Episode: Show 52 - Blueprint for Armageddon III

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Show 52 - Blueprint for Armageddon III
The war of maneuver that was supposed to be over quickly instead turns into a lingering bloody stalemate. Trench warfare begins, and with it, all the murderous efforts on both sides to overcome the static defenses.

Dan Carlin's Hardcore History
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Politics, diplomacy, revolution and mutiny take center stage at the start of this episode, but mud, blood, shells and tragedy drown all by the end.
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Automated Transcript (Why is this transcription so bad?)
today show spotted by square space the only one platform the help she creating great looking website portfolio or online store everyone gets a fourteen day free trial in you're an additional ten percent off your first purchase just entered the offer code hardcore which are budgeteers par three them all by part series on the first world war if you're one of those individual that likes to know the story before the story you might wanna catch up on that was if you missed either one of 'em although some of you probate oman just being dropped into the middle of the story like you ride to the time machine and yet to figure things out if you want the scallion the jewels in a cares about those earlier to show up on it just jump on in the enjoying the horror in progress we blueprint for armageddon part three having someone my being boring whoa whoa hey wit will live give it an the pete's had loved well our gone no word for the appealed and stop the head one i had gotten at combat unit have caught pat it's accused had one by a group of lawyers and then the word though no wrong and i'm played plot loses the meantime the end of huh and hit a home and and why do homework the and the kid was white will lose and israel and those view of it that little bill the let wants to it's one of if we could be the martyrdom of gardening and who knows it and he from phil coleman her out each floor and coleridge history the very same week that the first world war weeks on august nineteen forty the british expedition leaves british waters and heads for the south pole antarctica led by going in our news shackleton jack what is one of the people it's normally associated with the retail ended would call the age of discovery the age of exploration reno with the tail end because you are like guys like christopher columbus shackleton and his crew have careless nineteen fourteen you bring a camera with you and he's able to document in photographs a real clear interesting photographs this war deal with he's about to experience as he's on his way to antarctica is keeping tabs on this war that broke an hour right wing left wing as the first real purina globalization of the world and we can keep track of the telegraph of the bus or major bands are going on unlike everyone shackleton is appalled by the scale you can't believe the minor casualties the number of people the challenge is involved in logistics it feels like this flame that is burning in an unbelievable intensity so everybody just assume that couldn't continue for you all but in the assumption even before the war broke out the kaiser famously sister was departing true to be all over the leaves fall when the french military leader joseph joffe first told the district should be issued metal helmets to replace those caught at the pier starting a war with you just don't bother will never reach the troops before the war's over to there's a real feeling good something that's operating at that level of intensity can't continue for very long before shackleton gets to find out how the whole thing as though he in his ship and his crew get trapped in the ice in the antarctic an indian photos existed wonderful you get to watch the ship is it's crushed by the eisner shackleton occur where to get out and basically lived on the ice flows all the way to be rescued which is not happening fast enough and he conceded his people are gonna die out there is somebody doesn't do they really brave thing and take one of the little ball to the twenty twenty five quarters off the big boat amounting to almost an open rowboat not quite but almost and he if you crew members get in it and head out into the arctic waters looking for land to the same when you think about it too saying that he survived any may nineteen sixteen e. in these couple of guys that he set out you into the arctic where a man with the media stories about how or when waves all these things stumbling tulip isolated whaling station in south georgia island which normally most of us would think is penguin territory it must've seemed positively balmy to shackleton and his crew who by this time look like bigfoot or something because what i'm missing link we signed burned the beer's on their faces frozen and icicles hanging off the they were originally wearing animals schemes but those beans did not like the salt water bring my gym at malta been wanting in smelled and we're falling off of them i mean the first thing they do when they get to this whaling station scare the heck out a few more years couple of twelve year old person to see them first and go off running and women eventually though you don't come running shackleton identifies himself he's taking him to be tougher store given water or an idea she could save the briefed and we're told along the first questions he asks his benefactor as for an update on what ever happened with the warrior was falling he says tell me when was the war over and in one of the more famous sponsor jeweler forget about this 'cause it says so much in a couple of senses and that's what's going down history the benefactor supposed to vintages where was the war over question with war isn't over millions are dead your best man at the world is mad the shackleton react to this news was horrified disbelief then he's just catching up to the rest of the world 'cause no one can believe that the level of intensity that this conflict displays performed in the one that can be sustained remember this war start very differently than the second world war does the second world war connor ramps up slowly the first world wars like someone pulling the pin on a grenade everything exploded wants everyone a tax of wants there are a lot more people to whom the first month of the first world war than the first month of the second in fact so many people were killed that the people living through this period had nothing to compare this to you the numbers are off the charts and look at what they were looking at is more more casualty numbers and by the way this is considered to be or blossoming they get all the good the bad it could be like the russo japanese war on steroids couldn't war happened a decade before the first world war last eighteen months he's seen as sort of the testing ground for a lot of weapons and tactics and everything it would be used in the next war an eighteen months' honored as eighty five thousand people are killed it's horrible a hundred sixty five thousand people were killed in a week or two on the first world war breaks out twenty two thousand frenchmen diana day in august nineteen forty there are no metrics for that the u. american history fans out there the worst war merrick in history the u. s. civil war bride because everyone dies is an american casualty last four years you lose between six hundred thousand seven hundred thousand americans killed that's how many people you who's killed were awfully in the first month of the first world war everyone is stolen it's not just the generals and world leaders in everything that say that this war can last you were some of the top economic mines in the world saying that for economic reasons it to continue john maynard keynes the guy who will later be difficult to reach keynesian economics says in nineteen fourteen that the war will last a year as soon as the financial liquidity dries up he says all the belligerence will be forced to come to terms and make peace the kind of them or all countries will ditch the gold standard almost immediately the inflate their currency to open up lines of credit mostar borrowing you're toward racial kitchener britain's war minister one of the few people who wander stood out along the swore was reading in the last said court no financial pressure has ever stop the war in progress and cool kitchener understood it when many of these people who should have understood better didn't and that's that we entered the error we're nation states could really take upon shirt we talked about that generally representative mixed blessing it means that you don't succumb to the enemy's attacks right away but unusual also last longer than when you last longer you see you're human and your financial capital ground into powder there are a lot of people who wonder whether was actually a benefit the french and british to win the battle of the more i'm not that's where we left off the loss program the bible the more the time machine is not the same viewer friends the germans with their pre war battle plans with a meticulous precision planning and it had decades to come up with the perfecting this planet they'd failed at the battle of the more win win by the time of the other than the crowning moment happens we're everything rests on what the germans are doing both sides are like a couple of punched drunk prize fighters would be needing that analogy for this whole conflict because wilkes awhile and up until you know the french and british patriot to mourn the germans had been the one really dishing out the heavy blows but everyone is so tired and at the end of their world by the time to mourn happens only a month into the conflict if you get the feeling like speak and look for shrouded the bullfighter should give and everything they have in there so tired that anybody could display and wanna solid blow on either side it'll be over on the french and british lana blow and the germans are forced backward they're forced backward so that they can reorganize reliance and close up this dangerous hole in their lines that was exploited by french and british troops as churchill famously said as only he can those troops were probing their way into the german liver and it's a classic maneuver to try to pull your troops back to reorganize sure lines with also dangerous one and also means that the germans have given up on the so called wheaton planned i find it interesting sometimes when you read some on the histories of the first war war you'll find yourself in a very similar situation to the commanders on both sides of the western wall book on the western front and that is you'll be studying this as though you're playing around with toy soldiers when are we stop little side in this division edition pulled back to your neck and you're totally losing to a lack of the human element and the problem with that is if you don't understand the condition of the people on the ground you're going to create all sorts of plans that don't take into account what they can actually carry out any for example the general staffs of all these armies are tens of miles behind with the fighting is a mean most of them the german general staff reasonable are sitting in wonderful french chateau those with a roaring fire places drinking wine at a crystal glasses and playing with maps and little pro tractors trying to decide where to move people what to do with them and the british and the french commander roth and doing the same thing the problem is is that these little perot tractors and these are needed to moving around on maps bear no resemblance to what the human beings on the ground are dealing with the human beings on the ground are spent both sides have warm themselves down to the knob and can hardly function anymore i mean this is the pool in the war was the germans were retreating after the battle i'm on where the british and french commander state they got them on the run sir john french the british commander thanks be to be in berlin in six weeks it's gonna be over will unleash the cavalry will watch this massive pursue it will destroy the enemy was robbing and it'll be all over the problem is is surge on fringes troops original condition to do that in fact every side is finding out another one of the new realities of modern warfare and that's that they use any nation had a pace that nobody was prepared for this boy in the conflict everybody is actually more action in the u. artillery became even used to god is the way they want to be debit limit should also take the russians is a perfect example the dispelling the war the russians are producing thirty five thousand artillery shells amanpour sounds great desmond do you realize that was the fighting actually starts they're using forty five thousand shells a day making thirty five thousand lamont shooting off forty five thousand shells a day now all these armies went into the conflict with nice wars or to the shells by more than half into it you're down to almost nothing in even the french and british u. as they pursued the german army says the german armies retreat from aren't they can't function the way that they're trying to ready to do so they have to wear action everything and so the germans and everybody's just at the end of the world and you lose the human element when you study the history of things from the very highest levels and i'm moving up or mitterrand on map to see erosion cavalry armies in all these kinds of things when the people on the ground for a completely different situation here's how writer g. j. meyer describes the situation at the morgue court the french and british though jubilant that in many cases astonished by the german withdraw from the mourners were badly battered worn out and running low on the center look with mud many were almost too exhausted to move quoting an english soldier now called after five days and nights of fighting one english soldier road decimated spent in hungry we're lying on the bare earth with only one desire run our hearts to get ourselves kill my ear continues and i were short of shells for their artillery it is one measure run the sustained intensity of this new kind of warfare that the french based critical shortages of any nation for seventy five millimeter cannon the most effective field artillery piece because only ten thousand rounds were being produced per day that was barely twenty percent of the need it continues for any number of such reasons the armies of the on talent the allies failed to close with the retreating germans are exploiting huge gap that prompted to withdraw all did not attack in force until the german for second and third army cid settled in the fortified positions on high ground north of the ayn the next east west river north of them are not by then it was too late in court the germans themselves were horrible conditions german soldier julia scotch and writes about the retreat from the more quote the street for badly worn abandoned vehicle for lying on the size of the road we began to move the three o'clock in the morning and before we were fully aware of was happening we found ourselves with the real guard regiments of infantry shot to pieces away i've done a pitiful condition they passed away their naps action all on necessary impediments that you're trying to get along as fast as possible soon after the first shrapnel of the enemy began to burst above our heads which caused us to excel earmarked continually the road which also been used during the advance was still more by deep shell holes that were filled with water to the very edge for it rained without interaction it was pitch dark and every now and then someone would fall into one of those shell holes we were all wet for you but continue to press on some would stumble over something in the dark but nobody paid any attention to great thing was to get along dead horses and men lay in the middle of the road but nobody took the trouble to remove the obstacle in court lest we forget about the human element remember that these germans are moving through country that was formerly occupied by civilians the hacker that a well a lot of cases still there and very great danger here's what coaching right about that the court the road was covered with the equipment the soldier should trauma way we two would long ago cast aside all unnecessary ballast thus we were marching we passed the wood densely packed with refugees those haunted people had stretched blanket between the trees so was to burkhead themselves from the rain there they were lying in the greatest conceivable misery all in a jumble men and women and children and graybeards their camp reached as far as the road and one could observe the terrible hours that they've lived through had left a deep perot's in their faces they looked at us when we retired ours the children begged us to give them some bread we had nothing whatsoever laughed at work ourselves tormented by hunger the enemy shrapnel was still accompanying us we scarcely left the wounded when shrapnel begin to explode bayer which caused the refugees now exposed to the fire to crowded the fields in an attempt to reach safety many of them joined us but before long they were forbidden to use the road because they impeded the retreat of the troops does all of them were driven without pity into the fields soaked by the rain and co as german soldiers like julius or you leave us continent or retreating back the way they came here being closely pursued by their french and british adversaries lot of home is the iler shoulder fighting in the british expeditionary force that we talked about earlier john lucy who writes about this time quote our advance continued steadily as the germans were driven back from the more there were your guards showed some resistance every day and occasionally we picked up stragglers more wounded from the enemy army all we took our turn in our brigade and advanced guard an outpost duty is our battalion did not really cross swords with the enemy again chabot fourteenth of september