some of these troops in the trenches did sang i have fifteen minutes left to live now at ten minutes left to live now i have five minutes left to live as the countdown to going over the top happened yes i can see how that would drive you crazy the other hand we're getting to the part of the war were they really imaginative mind scam began to to obstruct have an impact on these brand-new twentieth century problems that only became apparent about two years ago when this war started some of the solutions to the problems the first world war it brings into play debut during the battle of the salt and they look once again is it to me baby is something that the shell unintentionally look like something out of science fiction this case h. g. wells or if you want leave some people all the way back to leonardo da vinci people who first come up with the concept elves if you will a land she up churchill in the navy called the land battleships sometimes we know them by the turn tank and tank is supposedly simply something that caught on it was supposed to be a copper word so that no one knew what was being worked on in secret in the u. laboratories of the allies they would suggest that this giant armored tractor or was intended to bring up supplied him with water to the front line troops under fire so with hank if you will water tank on a battle what these little battles that make up all these giant battle support of the battle of this almanza ten or fifteen to an offensive to take a particular part of the battlefield is launched and debuting or upon should these tank channel thirty or forty something like a budget i'm broke down on the wedding you get instantly see another this is the solution to the problem right if you go to your engine years when the war start to say listen we got this barbed wire machine gun artillery situation with no man's land in the speech when she she getting it passed up a drawing to a comeback with designed the dead they've got a giant tractor and it's so long to be ken spann most of these trenches so he can go way not get trapped most of the time it only goes about the speed of all walking human being but the point isn't to drive around real fast everywhere the point is to not get killed while you're crossing no man's land and not get held up by barbed wire these things and design is simply run over barbed wire machine gun bullets will correct and shrapnel won't hurt them and they'll get to the other side will wipe out strong points and when the debut nobody has any idea what that could be like another one of those moments week on a bike true nails and you watch the new technology in this case not stuff developed in the last hundred years but never had a chance to be tested in this case stop developed specifically in response to problems buffer for warp in a brings up like a no man's land and they perform down really wow now they break down the block it and other terribly uncomfortable for the people inside these are large to the zike fifteen people in the spring an they like it almost the boss and tell rate they have either machine gun on command of the cyber couple of six pounder guns which are about fifty seven millimeter and yet the germans don't know what to do with you need have stories of them surrendering the tanks and other reaction on the part of the british troops is either really excited and happy or they also laughing 'cause it looks bad karma call but in a sense this is what we talked about earlier this is the star wars team conch impure real walker thing for real now churchill and the people would back this idea from the time trench warfare got started that's one of the first plans were drawn up in the ideas brainstorm for something like this in the french were working on a two by the way churchill was mad and forever afterward she yelled and screamed at this concept could've really donna time that they just waited till there were enough of these line and battleships on to unleash a haphazard make a difference our argument which we also understand right is that what if they don't work what we don't know how they work how do we do this if we don't have a dress rehearsal before opening night so church alone the people on his sire say no you wasted and should be one big opening night did no broke the western front neither side singer you kidding me there's an open invitation of murphy's law but if you were looking to try to decide how you like you land battleship concept in practice after it was debuted at the battle the solemn while we have to know is cavalry commander douglas hague radioed back today corporate headquarters and the british army instead we want more those tanks now other things happened because of the battle of the soul to what was it was just yet for pork eric's on vulcan hart and the head of the german or to remember he said they took over after the sack of our malls get a guy who they started a war with an owl like a bunch of leaders who hold a football team in continually like to change coach's fault in heinz going to lose his keegan he's got for donna on his score card now he's got the solomon and the dispersal of offensive in in the last straw is everybody's whispering the remaining is gonna get in the war which doesn't sound like a big deal to us now but if you actually look at the literature especially german are stronger in the spa from that side of your all they really like biting her nails about the saw coming he did the war half million bayonets oh my goodness of rubbish really worried and apparently kaiser wilhelm the german air bridge really were in the pocket as an adult more than then it him in any time soon maybe later but none but no time soon and then boom almost right after ye issues today will be coming in the coming august twenty seventh i'm that's at all ken hine get sacked um the last part by the way i love how he knows his emperor william and all weems little quirks about power and balkanize last car the places you know if you replace me with the people everyone knew they would replace him with it you replace me with any bergen ludicrous that said and i can listen to you i'm the last chance you have of having an influence my words but that's basically we sit in the kaiser you had any role in the salt either stick with me 'cause if you put in the brig and luger from gerard the committee to go play with your choice in the corner apparently the kaiser felt like he had no choice sax on fault in holland who asks for a military command is given that some people think almost as an insult the command to go attack were made me out which you perceive them coming into the war he takes over a military command and conducting brilliant campaign against remain yeah conquering them quickly which may determine go now what will be so scandalous birmingham bayonets that the ring installed by the way folks mean think about how that's like a minor league team jumping into the middle of the game against them and perhaps best army in the twentieth century to find a fever mania so well equipped for this without ramp up period and they just got smashed and the worst part about the whole thing from the allied stempel immediately allies work so hard to get remain yet in the conflict is the aren't germany takes over warming either gonna look that country of every bit of wheat and oil anything they can take to offset the damage that the british blockade is doing so in the sense it's like they come upon this rumanian storeroom