let de among the few days perceiving it wayne if at all we were not very comfortable either in bivouac aroma line of march the weather began to get cold on the evening of thirteenth september the british airport in one of the few the british army possessed approached us from the german side and wheeling around ally didn't appeal to the right of our marching calms the flying officer climbed slowly out of this machine and coming stumbling towards us in his heavy kate did not wait to find an officer but shouted to us all there they are we need for you up they are thousands of them anyway does right arm toward the wooded heights across the river rains and three miles away uncorked the river pain was right by the highest elevated point in this whole area on the front no it's not very high aid in terms of the grand scheme of geography around the planet but in a very flat area near the french and belgian borders it was five hundred feet tall and some places nikita commanding view of all both fled the country around it this is the point that the german soldiers had been told to turn back around and face their pursuers auntie jean and stop them this should be more of the last commands made by the former german commander of the one whose job it was to carry out bush we can plan and helmet bomb old cow the younger before he totally collapsed from his nervous breakdown after his plan failed he's replaced by one of his critics the controversy old choice that the kaiser uptown to a guy named general eric bombs fall can i now one thing the becomes clearer when you look at the high command of all bees or means is the generals have al regis egos most of the time and they often are jealous and the snipe at their peak years and balkan hind is named in anger is among other people eric loading tortoise on the wunderkind who's been doing great things for the germans on the eastern front and who will say of balkan heinz appointment i'm only capable of love and hate i hate general balkan hi and falk anonymous critical of bomb old got before the battle of them aren't even starts oppenheim look to the bomb old is doing in things he's lost his mind and writes on september fifth nineteen fourteen quote a general staff has completely lost its head levens notes do not help any further and so mold is what's come to an end in a cool all the kaiser must've read that undecided but since on mold it couldn't pull this off maybe one of his critics can balkan high in trenches troops around tell them to dig in and begins looking for work placements for the people died because the german army is a fraction of what was just a couple of weeks before they are the only one is the british and french armies have a similar problem they're all decimated the difference is is britain and france have colonies and dominion us and commonwealth nations with the minute the war starts are basically told to get people over there and arriving every day the british and indian troops from india are riding canadian show up very quickly the scots from scotland or always a part of the british forces and now you're riding kilts and this is we will get their famous nickname which some people wonder if it even happened this way but it's too good of the nickname to you not mention the germans supposedly calmed the ladies from howl because of the celts they wear and they're all showing up every day in greater numbers and taking your place in the line to replace the dead and wounded the french are bringing troops from north africa from morocco algeria and troops from central africa and places like senegal so you have the dark skinned black africans in the french army something that the germans wanna are not accustomed to and too little dismayed about because they think about all of the black africans left in africa and it may be could be brought to fight against them too when the germans try to reinforced in rome it won't open range they have to do what we germans that they have a bond shove them people who the minute the war was declared signed up enjoying the forces are in training this whole time the prom is that the war's only about six weeks old none of these people about enough training to make them anywhere near as good as the soldiers they're trying to replace with all the time calls them up anyway the situation is desperate to war could be lost right here right now and every man is needed and all these troops are going to be thrown into the bloodbath up near the french and belgian border it's a black spot with a german to turn around halted the retreat than been going on ever since the battle of the morning take in the heights on the other side of the river any that and began to dig in fortified re equip reinforced and are waiting for their pursuers to show up they're french and british pursuers assume that they're going after barger four hour a germans they're not expecting to run in debt heavily fortified positions in a very very strong spot remember john lucy in the yep are more tinged with any real when their plane lands in the field the pilot goes running up to the bridge march calm sank they're waiting for you thousands of them on the other side of the river on the night of september thirteenth nineteen fourteen the french an abrasion across that river and dislodge the germans from the height and to disaster the british to this crossing it might in heavy fog on pontoon boat for the most part they get to the other side by side has no natural covering that spacing if leo four to five hundred foothills of the distance heavily wooded and the sun comes up and burns off the fall of the leaving the british troops totally exposed the germans slaughter them artillery machine guns even from the flank the british stagger back across the river their commander sir john french wars them to the demon and face the germans were dug in on the other side of the river this is the main thing your history books will tell you that the first battle of the aim is known for its supposedly the time trench warfare is initiated this will be the most iconic in memorable part of the first world war but it's a misnomer to suggest that trench warfare just started here because given the technology of the day trench warfare begins organically it's unnatural human response to the fact the mirror above ground level was filled with so much steel unleaded it's suicide to be out the open to across the entire front stretching all the way from the swiss border across the entire franco german border op through luxembourg pop into belgium more than four hundred miles and millions of men on both sides long it human beings are donna the most natural thing possible they've gone to ground and they tried to get his lowest possible to escape what ernst junger will call the storm of steel later in the war in addition to digging down they drop things calm breast works which is putting stopped in front of your position two stop the bullets from hating you if you're lucky it's sandbags if you're not lucky to anything you can get your hands all a combination digging in the earth and putting up barriers in front of you to get us to fortify the entire line on both sides in some spots the germans and the french are only a couple hundred yards from each other the fortification the entire line changes this war in ways that the generals on either side or on prepare for they don't know what to do should they go back to the in a training manuals which say find a flank turn the flank attack in the rear the problem is that there's only one tiny little leery of this more than four hundred mile wide word has a house of fighting to an almost siege like situation and that's the area between in this battle of the river in this just happened the ocean to the north that is not a very big his own it and both the british and french on one side and the germans on the other big in the crab like dance of death as one historian describes it trying to probe their way towards open country for very long time this was known as the race to the sea but historians to come to hate that term because he gives the false idea that somehow reaching the sea is the goal both the side when fact it both sides reached the sea it means that there are no flanks anymore there will be several big battles between the army says they collide in their attempt to find an open flame to turn no what's going on here that we're about to experience is demolished complicated war i've ever studied and it's a very unusual conflict because in many cases the battlefield is not going to change this area of new de franco belgian border for example is going to the tom one of the worst killing grounds extended killing grounds all shoo in history later in the war troops marching up to this battleground will be able to smell it before they actually get there in addition when one side attacks the other side will often counterattack so if you will get the battle on a map it makes no sense of all i've got four hundred page book to deal with to single encounters between the two sides and it's impossible to make heads or tails of it even with maps even if you're an expert important reason why is because the nature of battle has changed armies are staying in contact with each other now it's very different and to most of human history through most of human history armies come together there's a short sharp clash in the maid break contact and move in opposite directions again battles that last more than one day are extremely where up until this time period all of a sudden these are nice aren't going to break contact they're going to stay on opposite sides of the short little no man's land in a whole week gender by the throat even on so called quite a bit parts of the front hundreds or thousands of men can be killed every day now this is not unheard of beauty and stages of the u. s. civil war ulysses s. grant the northern general will have a similar strategy were he maintains contact with the enemy grabbed him by the throat doesn't let them go and grinds damn dow strategy patrician that's new to the european experience and neither side giving up yet they're going to try to find that point until there is no flight anymore and that race to the sea will involve several more big battles including one that involves you know what's left of the pool or belgian army remember the belgian army was what the germans don't wanna be a bunch of chocolate soldiers and instead they put up his hair were awakened doomed resistance to them you know fighting in being pushed backward every step of the way what the germans were you can airlines up the river a their entire flank is threatened by the parts of belgium that haven't fallen to them yet including the giant and vital port city of antwerp so this is when the germans go take all that they pound antwerp with those same enormous gonzo they destroyed the belgian forthwith to the beginning of the work and they pushed the belgian army all the way so that the belgians are sitting there with their backs to the ocean there's no place left to ride with the belgian kenya's with them and what would you worse is officers to stand by high in the trenches in shooting the belgian soldiers dead deer run away and they stayed here being hounded by the artillery until they can't stop the germans they realize that if they don't hold any area the germans are gonna be the one who find that open flank of the terrain the british and french and this is you the part of the war were it looks like the germans might actually work force the entire battle of the mourns result and win anyway to the belgians do something that is your beer nuclear option an entity it to sacrifice that might have saved the war for the allies remember belgian was one of those areas of europe that is actually for the most part is part of flanders and we're talking about in belgium below sea level reason the even exists is because you for ever the belgians have been pumping out water rebuilding dikes and things like that to keep the ocean out the king of belgium when things become desperate to the point doomsday blows up the diapers the belgian king makes the decision to let the seawater re an october twenty second lead to true sacrifice because he's not just flooding one of the more for all parts of this country is flooding in the sea water and the salt water will do terrible damage to the fertility of the region where were the romans supposedly would still assault into the ground of the territory of their very worst enemies so that nothing would ever grow there again the belgians had done this to themselves voluntarily to protect the very end of the allied lining keep the germans from breaking through and perhaps taking the channel ports which would in a disaster the germans had no why do you what's going on as the water level rises within a couple of days there's a five mile wide shoulder deep lake separating them on the belgian forces in the belgians will stay behind that like for years but essentially shots off that part of the frog the bad news for the other allied forces is that now that the germans didn't need those troops to try to deal with the belgians they turn them around and threw them into the developing bath little place called the track which on october twenty second breaks out big time and the prayer becomes disappoint nowhere the true futility all of the wasting of lives is so aptly demonstrated because of course war is all about spending lives to achieve a goal the tragedy happens when you spend lies for no good reason i'd be pretty begin to see the kinds of tragic levels of this will reach large number of the troops the germans had called up in with very little training were young people students whose teachers had indoctrinated them into the idea that this is what to do when you fight for germany one great honor return of the inoue would all joined together as students with for turning the badges of all these things and after very little training they were thrown into this combat that was developing around the city of the press and the surrounding area in one of the really tragic part of the conflict the students would run up against a wall was left of some of the greatest military units in the world what was left of the old british professional army which you've been ground down you ever since the war started but still have some of its best units intact these badly trained sixteen seventeen eighteen year old kids would be massacred for no good reason the salter winston groom writes quote on the front of nearly twenty miles tens of thousands of men came to grips and did their best to marguerite shot during the cold dank misty hills surrounding the press in many places the fighting was hand and that morning divisions of the german fourth army consisting in large part of students attack the british law and such as it was if it'd been airing in frenzied the german students came own orman arm waving their rifles in the air singing and we despite pickle how about helmets festooned with flowers by the thousands they were shot down even though they outnumbered the british at times six to one at that morning they faced the most professional innately two regiments of the british army if not the world the black watch called stream guards scots guards cameron's granted here guards by rish guards stafford gordon highlanders green howard's royal scots usually years welsh usually years and others almost too numerous to mention including the house sarrazin dragons of the cow or recall or what was all over the british official history estimated that at least half of these youthful teutonic warriors hundred thousand of them had been shot down the germans named the battle the massacre with the innocents end quote in germany was the kingdom more and after the war the parents of some of these children would put a poignant monument over their mass grave when the weeping father and mother looking out over the mass graves festooned with the fraternity pins of these young kids with all war was going to be romantic heroic adventure i'm not going to focus on battle after battle after battle of pointless conflict in this story it's a complicated and a tale than of conflict in japan have to pick your battles if you'll pardon the pun on that the tissue inside of this affair but i want to focus on what the people who were living through it forced to experience for example twenty year old pervert souls pocket i'm gonna win joined up as the war starts who's getting his first taste of battle as the bad leeper begins anew great quote change of position we pulled forward in our first glimpse of this battlefield and have to get used to the terrible scenes in impressions or pieces corpses and more corpses rubble on the remains of the captured village trenches hastily dug by the british are full of bodies we get driven out of this position by infantry and artillery fire stand aside the guns with the horses in a dreadful might comes down on us we seem to many horrible things all what wants to make it very strong impression on has barely twenty years old as we are the bee stings also hardness up for what's going to come unequal he's not the only one now the german rates to his sweetheart we've care for her sensibilities in an understanding of what military censorship i do newsletter now with the reality of what you seek spearing singers like any rights during these battles in flanders quote my dear maria feel so terrible i'd really rather not right to you that doesn't mean i've forgotten you go every day spent your mate see clearer to me how beautiful home use what crowd of feelings that word home brings out at me i've lived through such horror recently no words can describe it to the tragedy all around me every day the fighting get the usher inertia no one in sight our blood is flowing into horns i think over two hundred and forty seventh regiment by high swim with yours the first and second italians have only two hundred and fifty to three hundred men left some more than half are gone today only a few of my comrades will be still standing the company commander lieutenant ma spar the bit on for one