in the loop the whole thing so it sort of backfires on the allied cause nonetheless in newburgh including dorf this new command team the people who would be in charge on the eastern front for so long and sort of being the armchair quarterbacks from over there tell won the rest of the german khmer what they were doing wrong on the western front are now in charge of among other things the western front and in a bring a new perspective in a different way of looking at things and they will essentially coming into this german army for the rest of the war now how long the rest of the war's couldn't be able to go is an open question as nineteen sixteen begins to what if you begin to see the discontent ramping up everywhere on many different fronts when you begin to see for example hunger really bite will be winter the famous which are going to sixteen in germany it's called the turnip winter which tells you right there what's going on all the paulie exports for many you can get are going to to make up for the overseas import need to germany the russians are in terrible trouble remember this is a regime that almost got overthrown ten years before this time period the net exactly that the greatest most solid foundation anyway these million casualties they suffer nineteen sixty and to brush off offensive among other things are taking its toll french soldiers i'm beginning to bleed like sheep they passed by their officers these replacements will come up marching by an elvis you're bleeding sounds like sheep and landing allied to the slaughter of sort of as one author puts it on we needed the troops can silently protest what they feel is being done to them um hum front he didn't have the tragedy is beginning to really seeping is more and more people are personally affected for life on this conflict and obviously will this isn't the textbook example i don't think most people find themselves in and the same situation as this german couple there's a story from the time tree from a abbreviation observer in germany and during the war who was describing a train trip or she saw a koppel man woman on the train the stories absolutely heartbreaking been so many ways shows where we are buying the end of nineteen sixteen in this conflict the observer says cocked a poor woman the other day on the train was holding upper hand and counting the fingers on its lowly lawn you three four eyes over and over again and the passengers gradually began to smile at her the last the man sitting next her said simply the last of my wife ladies and gentleman and taking her to the asylum which are gone she's lost her five songs all killed in action and co when you really examine what's already happened since august nineteen fourteen come away with the feeling that if you had bet on the shore war like so many did you are amazed at the staying power of all the states grainy of wounded looked at particularly stable won the war broke out nonetheless as we've been saying threat to school program there's a limit to the endurance of anyone and we're about to enter the point when nations crack and break and in the not too distant future get knocked out we're on a bullet in its leading provider spoken audio entertainment of course i think we talked about on a blow few times on this program bombed or your books obviously a great speeches in history old time radio programs periodicals and magazines it's quite astounding how much stuff is being transmitted to the digital form these days and you can certainly understand why we incline casting a good better than most perhaps we understand how much people are incorporating the audio entertainment today or lifestyle things you have to do anyway why not you know here good book or maybe halfway decent pod get to the same time i mean on the bulls got so many good offerings right now in addition really no good excuse me why wouldn't you if you were just in the first world war as soon you or if you listen to this program by one to pick up your heart and we need to keep your heartbeat and to that we walk out with a few books we used to be sure why when you pick up his book this all the darkest hour on the western front one of the things and bring about hard as he swore lisa stories to put together a lot of firsthand accounts from oral testimony and remembrances of the people who were there so when something like this on the darkest hour and western front you get first hand account for people who were experiencing was going on there believe me i mean uses book at heart leaped hutch to those accounts because it was getting dark enough as it was wasn't it if it wasn't dark enough for you we'd like a little bit more the testimony from the people and experience there's one that got on board the campus on the darkest hour we're on the western front by historian peter hart if you go horrible upon cast on come on board slash hardcore history you can get you free audio book download reviews on oh even to show you this sir is worth a dollar dan and then it would love to have it about the shelf it's all we ask committee and carlin dot com for information on how to donate to the shell one of the justifiable criticisms you can level of the show we just did was it focuses inordinately on the western front i do that on purpose because to me when you're talking about teach dreams human experience the person comes to my mind on a ticket for for worsening situation the western front and a trench war all but then in that sense i'm not that different than most british french and german historian to focus the inordinately on the western front but i think we all know all that there's a lot of other things going on in this conflict in a bunch of other theaters the same way i was able to avoid talking about those other theaters for a while my goodness jumping around we would do if if we try to get everything in there would be more confusing them over already given you which is more confusing than i like it already nonetheless you could ignore just like most people in britain france or heck even in newark see the united states when you open up the newspaper in the far corner of like age it is a little blurb about maybe some obscure arab tribe uprising in some power of the way on a minute the street to or something doesn't mean that much to you not thinking that much about it after all the western front is grinding up a whole generation of europeans then in nineteen seventeen events in faraway peripheral players english is away a lot of people on the west might see them rise up and demand to be taken seriously whether it's the middle east in nineteen seventeen hundred bands that we are still shaking out to this day during your headlines daily where the rich the collapse an ancient european regime which opens the door too the twentieth century's most radical regime taking over in a major country it's also in nineteen seventeen that the vortex of the first world war manages to stock in an outside major power but for almost a hundred and fifty years has managed to stay out of direct involvement in european affairs as one of their early presidents had said the united states of america doesn't go abroad in search of foreign monsters to slay in nineteen seventeen to decide maybe just this once you know make the world say for democracy yes indeed mania of our modern situations at the siege for them planted in nineteen seventeen and we'll get to all that and are warm in par five the blueprint for armageddon