hour when he was shot through the head peddling close to death he was carried past me today sunday i stood at his mother's grave enjoined in prayer battalions all around me the most gruesome devastation dead and wounded soldiers getting tarring animals horse cadavers burned out houses da guppy you old cars close weaponry all this is scattered around me real max the war would be like this we can sweep for all the noise at least thirty shells exploded wants the whole time we call for backup yesterday and today hope to make it there are only a few of us left to tackle the english and managed to wash myself properly yesterday for change my beard is getting ever longer otherwise i'm feeling fine as you can see all this noise is not going to ruffle my wuerttemberg calm and co as for german soldier named paul hobo this war brings out the two streams of humanity and even the most monstrous human beings that you can pick out throughout history exhibit some of that humanity through their rating you go read one of the most monstrous human beings who's ever lived chronicles of this combat even he seems somewhat human by the whole thing i'll sit there was there in flanders in nineteen fourteen at these battles was his first encounter with combat he wrote about in his book my uncompensated called at last the day came only left munich to begin the potomac of our duty for the first time i saw the rhine as we rolled westward along it's quite water to defended the germans stream of streams from the greed of the old enemy went through the tender veil of the early morning mist beneath your vault monument leaned down upon us in the gender race of the sound the old watch on the rhine we're out of the yen was transport training to the morning sky and i felt as though my heart would burst then came a day a cold night in flanders through which we marched in silence when the day began to emerge from the mists suddenly in iron greeting came wheezing yanis over our heads over the sharp report sent a little pellets flying between our ranks whipping up the wet ground but even before the little cloud passed for two hundred throats the first her were our role is to meet the first messengers of death democrat the winner roaring in a singing in howling began with feverish eyes each one of us was drawn forward faster and faster until suddenly past turnip peeled and hedges but like began the white man against man and from the distance the strains of the song reached our ears coming closer and closer leaping from company the company just as death juanita busy hands were winks the song reached us to do when we passed it along deutschland deutschland oberon lissouba rolla see developed four days later we came back even our staff had changed seventeen year old boys now looked like men the volunteers of the list regiment may not have learned to fight properly but they knew how to die like soldiers this was the beginning he said bassett when on year after year but the romance about what been replaced by horror the enthusiasm gradually cold they need to bring joy was stifled by mortal fear the time came when every man had to struggle between used into self preservation and the admonitions and judy i too was not spared by the struggle always when gas was on the hunt the vague something tried to revolt strove to represent itself to the week body is reason it was only cowardice which in such disguises tries to ensnare the individual a great hugging him warning said in an often it was only the last remnant of conscience which decide the issue it the more this voice admonished wanda caution the louder more insistent explores the sharper resistance group until it was after long ear shrub gold consciousness of duty emerged victorious by the winter of nineteen fifty nineteen sixteen here right the struggle had been for me i decided at last my will was undisputed master it in the first days i went over the top with rejoicing in laughter i was now calm and determined and this was a drooling mouth they could bring on the ultimate test without my nerve shattering omar reason failing beyond volunteer had become an old soldier and this transformation had occurred in the whole army issued hard an old from the internal battles and for those who could not stand up under the storm will they were broken and co it will actually leaped out into no man's land on direct hail of bullets and try to rescue a commanding officer by putting him on his back in carrying him back to the german lines he will be decorated by the kaiser for this in the loony rescue died what had flourished talking about ms parshall struggle but he asked to go through to try to make himself do something that the entire purges of humanity inside human being in argue against something that every soldier in the wars in the face this kind of carnage needs to deal with the one point or another sometimes they don't even have control over what happens people will be affected by it the storm of steel was armstrong all call later in the war in different ways sometimes consciously but sometimes the way the device even what they want to want the things that the human side of the first world war requires us to look at is how or why we these people doing nice things intelligent human beings from the modern era look at where our grandfathers and great grandfathers did this conflict and can understand how or why they did it part of it is the romance in the heroism and the idea do you what's expected of them and some of that is what motivates soldiers to continue to press forward in unbelievable situations in combat even today but there were other elements imply we're savory elements we were dealing with modern nation state who had ways of compelling certain level of behavior there were a lot of people who were not brave in this combat on all sides or whose body is simply would not do with their money and told them to do those people often had to be sacrificed as an example to others in nineteen fourteen a british brigadier general ming yells be yours rohrbough one of those methods of the modern state and really state had for some time before this used to compel their troops be brave and to do their duty any wrote quote jardin lot they had just been rostrum sleep on the straw the shed that i was standing in the st one little group of unmistakable purport came around the corner twelve soldiers n. n.'s ceo of firing party a couple of gendarme some between them and i'm armed soldier my heart sank in a feeling of horror overcame me and execution was about to take place generally not they took a look in held up his hands so that the party halted in with a characteristic quick step when up to be doomed man he asked what he'd been condemned for you was for abandoning his post the general then began to talk to the man quite simply he explained discipline to him abandoning your post was letting down your pals more it was letting down your country that look to you to defend her he spoke of the necessity of example how some could do their duty without prompting but others less strong had to know and understand the supreme cost of failure he told the condemned man this crime was not venal not all and they must die as an example so that others should not fail surprisingly the wretch agreed nodding his head the burden of anthony was lifted from his shoulders he saw a glimmer of something redemption in his own art is real hope though he knew he was going to die the general went on carrying the man with him to comprehension that any sacrifice was worthwhile if it helped friends ever so little what did anything matter if he knew this finally the general held out his hand meaning to shake the condemned persons and yours is also way of dying for france he said the procession started again but now the victim was wailing wall and the sound of a volley in the distance announced that all was over generally more they wiped the beads of perspiration for his brow and for the first time perhaps his hand trembled as he lit his pipe end quote that's something that all sides will do in this war the way of saying here she may face certain death if you walk into the storm that is modern combat but you also face certain death if you don't very important though to bear in mind but the fact that these soldiers who failed in their duty somehow you're exposed to capital punishment does not mean that that's why soldiers fought that's something that has been present in mostar me strong history since ancient times at the romans if your unit for badly would make them in a draw lots and long on every ten soldiers in the unit would be killed all those called decimation and an insult to injury the roman drugmaker comrade scalpel so that's a standard for war for throb most of history most of the soldiers were fighting for much higher values things that to the more cynical twenty first century minded sometimes almost satellite you know military recruiting marketing slogans but they meant something to these people may mean something the soldiers today judy on our country sovereign god what's more wants the soldiers get in the combat a responsibility to your comrades nonetheless the first world war is able to take more of the most extreme activities humans ever take part in or fair and make it worse we start for example was what trench warfare means for the soldiers on the ground in terms of day to day living go on your back yard dig yourself all hole sit down it in the rain and just live in a day after day without any bombs and guns and bullets or murder risk combat and it's horrible back to the soldiers face most of them in flanders one of the rain is part of europe believe in the mind and they can't quite get their mind around how bad changes this whole romantic idea of adventurous combat that so many of them signed up for take for example some of the most elite units in france is military many war in the french foreign legion and find themselves in the holes in the ground alan seeger will die alma western front in nineteen sixteen rates is this trench warfare is getting started quote this style of trench warfare is extremely modern and for the artillery men is doubtless very interesting but for the pool or common soldier it is anything but romantic his role is to simply dig yourself all hole in the ground and keep hitting a nudist tightly as possible continually and the fire be opposing batteries you should never allowed to get a glimpse of the enemy exposed to all the dangers of war but none of it's enthusiasms were splendid you on his condemned to sit like an animal limits borough and hear the shells was over as head and take their little daily toll from his comrades is peter nom canteen frozen bodies not allowed to make a fire is not even permitted to light a candle us pulled himself up in his blanket and lie down crammed in the jury straw the street as best as he may how different from the popular notion of the evening campfire songs and the good she and equal it's after the battles up in flanders all mean and he brought with this trench warfare sets in the german soldier rudolph binder tries to explain what's happening in nineteen forty money right called the war is that stopping you would gigantic siege on both sides the whole front is one endless board up by train should neither side has the force to make a decisive polish everyone's team assembled on the winter campaign but as far as i can judge there's no possibility of an early finish we're still stuck here for perfectly good reasons one my little safer perfectly bad reasons this business may last for long time and quote now it's important to remember that most people were finding themselves start in this business in nineteen fourteen aren't really soldiers soldiers might be expected to deal with this kind of incredible experience but most of the troops being these uniforms in carrying weapons which him for all intents and purposes appear to be soldiers six arrayed weeks ago were civilians they were shopkeepers and delivery boys and students an insurance salesman and teachers whoa bus and find themselves in circumstances that they just can't make sense out of horrible situations many these people had never seen a dead body in their lives and then all of us and find themselves in situations like this german soldier in nineteen fourteen describing this new phenomenon of trench life they needed a living in a hole in the ground combat going on all round two he writes quote the dangers of trench life may be realized what i say that often neither the dead or wounded can be removed if you put up as much as a little finger above the edge of the trench the bullets come whizzing around immediately the dead bodies must therefore be allowed to remain in the trench that is to say the dead man's got rid of by digging a grave for him he in the floor called the trench a few days ago was soldier was so badly hit by a shell that he was cut into the shattered body could not be removed without risk to the survivors must therefore loud remain but presently he gave rise to a horrible stench and whatever they did the men could not get away from the mutilated black and features sometimes arms and legs torn away from the body you're allowed to lie about the bottom of the trench until someone to bury them and it's hard and in time and cool getting hardened into connie mack is what's happening during this period in nineteen fourteen want the fighting of these major first battles that lie down because this is when the reinforcements rod and the reinforcements are not part of the regular army the use of the civilians from a short time ago trolling the uniform and sent into this hell of combat to lebudde different for the veterans especially the professionals british professional army in that existed before the war started the so called old contemptible so are being as we said we pulled it down to your practically nothing but there's a few of them laughed and if tiny integrate he's former civilians into their ranks without getting killed in the process because those people don't all the world she yet they're doing things that scare the regulars john lucy one of the old contemptible zinni irish guards in the b. yeah for its quota we stood to win the wet shell holes and crumbling trenches on the boat honorable lasting flashes of german high explosives there is no need to describe this bombardment except to say that was the worst of my experience a few of our fellows broke onto it and want court chap entirely lost his head and ran back out of this trench he had not a change in the open the earth was vomiting all around us any tom all over in a few yards better two of cap to the twinge no trained soldier would leave that to a corporal a burly fellow the only me with the shrapnel bullet in his head he lay unconscious all the day nodding his whole head is of suffering only from some slight irritation and did not become still until evening earlier in the decade one youngster said we're about putting him on this misery more experienced man explain that there was no pain the small stirrings of loans came from a man who was them already as good as dead another soldier she says that his belly ripped open and sat supporting his back against the trench well we gazed with fascinated eyes at large coils of his own gods which he held in both hands this is almost the ghastly aside i saw its sequel was better the mayors and trolls had not been penetrated the got safe out of the trench was washed top been amended well in hospital main demand past crouching in crawling behind me bleeding trails of blood on the ground on their way to wood ditch which led back into the woods bahama and some of them were moaning too loud on like our old man he means the veterans one young militia men in particular came by we're or ring in seeking sympathy for broken arm from everyone he met all lance corporal told him that for god's sake to put a sock in it and if you're really badly needed he would have no breath left to howl that stopped his hysterics i should say that the non columns of the old army had the worst time of all trying in circumstances like these to keep inexperienced man in hand and some of these men could not even fire rifle properly and at times our hearts quite old for our safety and beyers and co this experience so one like with the soldiers of the day we're accustomed to the minister of war and war hero himself lord ratio kitchener in britain famously said one's seen what this whole deal was like this is not war well maybe he hadn't been but this was sort of a way of telling everyone in this generation welcome to the twentieth century this is how it can be for awhile these battles in flanders why keep track shatter many of the leaders competent what's going on remember when the war starts to have a plan for winning the war that the you work out or three years the ones that fails all these generals have to improvise they have to create new often susan new ways to win the war from where things stand and after these battles in flanders die down you have this trench warfare setting in general von balkan are in germany runs the numbers and are horrible i mean the battle of the parent all sides combined you talking about another two hundred and fifty thousand casualties in a few weeks that brings the german totals on the western front and war started which is on guest more than seven hundred and fifty thousand the french are topping one million the british and for all intents and purposes lost their professional or me the greatest of the world small but the greatest in the world it's down to dozens of men in units that had hundreds of men you know it very short time ago and britain they're trying to scrape up or placements and you can see how old how bad it is by how quickly they are changing the requirements because when the war starship to be five foot eight inches tall to be in the british army in october the low with that to five would five inches tall a single month later in november the lord that the five foot three inches tall the germans are having a similar prom they learned a very hard lesson in these battles and flanders you must let the troops finish their training as they threw away at heart of lives of people who were already a fight but paul gun's gonna more difficult situation because the british and french as we said have dominion's new commonwealth nations i mean the canadians alone in a fit of patriotism are sending more than thirty thousand fresh troops across the atlantic in the largest transportation of troops when the history of the world across toward oceans i'm talkin' on haskell campus meat and two he goes he tells the civilian leadership that the war in the west can be won any more we tell them that they have to come to some sort of a new wing two and an easy just making peace with somebody maybe the russians because if you make peace with the russians may be the french will lose heart pieces all these other nations are simply weapons in the hands of the arch enemy which is england they have to be at the british have to be the ones that the germans focus on we have to get these other countries which are merely swords in the hand of perfidy yes owl the army says we're to get them out of the war does it could be very hard to do because we back into trembling all the allies sign these agreements saying nobody will make a separate peace unless spoken on hopes that he can make his warplanes in a longer victory but shattering some of these powers only leave the war the civilian leadership in germany the politicians like bettman all bag are appalled by what fall behind tells them they can figure ran away to do this because the german just like all these other countries are so appalled by the casualties in the blood that spins buildup nobody is willing to give up anything for the lost too many people to one thing if you lose all those people in the victory tonight acting if you lose all those people in the loss besides that i'm holding just a couple months ago was writing up plans for what the victory conditions in the war we're gonna be used at these grandiose schemes where we're gonna push the russians back we're gonna keep the french down forever in of all these vassal states and now his chief military leaders and was we came when the war now waldheim's rivals guys like one endorphin east to already hate him viscerally say that his attitude in at this early in the war is tantamount to treason and basically insinuating in the one certain terms of a change in military leadership might change all these sorts of things one on top and harnessed hold up but there's no way that we're ending the war he tells his troops on the western front to hold onto what you have never surrender risk where four of which was one if you do counterattack immediately retake it because they take invaluable territory valuable farmland valuable resources valuable industrial land from the french and if he can't get the war stopped from the political leadership he cannot hold on the ward has he tells the truth from the west to deepen their fortifications percentages one line trenches he wants multiple warns of trenches he had all the other leaders on both sides begin to use this wonderful weapon which doesn't seem like a weapon and all barbed wire something was first invented the generation before to keep havel hand in the american west and in the last couple of war since then i've been used in a sparingly in sub experimentally now all sides take this wire with all the sharp edges began to use it as a fortification this will be another one of these iconic things on the western front and we don't even think that something like wire with little teeny barbs on will make that much of the different but it proved to be one of the u. almost important elements of the bubble war on the western front to be even make a case they will invent weapons systems which still dominate militaries to daddy simply to overcome the barrier created by things like barbed wire now it's not all bad news for the central powers and germany is nineteen forty one to shore up to move on paul can harness designed to be king of seaweed a victory on the western front but there's fighting going on other fronts to his main emissaries in germany's high command he ever more powerful team of hindu newberg and new dorf or believers that you can win the war by beating the russians they will become part of that group of german generals but we know ms easterners people that think you can win the war by being the tories in the east fault him heinz one of these guys to him as part of the cobalt known as the westerners believers but any real victory in the war will come on western front the renouf arms opening up this nineteen fourteen winds down strange france too fertile we'll even mention that there's fighting going on in the pacific because it really is a sidebar to the story japan for example once the war breaks out quickly throws in their lot with britain and france and russia in the allies they do so for shortly on bert reasons the germans have some territories in the pacific that japan can easily snap up they will be much fighting it will be much trouble and if the panel is somehow old lose the war there's not much germany and austria hungary and stuff come to japan way over the pacific anyway there's no downside to the japanese snap up some of these german island possessions in the pacific it takes in german territories on the asian mainland and most important part of all of those actions will be the fact that some of those places will be your battlegrounds in the second world war and also that japan's taking a german positions on the asian mainland helped precipitate later war between japan and china which will help create the conditions were the japanese are part of the pacific war the second world war mean it's more of a long term situation i mean it's mortal long term cancerous situation but japan's been in the war since the beginning it for what makes this a world war but in november nineteen fourteen turkey enters the war and this is a very different situation first of all the turks are not united on the idea all some of the more aggressive no members of the government we're now call the young turk first shore precipitated in awaited leaves the rest of the government out of the decision they in some germans working together decide to shell some russian port facilities in the black sea without getting the rest of the government's position and of course russia declares war on turkey when they're in but the germans had been trying to set this up for a long time they wanna turkey on their side which is strange because turkey is one of those powers it's really having a hard time right now and the germans already have one of those there are allied to austria hungary which you know in four or five months of war already looks don the germans will take to saying it another austrian allies that they are better to a corpse another adding another corpse a mean you really have to admire how well germany does in this war considering that they have two of the week is powers in europe not just on their side but requiring a lot of their help the troops provided an interesting the use to the germans it's not that they have an army and navy that can be real helpful but the purpose controlled a nice chomp of what today we would call the middle east and by simply deciding to get into the war they forced the british and french who have a lot of possessions in that area to defend them they've expanded battlefield to include a whole bunch areas nobody was fighting over before turkey got into the war what's more turkeys historic enemy as russia they worship is putting all their manpower to dealing with the germans and the awestruck earrings and all the sudden south of all that fighting they now have their historic enemy turkey in the war again it's not that they're so afraid of the turks it's they're afraid of taking any troops away from the main battle front to defend many re at all same thing with the british and french now they have to take troops away from places where they're using them against the german is and use them elsewhere to the germans are really getting the turkish army is help as much as beginning the fact that the people they're fighting have to fight somewhere else too now our purpose is there's a wonderful little when i write the beginning of turkeys in ballroom where the highest ranking figure in the muslim world religious wise proclaims a jihad against the allies against britain france russia serbia and this is an error where the muslim world was was more united in their religious sensibly nowadays it's more like it protestant version of christianity would your salon different religious leaders who kind of all have equal standing at this time period the guy who was running the religion from turkey had not to hold control over the religion we carried a lot of weight to win the war breaks out on november fourteenth nineteen fourteen he proclaims a holy war against britain france or be russia this is bebe 'cause britain france and russia all have huge moslem population is in germany's ambassador to turkey says that now you're the british are gonna burn up in jihad whether or not that's what really happens if you're breaking in your friends and your russia you need to be concerned about that and now you need to divert forces from other crucial funds to deal with this new dilemma that turkey is and has been for more than a hundred years known as the sick man of europe they just bought two wars before the first world war breaks out the first and second balkan war and lost most of those european possessions here penniless it's a disaster they just bought two bowel ships which they had asked mirror citizens to essentially donate the money for the purchased them from britain and anand won the war broke out britain capcom which was another reason the church were not too happy with the allies nonetheless the fact that turkeys going to be in the war means that the british who have controlled egypt for some time now have to worry about egypt have to worry about the suez canal also this is the arab where are all we'll he's finally becoming important in our right before the first world war breaks out bring lays down its first ships that are going to burn oriole instead of coal and everybody is starting to see that not only is oil important but the middle east is a place that has a lot of it and now the middle east is going up in flames some of those flames probably would been very welcome on the eastern front at this point where the russians and germans neil austrian during interlocking mortal kombat because it begins to freeze at the end of the years one might expect they may be dealing with your reign an historic cold water cold as winters in memory of the western front but the coldest winter is in memory on the western front are pretty darn average on the eastern front and the weather conditions slow everyone back home the eastern commanders remain demurred and we're also don't have enough troops to do anything truly momentous to keep begging fault in high neckties turf for them and they keep getting ripped off the russians our inept when they're attacking but they're very toffler defending so things tend to slow down the russians tend to go on the defensive the awestruck periods are already almost dawn enough five months into the war in there fighting the last offensives that they will launch independently in the whole war they already have the giant for prefer the hundred and fifty thousand oscar hungarian troops and surrounded by the russians it's a bad situation whether she knows everything down and if you actually try to follow the various battle's going on you'll notice that there is a the rhythm to them that makes it difficult for anything ever be saul them one side moves forward the other side move back and you know the reverse course on historian peter hart has a pretty good run down of the rhythm of the eastern front this time sums up the way the inner borscht six months of war hands you know in glitzy out in poland and places like that what he writes quote the seesawed nature of the fighting in the east two steps forward three steps back one step forward with becoming increasingly apparent to all along alone in the north for all their efforts the russians only managed to hold onto what token sliver of east prussia in contrast they lost much of russia poland to the german advance but the strategic traub back of occupying this territory was such that it was not a particular disadvantage in the border scheme of things it was in the south against the austrians that the russians had made their biggest gains as they had over one nearly all of austria gullet c. r. justice on the western front the scale of the forces involved had been incredible by the end of the year or a hundred and forty three russian divisions faced fifty three austrian and thirty eight german divisions losses on all sides it been simply breathtaking by the end of nineteen fourteen up to seven hundred and fifty thousand russian soldiers five hundred thousand austro hungarian and a hundred and forty thousand germans had become casualties all this in just five frantic months of may come and co you will wait a change of weather conditions before that front heats up again to rob this most inhumane of conflicts or tom's of stories of prisoners being killed one of horrible things beam down all over me and you have millions and millions of men involved in warfare there are going to be stories in a good run the gamut the water's know that sort of reinforced when your connection to humanity are there two men they deserve to be pointed out sometimes iran an individual level as a story for the western front i like right around the time of the project about a british soldier named willie frasier and wounded in the shoulder and get stock italy in place as the germans or what his position and the stories were counted by doctor winston groom years ago in talking about frasier injured on the battlefield quo the shoulder had been shattered by shrapnel there was fighting in killing all around and the germans' captured him having studied german in frankfurt in nineteen oh nine he was astonished to hear it german sergeant he allowed in order to shoot him willie yelled to a german officer money officer spoke we recognized his accent we asked if he was from frankfurt when the officer replied that he was when we asked him in german don't you wish you were there now the two men exchanged borscht greens and the officer ordered his men not to harm frasier and co you can find stories like that all through the war people who should manny shines through an individual basis on all sides by the way no one had a monopoly on that but there were times when the humanity so we're just the worst fourth en masse spontaneously none more famous maybe overrated some people say about i don't see how it can be overrated the more happened and on christmas eve nineteen fourteen especially on the western front the conditions are horrible it's freezing in your feet are stocking cool maud water or the key to take it any worse in a little freezes in your stock up during the cold and all of a sudden the people on the western front see something relatively unbelievable in a conflict where are your shells going on every second snipers picking off anyone races is head above the trenton all the sudden soldiers reported ring singing and seeing we're collar whites the colored lights were off in coming from the german trenches soldier you'll use corruption was in one of those trenches opposite the french serena conditions were horrible on christmas eve this is what happened quote christmas in the trenches he was bitterly cold we procured a pine tree for there were no fir trees to be added we had decorated the tree with candles and cookies we imitated the snow with watering christmas trees were burning everywhere in the trenches in midnight all the trees were lifted onto the pair of it with their burning candles and along the whole line german soldiers began to sing christmas songs in course whole bal blissful although joyous mercy bringing christmas time hundreds of men he writes were singing the song in that fearful would not a shot was fired the french and ceased firing on the whole line that night i was with the company was only five paces away from the enemy the christmas candles were burning brightly and were renewed again and again for the first time we heard no shots from everywhere throughout the forest he writes one could hear powerful carols come floating over peace on earth such the french she says left their trenches and stood on the paper that without any fear there they stood quite overpowered by emotion at all of them with cap in hand and lead to lady should from our trenches we exchanged gifts with the french chocolate cigarettes at center they were all laughing and so were we why we did not know then everybody went back to his truncheon incessantly the terror were sounded ever more solemnly ever more lonely old owl blissful and co private william clinton in the trenches on christmas eve on the british side rohrbough similar situation farther down the line called all around us lay about three inches of snow a typical picture postcard christmas things were very quiet that the peace and goodwill to all men feeling seemed to be in the air we get through the germans still strafing a beeper way but the next night christmas eve even up there was much quieter something in the direction of the german lines caused us to rob our eyes and look again here in their showing just above their barricade we could see very frankly would look like very small colored lights or was this was of some pre arranged signal and i'm off for one rebel attack was it to make is curious and thus expose ourselves to a sudden reeking of machine gun fire we were very suspicious and we were discussing the strange move of the enemy was something even stranger happened the germans were actually singing not very loud but there was no mistaking it we began to get interested the enemy least we're going to enjoy themselves as much as the circumstances would permit suddenly across the snow clad no man's land a strong clear voice rang out singing the opening lines of annie laurie it was so imperfect english and we were spellbound know whether sound but this on gnomes singer's voice was it seemed like the war had suddenly stopped stopped to listen to this song from one of the enemy not a sound from printer fall and as the last note died away the spontaneous outburst of clapping roche from our trenches on igor gold bricks and co all along the longing the two side to have this interesting moment were they and of began to emerge from the trenches little by little you know a place with the couldn't stick a finger rob without having it shot off just hours before and everybody must've been so incredibly brave to try to one side would raise themselves up a little bit the other side would raise themselves up a little bit more until both sides in this hellish environment or nobody could go anywhere near you know the open air we're standing apart from each other gazing when yet the enemy in no man's land on christmas private we um quentin indian world quote as daylight crept in we were surprised to see the germans waist high out of their trenches gazing across at us with impunity imagine the position or is yesterday the mere sight of a bit of field gray uniform were caused a dozen breach rifles to crack he was the enemy in full view of us gazing serenely across no man's land at us and we get him two was in the front line the whole world had changed we could take stock of our surroundings at our leisure at nine o'clock precisely the german burying party climbed from the trenches shovels and picks on their shoulders they advanced about ten yards in our direction and we didn't expect ugly word from our company officer and our party were soon out the officers looked on apparently conversing the digging party soon lost interest in there to ask him before long you're busy fraternizing cigarettes were being exchanged and they seem to be enjoying themselves immensely needless to say before very long we in the trenches were soon out on top soldiering about the snow but keeping this side of our wire entanglements likewise the germans for the whole bad day and for many days to come friend and foe mixed really are on no man's land except for the fact that a few of the enemy could speak a little english we found the language difficulty gabbard to conversation but we may do with signs and gestures i remember distinctly german holding out unopened box of chocolates for me to take won the germans would apply as a football match in all man's life and butter officers would not allow it and co there are reports know of british and german troops engaging in soccer matches up and down the line it was an amazing spontaneous outburst of humanity and if so appalled the higher leadership a major in future christmases the north is would ever be allowed again if you thought the war was that before it's about you get worse now what winston churchill he in a leadership position during this part of the war setup nineteen fifteen a time when he says men lost control of the conflict and forces took over you wrote quote the year nineteen fifteen was fated to be disastrous to the cause of the allies and of the whole world by the mistakes of the sheerer the opportunity was lost a confining the conflagration within limits which ago enormous or not i control the thereafter the fire roared onto would burn itself out there after the events passed a very largely outside the scope of conscious choice governments and individuals conformed to the rhythm of the tragedy and swayed is staggered forward in helpless by what's slaughtering the squandering one ever increasing scales to injuries were walk to the structure human society which is century woman affixed which may conceivably prove fatal to the present civilization but in january nineteen fifteen the terrific that there was still not unmanageable it could've been grasping human hands and brought to west in like to super bowl victory but for the world was exhausted before the nation's were broken before the empire for shattered to pieces but for europe was ruined it was not to be he writes mankind was not to escape so easily from the catastrophe which involved itself ride was everywhere to be humbled and nowhere to receive it satisfaction no splendid harmony was to ground the wonderful achievement no prize to reward the sacrifices of the combatants the jury was to be bought so we do yours to be almost indistinguishable from defeat it was not to get even security to the victors there never was to be the silence following the greek words of peace to the convulsions of the struggle must exceed the impotent turmoil of the aftermath noble hopes high comrade shipping glorious daring ringing every nation to lead only to disappointment dissolution and frustration the sufferings and impoverishment of people's might arrest their warfare the collapse of the defeated might still the cannon made but their hatred to continue on appeased and their quarrels are still unsettled the most complete victory ever gained in arms has failed to solve the european problem or remove the dangers which produced the war and co the war was entering new phase the phase a stalemate we do to break the stalemate that was the main challenge facing commanders on all sides as nineteen fifteen rolls around annually during the war the allied generals especially would get labeled it was butchery jan pen and blockhead some people who can't think their way out of a paper bag and in some of it's justified later in the conflict we have to cut the acquittal on us like early on because as the western front in the trench warfare when everything begins to solidify all these generals on all sides are confronted with circumstances but there are no metrics bore there is no we've had on how you deal with this they have to learn they have to experiment and they have to look at the down after which the problem is is in this conflict in the experimentation in his military laboratory human beings in the lab rats when you learned the cost of human carnage now the allies are more willing to do this they have more lab rats to play with them this becomes is huge featuring the early part of nineteen fifteen because if you wore surge on french the british commander or fewer joseph shot from the french commander you know that this thing has doubled from all why else should mean boxing encountering the first round to something that's more like a wrestling match were both combatants are holding each other in a death grip that that worked in your favor and the stronger come back you're more manual more industrial power you control the seas if it's gonna go that way you're going away in the u. me not want to have to be as hard as you may have to be made that work the worst case scenario long term you're going on in that encounter each the german commanders are forced to think outside the box because they're not going to win that encounter the problem is is the box that they have to think outside of is the water that was worked on for decades before the first world war came out to create laws of war humanitarian restrictions on what juppe do we easter protect civilians noncombatants and even come back to us from your things that were considered to be on sportsman like or extra for worship more for thicken it needed to be remembered the first episode interpreting said behaved conference we use to make war conform to international law the problem was the germans in the central powers are now in that position that everyone kind and knew was going to happen you know when you wrote those laws of war which is they have to decide whether or not and hearing to international law is worth losing the war over do you begin to see both sides tried the use asymmetrical warfare in new technology to break the stalemate and a lot of what she knew that the very things that were prohibited in nice prewar agreements a perfect example starting late nineteen fourteen german warships open fire on british coastal towns kill more than a hundred british citizens on becomes a wonderful propaganda tool for the allies to cite the baby killers of germany that's nothing compared to what's coming in nineteen fifty the first thing that happens is the absolute benchmark in warfare winning zhenyu worrying the germans start really trying to get involved him we call today strategic bombing what aircraft had been in use since the very moment the war started one of the mom excuses that the germans used for attacking france was they said that some plane had come from france and bomb to nuremberg at the very moment that the war started which is probably nonsense but it shows that there were airplanes involved in the conflict in the brig beginning buddy movies that really been involved laws of war very much a mean all of the air force's put together in the world when the war started have less than five hundred plane is but what things they did have turned out to be wonderfully valuable tools for reconnaissance which was what bierbauer had been used for earlier this time even in the american civil war there were hot air balloons that they would use to see with the enemy was doing in the distance planes were wonderful for that they also turned out to be fantastic in the more technologically sophisticated armies was known as hard to live responding and not allow lord your god is to shoot at targets that the gunners couldn't see and he could shoot for example in a four way over hill and if there was an airplane may have they could tell you what's happening in that was interesting enough to try and explain what our radios nevin was happening but they get to a bitter shot fell short or when cold or worse too for the last two or two for the right and this gave a huge even reach the army's they could make that work for them the less sophisticated army fight the russians couldn't and hence were relegated to shooting at things they could only see yet but this early on in the fighting you can see how primitive things are because early on when aircraft would encounter enemy aircraft in every way to do anything about it when they were taking handguns these pilots op in the plane to them and trying to take potshots with their pistols at the enemy your pilots and that's how we know sophisticated things are the stage of the war it's only when the germans run up against the in a trench warfare in the western front an air force to start looking for things that might help them you break the stalemate that they noticed they have the greatest zepa and flee to the world supporters of course are lighter than air aircraft like a glimpse to regionals those kinds of things and before the war the german to build ten or twelve oval me and had them so sitting aside when the war started which geared up they are enemies probably more than the should've that this will have a fleet in being home where people like churchill in britain and be worried about what the germans are opposed to what might the germans opposed to it was probably out of all proportion to what the germans at once could do the germans tried to use them at the beginning of a war for example when he invaded belgium had to try to deal with those four to couples apples flew over and tried to drop some bombs when the stalemate on the western front reaches it's real no cal suffocation moment the german start looking for ways to use these tools that they have and there is no map freaks just like the running metrics on the western front to try to figure had a breakdown stay with it no matrix that will tell you what these apples will do with the bomb targets in another country a breach the wrist who suggested that the very powerlessness the people you mean in other country in their home country feel when the enemy is able to do with impunity fly over your territory and bomb you he suggested that if they bombed the civilians with confetti it would make any difference he would still damaged their morale terribly because it's a feeling like you can be defended even at home a place that most people tend to feel safe at this stage in military history they were people arguing in the german high command sank for all we know the sap ones could win the war of for the war to peace in a big conferences that were part of trying to come up with international laws of war you're there were rules discussed about how all bombing should work i mean should you have to give the c. b. jurgen a bomb a chance to surrender before you bom bom and lest you think only the germans were doing is both the british and french were sending in a small bombing raids over into germany and germany was any small bombing range with aircraft that were holding a little hand bombs out of the open cockpit and dropping them and nothing significant nothing like sending a large numbers of zepa ones all together in bombing raids but in january nineteen fifty the germans watch the first woman knows to go after some port facilities in britain the problem with this is the same problem in have in the early second world war which you may say you were trying to get military targets but the accuracy is so terrible you're lucky to fly overs city the size of london and be able to hit it to these port facilities end up being but an example interim example when civilians get hit with these weapons bill star bombing one thing in may nineteen fifteen and of course this becomes a propaganda victory right away for the allies who again labeled the germans baby killers which make the germans defenses as you might imagine is wonderful letter from germans sap leader ought to his mother are trying to explain to her what apparently he's retried explained her before but this isn't but evil stop that this is modern warfare in yes it's not like you know nights fighting a duel but the same time the situation is different than when nights fought duels people in the home front are no longer are innocent in modern warfare they have the ones who make the weapons that the soldier for choir to fight if the soldiers can break through the western from what he could prevent one side for building the shells necessary to keep the war going as with the idea of the home front first really takes hold and becomes the justification for attacking civilians in other countries here's a letter that the germans upon leader went to his mother trying to make his actions to be apparently feels guilty over himself so i'm morally okay cool we illustrate yemeni were his heart beats had been slandered as baby killers and murderers of women what we do wish were pardoned eventual os but necessary very necessary nowadays there's no such animal was a non combatant modern warfare is total warfare soldier cannot function at the front without the factory worker the former and all the other providers behind him you when die mother had discussed the subject and i know you wonder stan what i say my men are brave and honorable their cause is wholly how can the same lol doing their duty is what we do is frightful been a frightful must be germany salvation and co this same attitude would be applied the other parts of the war for that we're there are ugly head in nineteen fifteen because of the needs of the situation i mean flame throwers or one of the technological weapons that will your first appear in nineteen fifteen again using science in ways to try to create openings whether tactically on the battlefield or strategically in the war itself another perfect example of the sniffer for war has to do with another one of these new weapons systems that challenged age old the reason orthodoxy is and i'm had to do the rules concerning table blockade it is see when the first world war breaks out the british and french navy later when we sweep the seas cleanup german shipping both military and merchant shipping the sword naval blockade was one of the main thing is the brig local off early in the war the struggling written off for millions and millions of troops in owing simmering to church and the grays navy in the world and just like in napoleon's time and strong continental power takes hold you shutdown their merchant shipping you close the airport she allowed them to get any materials resources anything from anyone else to be can help you out there were international laws concerning which were allowed to keep from combatants you weren't supposed to keep food stocks should the needs of everyday life he can keep weapons and those kind of things but the british and french push those rules way past the boundaries of common sense and we're in a classifying things like cotton fabrics is war necessary materials the with willie going to allow anything through now for all of human history the bill is sort of up above calculus you could count on and that's that the weaker naval power cannot blockade the stronger naval power by sea could you write your ships tried a blockade a country like great britain will descend their navy on sweep your ships off the sea what a few ships aren't odyssey what is the ships that are kind of blockade an island nation like britain are instead under the sea the germans had summary us this is not a brand new invention the wand and finally reached a stage of affected knows where british were to find out the old enable orthodoxy is about what we could enable power could and couldn't do had changed there was no answer it this point history to the somali surface vessels could not detect them unless the submarine off service they couldn't destroy them that germany avalon was submarines and britain and france but here's the thing britain france couldn't do anything with their submarine is the good news there are submarines against german merchant shipping because there wasn't any german merchant shipping about five minutes after the war breaks out the surface fleets of france and britain saw that but germany surface fleet which is one of the things that a person became the war more than many causes it's always cited as the naval arms race between britain and germany state in court for the most part neither the british know the germans were willing to risk he's enormously expensive on the hard to replace surface ships that were big cap what were called capital ships battleships debris lead on unbelievably expensive from one to mean for example the ruddy she does commission across a ship's knows the queen elizabeth was about ships which were so good in the first world war they'd still be very effective units in the second world war but if i'd cheat the little submarine could sink water though ships with a torpedo that's nothing that any naval commanders willing to risk and so although senator breese being so careful with their big ships but it'll be years openings for the little ships to make a difference everyone toward the beginning award to the submarine should be used in the military sense against other warships by february nineteen fifteen the germans are now using them against merchant shipping them although suddenly greatest navy in the world finds that they can't defend their merchant shipping because of the new technological creation were weaker naval power has the potential to turn the tables on the best weapon that the great naval powers have blockading weaker naval powers and the british were doing a very good job of keeping goods and weapons from flowing into germany by c. are finding out that the germans had the capability to do the same thing back to them now the big issue will surface if you'll pardon the pun on the round whether or not the warfare should follow the old famous rules of the sea or not the old famous rules of the sea with a good deed in destroying it you know merchant shipping non military vessels without letting him know that the piracy you basically you're supposed to give them a message and say we're seizing your ship let them take their people off the ship on lifeboats and stop and then you can either sink the vassal would you you know we're after or you can take it as surprising capture it the problem is when submarines try to do this it opened them up to being destroyed in the british played this debate to bring gonzalo always merchant ships so if the germans came up and get what they were supposed to do tell the merchant ship would we are captured surprise of war now get to wipe bolts out bitter people off the ship it'll sink it they often uphold the campus often gotten start shooting at the now vulnerable some revisit it had the surface in order to comply with the international rules of war right to the germans were having these debates in nineteen fifteen but whether or not they should do that all maybe they should just think these vessels without surfacing or warning or anything this again would look like the germans were you know the ones outside international law we're the ones with the bad guys and worse than that they risked alienating neutral powers the most important which was the united states which was a beer read 'em the maritime power huge into traded and by the way it does win the war if you want to say who was gaining from the first for war it's the united states because one of the things that all these powers do when they find out they can produce enough shells and weapons of war materials to keep the we're going is borrow money from the united states and then turn around and spend that borrowed money on stop the production from the united states often called the great neutral united states just want to be able to keep delivering his staff were asked to go they're already getting tense with the british in the searching of ships and saying that the shipper that she can dock at the sport that poured upon the german start stinking merchant vessels sometimes those merchandise souls of americans own mom in early nineteen fifteen of those muscles call the lusitania the lusitania if you don't think of it in a tube conceptual as we're talking about here is very much like the titanic extremely large ocean liner a passenger ship this is how people got from the old world the new world i'm back again across the atlantic in the days before transatlantic air flight now controversy has raged ever since german submarine you opened fire on the lusitania sink that ship on whether or not it was a legitimate target of war the ammunitions if it did supposedly they could sink it echelon of evidence that suggests a period as some conspiracy theories out there that suggest that people like winston churchill assure imbedded did it so that it would be another inmate eleven o'clock when he was starting to construct that would eventually get the united states in the war more than a hundred americans rumbles opinion died when their home at various times in the war the germans would start up or so called on restricted submarine warfare with a shot at anything that looked like an enemy ship of any kind and other times what they would stop because there was a huge debate within the halls of german leadership over whether or not they gained more or lost more when they did this in the united states comes into the war it's a huge loss but it's one of the few ways that in nineteen fifteen they can see they can bring britain to it's knees i can start that island in ways that the british never could've imagined before the war because before the war they thought she had to have a bigger need be to do that now a jihad turn the tables on the greatest naval power in history but perhaps most iconic asymmetrical warfare of this period has to do is something that was a big worry at the hague conferences in the late eighteen hundreds in early nineteen hundreds something that you know shows the desperation of the germans of the stage in the war that they would resort to this it involves the use of what the hey conference cold stick seeding gases everyone realized by the late eighteen hundreds that the modern chemical industry is we would recognize it today and come of age nina we're all sort of explosive gunpowder isn't everything they were so much more explosive than enough had been the case in napoleon's time less than a century before him so everyone was aware of the possibilities of gunpowder explosives were just more powerful versions of weapons and been used for very long time the chemical industry made possible the use of weapons that never menu and no one knew what he affects if they were used to be in so with the hague comfort in eighty nine are in the issue was addressed the conference how long do you support poison or poisoned weapons all arms projectiles are mature real calculated to cause unnecessary suffering every gentile design for the diffusion is exceeding or deleterious gases and co but in nineteen fifteen germany's looking in all these laws of war through completely different lines as we said the trade off between follow international law or lose the war what's more they're dealing with this front is wesun western front that solidified an interesting way it's as we said you have a continuous trench system from the swiss border all awake in a lot to the ocean and the interesting part is a lot of that territory is not really good fighting ground a lot of ifs to marshy lot of it's too forced to walk at the germans are in such an amazingly strong position you'd be in edu to challenge them which leaves the same few spots as good areas to launch a offensive their campaigns which means that those areas become almost her were thick battlefields in human history as they basically don't move very much for the entire war and the same ground is plowed out by artillery shells over and over again in the people did die a u. some of these places are never varied and so you have each carnal house of horrors of people who've just been guilty of the bank people that were killed a month ago people that were killed a year ago all in the same spot in you was the soldier have to leave in this environment and then of course ignores the more mundane aspects which is if you were trapped in a trench and you came without being shot we'll go to the bathroom in early on the combat british soldiers were talking about taking the german helmets with the spikes on them as souvenirs for the war but quickly realize that the best thing you could do with those things is use them as a receptacle for the call of nature in and toss it as far away from the trenches possible so that the smell of thousands of men doing this in a confined space over year ers as an overwhelming which we said certain our brands like the press will become famous for their smelling you'll be a list malcolm for you get anywhere near them the canadians are winding in early nineteen fifteen in numbers and they take over some of these battlefields you know where nothing has changed amino was gone out and buried anybody that was one of the things by the way during the christmas truce is that we talked about that was the number one thing both sides tried to do which tell you how crazy the smell of the situation in our horrifying must've been the big jump on the trenches sister to try to bury these bodies had been out there for months the canadian soldier on the western for writing of the trenches of the for an early nineteen fifteen trenches dude been occupied by in a purple forces from around india the nicotine sergeant named as the breach and describes his inner welcome to the western front in suitably are referred to arms he says school too left at six thirty p. m. for reserve trenches and reached our reserve dug out to be using julian just were assholes one hell of an accommodation got to the trenches as of the teague party with stake in sand bags and though there were reserved trenches they were so rotten no trenches of all in part just isolated mountains found germans feet sticking up through the ground bigger gazette actually used human bodies instead of sandbags right beside the stream we working with the bodies of two dead that since november last one face downward in full marching order with his kid on his back he died game stench something awful and dead all round water rested made a home of their decomposed bodies visiting the barbed wire with ray ordinary wire strung across with about one i am came back toward dugouts and found them on fire had to march at the same julian and put up under ruthless house now ruth left on anything in the whole place found our sack of fluid been stolen and we were family certainly a most i'm lucky day for a lost my cherished piper bedded for him and quo what the canadians but the battlefield and the traditional aspects of award already come to be by that time was bad as it was gonna get we're frightfully mistaken for this battle the we call the second body will be proud is the first time the major gas attack happens the canadians will be the reason that it doesn't are not to be a huge tragedy for the allied cause the other reason will be that the germans had no idea that their attack was going to be the successful on this becomes a pattern with all this new technology very often the commanders are trying to figure raw whether this new technologies going to be something that's effective in useful so they tried out a small scale not really expecting him a good use of it and because of the sheer shock of the new stuff it proves wonderfully effective but it can't be exploited because the generals who authorized it use had a plan to explore that they were hoping to test it out little bit and then if it was good that we use it later by the time later comes around the other side is figured out countermeasures gas work exactly like that and before we shoot the german high command just as they did that submarine warfare debated whether or not as a good thing intensely as we said there were all these laws of the haiti comforted said dousing good news this stuff and some of the german leaders of said we sign these papers and others had found a loophole slug legal loopholes and said well to be good news shelves but nothing said anything about just taking the leads off of it contain years that had chlorine gas in 'em the story your dorm burrows right school the same kind of murder richly cold war time mentality that would terminate twelve hundred civilians aboard the lusitania two weeks later did not allow however for respective international law german legal experts advise it general balkan are in the attack could be justified because the gas was released from containers in fact just to save artillery shells and not from projectiles on the other side of the debate duke outbreak of bird newberg commander of the sixth army argued that unleashing this new weapon would not only be immoral but also of dubious military value for the allies with the wind it normally at their backs would probably send ten times as much gas on the german positions are won by a number of the third army agreed and then expressed additional were resorted to quote tremendous scandal and equaled that would compromise in disgrace germany in the eyes of the world cold war has nothing to do with chivalry anymore he wrote the higher civilization rises the more vial man becomes an equal if anybody still hand many of those old nineteenth century truly going back to ancient times versions of the romantic glorious you were with tool that they've been raised to believe that war was operation disinfectant we'll cure with them on such ills that will be the german name for the program amoco word to start the operation will be gone punished england the operation balls almost six thousand cylinders containing chlorine gas a byproduct of the german guy manufacturing industry to the germans implanted in the soil carefully over time around the battlefield the keeper in august nineteen fifteen they took the tops off the containers when the wind was right and let them chlorine gas blow across the battlefield toward the allied trenches which were occupied by a french algerian forces which involve both french troops and algerian troops and also the newly arrived canadian forces they know what to make of this but they figured out pretty quickly it was hell on earth as one indian soldier ryan's father afterwards susan war this is the end of the world the end of the world to some of these people the second that will be proud like a cloud of greenish yellow gas that was flowing across the battlefield so slowly you could actually walk ahead of it it has the soldiers to know what they were looking at most of them didn't move until it hit them again historian derrick storm broke school stretching six thousand meters long opposing lawns and bellowing high had been in the air if the ghastly looking green yellow cloud of gas moved you really important namely with the breeze across no man's land the gaseous monstrosity took on a pinkish you from certain angles as the descending western sun shone through it to compound the shop in terror german heavy artillery begin to lay down a pounding brought to french colonial divisions and a canadian division were caught completely unaware quote take a look at this are said one canadian artillery observer to his superiority steered through binoculars of what was coming towards them there's something funny going on any dole for cover from the incoming shells but just then the wein shifted compressing the gas cloud over the algerians whose forward units were engulfed the soldiers grab their throats choking in riding in excruciating pain from the ceiling chlorine gas in minutes many hundreds lay drowning in fluids given off by the long's seen as others panicked drop their rifles and ran leaving a six kilometer gap in the line and court aren't we in quentin a british soldier experience his first gas attack only about a week after the first time in getting used that affair and caused the high command to tell the troops to soak flannel in water and just put over their noses is a cheap and easy attempt to try to forestall the gas one of the soldiers knew what they were facing until they actually you have a gas attack at them which clinton had hit him on may first nineteen fifty quote i'm only over the top of our phone line we saw what looked like clouds of bean gray smoke rolling slowly along with us like we and the hound of the ground reaching to the height evader nine feet and approached so slowly that a man walking could've kept the head of that tax the word quickly passed round even now what had no terror for ross for we had not yet tasted it from or how percent we hastily drew the four ammo belts soak them in water and tied them around our mouths and noses suddenly through the communication trench came rushing a few khaki clad figures their eyes glaring nodded their heads their hands tearing at their throats as they came on some stumbled and fell one way riding at the bottom of the trench choking him gasping will snows following trampled over them if ever men were raving mad with terror these men were was left of our section still crouched at the support and the communication trench our firm line judging from the number of men you just come from it had been abandoned and we know waited for the first russian germans they need not calm our biggest enemy was now within a few yards of us in the form of a cloud of gas week our first whiff of it no words of mine can ever describe my feelings we inhale the first mouthful we choked spit and cost my long as old as obey we're being burnt out that they were going to burst red hot meals were being thrust into my eyes the first impulse was to well and we just seen men running to certain death and you would rather than stay in the choking who was slow agonizing death it was one of those occasions when you do not know what you were doing the man who stayed was no braver than the man who ran away we crouched mayor terrified stupa find o. lord shell burst on the pair paid just where we were sheltered we were almost buried beneath the falling or young adding to the chap about my own age was screaming at the top of his voice in trying to free his bare read legs he got free him before we could stop him he rushed off god knows where we never saw the reason for his screams his left arm was blown off above the elbow he left a trail of blood over my true because he climbed over me in a mad rush to get away and co clinton and his unit of canadians will block her whirlwind clear the whole the develops in the law in keeping the germans for breaking through of course the germans had expected to break through the entire reason for this gas attack was to experiment with the gas and to cover the fact that the germans were were moving troops for use on the eastern front the german high command had no idea it was going to be the successful and no one had any idea how horrifying it was going to be proud we encourage inundation of work to the front line ample experience the aftermath of what the gas attack in to the people who first encountered he wrote quote black in the face there to nixon shirt fronts torn open at the next an elastic spurred fight for breast many of them quite still while others were still rebuilding in taking in the agonies of the most awful death i've ever seen some were wounded in the bargain under gaping wounds lay open blood still losing from one cordoba was staring at his throat with his hands i doubt if he knew or felt that he had only one hand and that the other was just to stop with the hand shouldn't be in the stomped he worked around his throat is it his hand was still there and the blood from it was streaming over his bluish black face and neck a few minutes later he was still except for occasional shutters and she breathed his last in a cool as i've said before in this program i think i will say many times more this is the most horrifying sustained situation of there are moments i've ever seen soldiers forced to endure and millions and millions of people wanted to experience this before the end of the conflict my own grandfather would be gassed on the western front he was never the same afterwards the use of poison gas he's a defining moment in this conflict won the pulitzer final and stamped on the nineteenth century victorian romantic ideals of war for you can't pretend anymore with human beings are being treated the way you would treat pants with a can of rage or some other insecticide even before gas is used times of london the great paper in britain in november nineteen forty moron or an article which seems amazing by modern standards of course we're opposed first and second world war era now those people were coming into this conflict with certain ideals and understandings of war was going to be like and the trenches and the continual death for no apparent gain had shaken their whole view of war was all about in november nineteen fourteen the times ran this piece school all the spectacular sight of the war is gone never ter weepy or trenches i'm always trenches them within range of the concealed guns invisibility the supreme law all day after day the butcher ring of the unknown body on the scene war is become stupid the strain on the infantry is tremendous and it is endless at the cost of thousands of lives a few hundred yards may be gained but rarely indeed does even the most brilliant attack produce anything fresh troops brought up under cover of the tremendous artillery fire which opens up by surprise me up at the breach but only with heavy loss can such an attack the jury true and quo that little rundown about hall were has become stupid now accurately describes what the entire year of nineteen fifteen on the western front will be like nobody's going to move at all and i'm easy numbers of people are going to die in efforts to gain nothing knowing the defense of the general toward these efforts to gain nothing they have to figure ron howard do things including experimentation to our minds you would think you would stop after awhile but these people had to feed your honor when the warning they need to know for example how to get through the ever expanding you'll lose a barbed wire the crop up between the two in the trench lines you have to have battles to simply see what kind of artillery blows up and out of the wire to create a path for your troops to attack for you this is a lesson is being learned an incredible cost but there's really no other way to do what it's fascinating to look at pictures are already in nineteen fifteen six to eight months after the war started and see how this period has become sort of an estuary between the nineteenth and twentieth century we use to combination of the two centuries blending i mean when the war started and calgary it is indistinguishable from napoleon's we're we're seniors going off to war with gleaming brass plate and force her to helmets and savers and will spur arisen white gloves and now you have gas assuming you're gonna have in a german cowboy worry lancers for example assume is nineteen sixteen rolls around the store having the same helmet to the germans would use in the second world war to stall while you have your cab or read when glances and stall hellman a gas mask it's the perfect example of the two arrows blending in salt lake as an historical estuary you go from the napoleonic feeling of war with french soldiers going off into the conflict with bright red pants you know one six to eight months later we have gas we have flame throwers we have hundreds of gonzo the time firing on battlefields we have trenches barbed wire snipers everywhere this is not what anybody thought was going to happen and it begins upon hanging shall lot of people which is something that he's new to the human experience at least as far as the modern european armies are concerned people begin to go insane to lose their mind to have their nerve shattered and does something as i said no this war does something that seems unbelievable the ability to take one of the most stressful situations human beings ever find themselves in and make it worse as all wars psychologically challenging isn't it what made the first world war more difficult than almost any other major conflict you can think of is not just the changes in warfare rubble that significant how long the soldiers were forced to deal with it i mean take more of the worst battles in human history to be a soldier in the famous second unique war battle of kenny right where annabelle and his car the genie in spain is police around maybe eighty thousand romans and in spending and higher afternoon that the slaughtering them by hand coming your way into the center of this cloud of june the man who have to wait all day in the most on unbelievably disorienting environment you can think of the key here reading the key of c. meeting there's dust everywhere but they know what's coming up we're told by the ancient writers that so terrible that when the carthage means cut their way into the center of this mass of you demanded they will find that some roman soldiers packed so tightly that they couldn't even razor hanson's crowd of people to us all to their knees dug a little hole with their hands put her head in the hall and cover it up committing suicide because either they had lost their minds were they come to the conclusion why wait for the inevitable that's that's supposed to show you how terrible the situation is first world war you begin to see very quickly people who are unhinged the soldiers crap to the battle of kenny we're having a historic bad day but it was one day we can to go for that battle they were in relatively little danger if they survived a week or two after that battle same thing soldiers in the great war had no such luck shirley i had to deal with the circumstances day after day after day after this war military psychologist looking into the phenomenon of will later be known as shell shock will determine that under the conditions the soldiers were fighting it doesn't matter how brave you were eventually you know we each have a different threshold we could stand eventually anyone would lose their mind think about what's involved and you begin to understand why first take the shelling itself which is something dead easy isn't really impossible for any of us to understand there are very few people living there ever been through the kinds of shelling the d. one soldier from team we had to deal with it's very hard to describe one of the traditional kind of shelling in that war was something they can't be known as grumble i trauma fire is so named because it sounds like a drama immoral and instead of you just hearing that from being tapped at that speed each one of those things were person to shield or not that's how quickly the shells were landing first your honor we've cornered the author of the storm which do you want a most unusual soldiers by the way in the first world war because the cattle like the war any kind of salt in a positive benefits to whip you know so to the uplifting side of war and he was about as brave as any soldier you will ever find lost his composure wonder artillery fire he explains the situation we comes under fire and just loses his mind temporarily of the sinking in one of the strongest people mentally in the first world war that we know about in younger son school we fell out in extended order and way down expect and we in this series of lavish depressions that some predecessors of our said scooped out on the ground our rumbled conversations were suddenly caught off by a mayoral freezing karate twenty yards behind us close of earth world upon all white cloud and smack into the bowels the crash echoed through the woods stricken eyes looked at each other bodies pledged themselves into the ground with the humbling sensation of powerlessness to do anything else to the lotion followed explosion choking gas is drifted over the undergrowth smoke obscure good treetops trees and branches came crashing to the ground screams we leaped up and ran blindly chased by lightning son crushing air pressure from tree to tree looking for copper skirting around giant tree trunks like frightened again dugout were many many taken shelter which i too was running towards took a direct hit that ripped up the pointing in scent heavy timber spinning through the air a couple of squirrels having stones thrown at them the anzio one-eyed dodged panting around a huge beech tree white mechanically and spurred on by further explosions iran after my superior who sometimes turn round and stared at me wild eyed yelling what in god's name are those things what are they suddenly there was a flash him on the road work and a blow on the left lifelong me to the ground i thought i'd been struck by a clump of earth but the warm trickle of blood indicated that i've been in the later rice all that the needle sharp piece of shrapnel and given me a fleiss room though my wallet had taken the brunt of it the flying a kite which before slicing into the muscle had split no fewer than nine weaknesses of spout whether looked as though it might have been administered by a scalpel he continues i threw down my haberson and ran toward the trench we've come from from all sides were wounded men were making tracks towards it from the shield woods the trench was appalling choked with seriously wounded and dying man the figures trip to the waist with ripped open back leaned against the pair are at another with a triangular flap hanging off the back of the skull immediate short high pitched screams this was the home of the great god pain and for the first time i looked through devilish shank into the depths of his realm and fresh shells came down all the time i lost my head completely ruthlessly i barged past everyone all my path before finally having fallen back a few times in my haste climbing out of the hellish clash of the trench to move more freely about what the balding horse i washed through the dense undergrowth across half simply rings to lie collapsed in the cops on the clinton she and co this one of the most suicidal the brave soldiers of the great war if it can happen to him it could happen to anyone and i'm constantly amazed at the immense bravery and an almost carelessness and death in our grandparents and great grandparents showed consistently in this conflict and i always wonder about how i do my generation would do in the same situation the other tries later on to explain what that feeling of being in artillery barrages like and it's typical because we've nothing to compare it to you and your vermin on an airplane for example would want in heavy turbulence imitate what those horrible drops in your stomach disorders i mean it did it and i can even describe that feeling and that's nothing younger right this in one of the greatest descriptions i've ever heard of what it feels like he was trying to explain it to people would never experienced it he wrote this call it's easier matter to describe these sounds than to adore them because one cannot associate every single sound of flying steel with the idea of death and so i hobbled in my hold on the ground with my hand in front of my face imagining all the possible they release of being hit i think i found a comparison of captures the situation in which all hate and all the other soldiers who took part in this war so often found ourselves you must imagine that you were securely tied to a post being menaced by a man swinging at the hammer now the hammer has been taken back over his head ready to be small but now with cleaning here towards you on the point of touching your stall and it struck the polished and a splinter surf line that's what it's like to experience heavy shelling in exposed position and co now when you can take cover in the trench and pressure self up against the court and dig your head into the soil and try to just weather the storm not hard enough but there are a lot of times in this conflict a lot times when your job is to run through the drama choir and hail of shells to do everything your body tells you not to do with large younger king to carry away by the shell fire you wanna help to regular rule joe's like yours truly have right you'll use continues in one of those situations that soldiers all through the war we're when you know some officer blows which alone says time the job outlook the trench and one passed the gunfire and he writes the feeling you have when it's your turn quote we approach the firing line a little more than two miles when we got within reach of the enemy's curtain of fire butterworth make hail of shells was plowing up every foot of ground thousands of corpses of german soldiers were witnesses to the immense losses the germans had suffered in bringing up all available reserves the french tried their utmost to prevent the germans from bringing in their reserves an increased their artillery fire or two when on a herd of violence it seemed impossible for us to break through that barricade of fire hundreds of shells were bursting every minute we were ordered to pass that hal singly and they're running takes we were lying on the ground and observe the habit first of our men tried to get through some ran forward like mad not heeding the shells that were bursting away on the man got through others were entirely buried by the dirt dug up by the shells which one to pieces by shell splinters two men had scarcely reached the line when they were struck by a bull's eye why he had the shell exploded their feet leaving nothing of them who can imagine what we were feeling during these harrowing minutes as we lay crouching on the ground not quite a hundred feet away seeing everything that can only wait for our turn to come what a tangled oneself in a maze of thoughts suddenly what the officers would cry at the next one that was i just as if aroused of a bad dream i jumped up and race away like mad holding a rifle in my right hand and a bayonet in my left eye jumped aside a few steps in front to bursting shells and running into two others which are bursting at the same time i leap back several times want forward again race about wildly to find a gap for which to escape by your entire everywhere like a hunted beast won seek some opening to save himself was improper of me and behind me officer for ball broke camp ready to shoot the lawns of steel ball down like a heavy shower for high about hell and damnation by blindly ron ron ron until someone gets me by my coat whether someone roars into my ear stop are you wounded pavel look perhaps you are you don't know what during am trembling all over sit down the other person says you'll feel better we trembled too unquote how many of us could do that and think about the mentality and how these people were raised gilmore was involved in allow bam to do this i mean i have a feeling that my generation would just turn around at the officer holding a gun do was to get us to do that and figure like i can't take us all out we're not going into that we did a history show want about the question of whether the older generation raised two different time with ta for them we were of course there's no way to really come to any conclusions about that when you read this to lucy our grandparents and great grandparents did it boggles the mind and if those shells will drive you insane carnage that they created us deliver round every day just may as a symbol of the terrible things about this battle that's different from most of the second world war is in the second world war you have what's called the moving front when diary is amos peace war talk about the continuous fraud is he calls it the first world war initiated in the second world war the continuous front moves right trumpets greedy and the people are continually changing locations what makes the battlefield of the first four wars we said earlier so particular horrifying is it doesn't change location you get to live or wound of the carnage from years past even in the second were war jeanne sledge writing know from the u. s. marines talking about fighting in the pacific we'll talk about his particular we horrified feeling as he watched flyers were speeding on dead bodies right near him fly right to the edge of his coffee cup and landed his coffee he said the little horrifying things that he would think after why we just drive you out of your mind philip the engine is absolutely groundbreaking work now what can be told was a journalist on the scene as we said earlier and unable to write about the reality of the war until afterwards he describes what the situation to just how incredible it was to have to live in this it's worse than the charcoal house he describes a bomb an area called palmer coolidge that was so terrible you're the eap and battlefield a nice to school the worst school of the war for the song is a gentleman was in those days of her long afterwards coolidge this was the devil's playground and is chamber of horrors we're really device may retort church for young christian man it was not far out of the press to the last of the minimum rolled into the north of suave wooden sanctuary will lead for a time there was a chateau they're called the white chateau with excellent stables and good accommodation for one of our brigade staffs until one of our generals was killed and others wounded by a shell which broke up their conference afterwards it was no chateau but only rubble breaks banked up with sandbags in deep mourning craters filled with stinking water swapping over from the bella wood a lake from low lying in pools bodies and it's a body's o'clock some blonde in green metallic looking so long i'm made by explosive gases were floating on the surface about water below the crater banks in the first pass but why and so it was always our men live there and died there within a few yards of the enemy crouch all the sandbags and pasted into the mud banks if they don't get deeper cover their shovels went into the softness of dead bodies within their comrades scraps of flesh booted legs blackened hands i was heads came falling over them when the enemy trench mortar position for blew open morning she and cool how would that not drive anybody crazy that is war made works that she living in zombie land and being shelled of the same time it is as i said many times and will continue to assist the worst experience for soldiers in war for i've ever seen on the mass scale even in stalin rod the second world war widely considered one of the worst places to be in the world that just equals the experience that many men on the western front got to experience routinely how did they deal with it in ways that are some sort of wonderful testament to human nature they often joked about it they adopted a sort of gallows humor at times the remind you of police officers or fireman or could be honest journalists and soldiers and people who see this horrible stop and their way of coping with it use humor the journalist beloved gibbs experienced the central part in it and this was his theory on the whole fucking quo he was astonishing out loudly won last details of gruesome things wars brutality by with the rest of them i think at the bottom of it was a sense of the ironical contrast between the normal way is a civilian life and this hark back to the caveman code it made all of our old philosophy of life monstrous when ridiculous it played the hat trick with the gentility of modern manners man who'd been brought up to christian virtues would probably be a little prayers at their mother's knees would grow up to love how would treat painting music the gentle parts over sensitized to the subtleties of half tones delicate scales of the motion is to use in their choice of words in their sense of beauty found themselves compelled to live and act like a man and it was a bottom oblique bonnie they laughed at the most frightful episodes which would be you'll do this contrast between symbolized ethics and the old beast wall the more revolting it was the more sometimes they shouted with laughter especially in reminiscence when the tail was told of the gilded so lawn of the french chateau read the mess table it was i think he writes the laughter of mortals at the trick which men played on them by enter rama called great they had been taught to believe that the whole object of life was to reach out to beauty in law of the mankind in its progress to perfection had killed the beast instinct cruelty blog lost the primitive savage laws of survival by tooth and claw claw bad acts or poetry all heart all religion had preached this gospel his promise now that ideal had broken let it shine a base dashed the hard ground the contrast between that and this was devastating in the coup the stories that they told we're both on me and revealing you know horrified way like the gallows humor you see from police officers and soldiers and whatnot the ones is this one will come in one section of trenches the man made a habit i'm betting upon those who would be wounded first it had all the uncertainty of the roulette table one day when the german garner for putting over special dose of hate the sergeant kept coming to wonder about to inquire about a quote into court knew much ahmad who would come up with the drought is private smith all right he asked yes sergeant he's all right into the main crouching in the dark cold private citizen when you get past the sergeant indian five minutes later no sergeant private smith was touched by this interesting his well being and said that sergeant seems a very kind man said the boy seems to love me like a father a yellow laughter answered him you pour bleeding fool some of his comrades drawing you won a lottery stowed away in if you'd been hit and co another example of this amazing ability of human beings to adapt be nice kinds of situations with the tools given to us including humor which continued u. you look at the survivors of auschwitz and treblinka and the death camps of the nazis the jews were using humor even though they are to cope gibbs tells the story court intriguing new trenches in new dugout bodies and get somebody's warriner they put in the sand bags with the soil that was sent back down the line of men concealing your work and german lines waiting for any new activity in our digits bit of the old said the leading man putting in the leg another bit of bail he said on our thing and bills oddly mogg the civil later stage in the operation one head was found gibbs says quote has told afterwards that little episode in the trenches seemed immensely comic generals chuckled over it chaplains treasured the co all i'm coping mechanisms in the world blow we're not enough to help them when things got to really critical stage every human being as a breaking point as we said and what in the first war war was called shell shock we mentioned earlier would later be on the need to battle fatigue as soon as the expert realized it wasn't imprecise term occasion enough to be exposed artillery shells all to get it now we would call a posttraumatic stress disorder you see it in soldiers today and pretty common now i'm not i'm just not his story and i'm not a psychologist either so take this with a grain of salt but this is something that appears to be what they call spectrum disorder meaning you can have a severity scale of like one to ten and not to minimize anything our current veterans go through the lofty come back from these wars it would nightmares or an inability to sleep or heat properly or do we integrate into society leave obviously suffered some trauma and damage in the first world war though those people would often be shocked if you couldn't see visible evidence and oftentimes even if you call it the people in that there are especially early in the war didn't look at this is some sort of a legitimate problem to them this was just another manifestation of cowardice punishable by death take for example philip gibbs is academy has a body should come because this was one of the things that upset him the most he would go a different report on what the soldiers had one door and then once they were damaged by what they had to endure were poured on how old it completely clueless military use of the decade then punished him again for something they wore be victimized once for each tell one story for example on officer that he's meeting with who comes back to the meeting with him up from a court-martial hearing he just been to where they've said is just one of these people who had had his mind blown by his experience to death he says quote one of the camel one day i had to wait in battalion headquarters for the officer i'm gonna see he was attending a court-martial presently he came into the wooden hut with a flushed face sorry i had to keep you he said it tomorrow they will be wanna swine western world of death sentence hume said he nodded and damned howard said he didn't mind rifle fire but could the spanish shells admitted he left his post he doesn't mind rifle fire well tomorrow morning at the officer laughed grimly in and listen for a second they were some heavy prompts ball and overcome all hail rather close it seemed to war would not be talking about her leash osborne nearby by the way damn those german garner said the officer why can't they give us a little piece he turned loose papers that several times wallet talk with him he jerked his head up and listen to have the crash on the way back i saw man on foot walking in front of a mountain man asked the old hill of the ship and burned for the village of a walk for dinner something in the way he walked in his attitude ahead hunched forward a little in his arms behind his back which made me turn to look at him he was manner cold and tietmeyer rope to the mountain men aqaba glimpse of the space and then turned away called in sick it was doomed written on his face and in his isaac captured look he was walking to his wall and co in the wall where he was going to be put up against and shocked by his compatriots and later court another general saying that anyone who comes down with the symptoms as a damn coward any doubt the mall shot now early in the war this is how they thought 'cause they didn't deal with this routinely there had been little talk of history russo japanese war decade before this were the russians were encountering this kind of problem but this was a new experience this idea of a combat fatigue battle fatigue shell shocked us would be staffed by the way that all the major military's of the world which study after the first world war and it would incorporate what they learned into training procedures and how you dealt with combat in the next war to try to minimize these problems even later when the first world war the general's word learned that you need to world take your troops away from the front lines your regular interval she can't leave them up they are indefinitely or they're all gonna go crazy so you'll see the stalin's were per week or two beatrix will have to live in the modern three feet of standing water under shell fire in all the time but then we'll take him into the back to the re arenas they're safer what the more cover them slowly moving back toward the front is rotation was intended to keep impression keep them from becoming psychological casualties and but these are people who were foaming at the mouth sometimes when there are brought back from the winds these are people who were saying i just can't handle any more general although sometimes that's what you can unearth these are people whose gleams have turned to whigham warships or or show palsy but they can walk for the epileptic seizures or seizure like the new jersey you can actually go see this by the way because after the war many nice people been healed i never heal forty years later they're still you're taking up hospital spaces some of these countries amorous albums that the doctors may need showing you these people symptoms underarm one you can be lethal some of the symptoms are so physical in nature that this is kind how the term shell shock first became fashionable because they were theories did maybe became caution in the change in here pressure that the shells in your body no exploding actually did brain damage or nerve damage to these people 'cause when you actually see some of these cases another affected that looks like physical damage it doesn't look like mental damage but again that did not prevent the military's from treating this as cowardice especially early on that and dishing out the u. capital punishment penalty for but having said it still fascinating to me how few actually had to be executed for the stuff sometimes you can read books were the british are themselves in the nineteen seventies end of the bookmaking seventies and and it just the skull break no one can you look in and three hundred and fourteen people are executed for something for we are running away in combat abandon your post desertion most of the things that i think to myself i think my generation if we were forced to go through with those people had to go to that how many people the shoe in oman because what's happening in nineteen fifteen and you can so mop the entire western front in nineteen fifteen you'll have to deal with any of the battles is that the situation is is degenerating into we understand the first reward be like i'm a western front trenches and defenses that are becoming ever more sophisticated we're now getting beyond the error we're talking about one long trench on one side more long train from the other and rebuked the sophistication here near but you know it's a little barbed wire between it and we are entering into a face now we're on western front you begin to have to fortification you're not talking now about successful attacks going after people eat you're trying to batter down the defense is the goal sometimes miles backwards historian eric dorm burrows describes these deepening nineteen fifteen fortifications like this before when the allies attacked in may nineteen fifteen the trenches were shielded by two belts a barbed wire each five feet high and thirty meters deep behind the wire layer trench network consisting of three lines hundred meters apart at regular here bulls each trench had a zigzag were dog leg perverse to shield offenders rochelle's lending your body and prevent attackers from firing machine guns down the entire length of the trench this network of trenches was aboard one thousand meters back by concrete machine gun pill boxes to mow down enemy soldiers to pierce the forward positions those already formidable standing differences were increased during the summer burrows continues quote during the summer a second double bell the barbed wire went into place one thousand meters behind the rear pill boxes of the first french system then came the second triple wiener trenches also backed by machine gun emplacements the defenders all sober road ever more deeply into the ground to make the system worked optima lake monthly output submachine guns had increased nearly twelve full both the first and second trench systems were linked by communication trenches for moving up reinforcements retreating underground telephone cables connected the first line with the second as well as with your child report to the rear general balkan heinz well designed kilometers deep double killing zones amounted to a massive engineering and construction project that was carried out before the allies attacked again in september and co that's attacking a fortress now the allies were also deepening in remaking the trenches more sophisticated but not to the same degree the germans were because the allies attitude is why would we waste without much effort when we're hoping the next attack of the next attack breaks us through what we gather the strangers will be in their trenches germans have a much more defensive attitude on the western front this time they plan on staying awhile they dig deeper into the earth and build these bond houses with you timber overhead your big trees lay down log cabin style with orth on top of that sometimes liam carpeting on the floor wallpaper on the walls shielding i mean it's use some way is a giant you know we're only the empire kind of hadrian's wall up and down the line meaning delta d you're insane fortifications when their right mind would think you wanna slam human beings opinions that over over again well frightened each military leadership on the continent that too for as military leader joseph joffe for has an attitude of me just get them out they're on the sacred soil france it's also important resource in industrial territory in the jar for waste if necessary an entire generation of young frenchmen to reject the hon for francis oil palm be one of those propagandistic means for the germans and the british commander of british forces in france confusingly in ironically named as we said before search on french agrees with job for just give us more troops with a bigger boxer is prize fight and appear as if we get there elbows on them wrists in their bones they're going down eventually does give us more khufu pounded the use fortifications down in the way they did this by the way was a morgue on us nineteen fifteen is not just the beginning of the heavy duty trench warfare in the beginning of the attempts to deal with the heavy duty trench warfare and you do this with ever increasing amounts of the arms of bigger caliber and using them for longer periods of time in just one of these so double headed battles that will be phenomenal and fifteen sir john french figures on the way to break through these kinds of fortifications is with many many hours of many many guns shooting in a confined area the stockpiles five point two million shells for use in this one double headed offensive to you gonna pound these fortification is an innocent man into the gap to occupy the mazzola freshener what hands at that artillery conquers the ground when you send may mean afterwards to occupy it that's the nineteen fifteen strategy to also called by some commanders bite and hold so the general ideas was the agouron the myriad beat you grab it with artillery you take it over with people when all the other side killed by the artillery and then you start for spying and you turn that into your little castle and i just moved your sides fortifications were poured their side the giant moving more of trenches and siege fortifications along one side takes a new area the other side ago was an attack them right away before they can fortified begin makes it impossible follies battles but that's a good nineteen fifteen looks like ever more big guns ever more we should opportunities ever more futility and the most forward thinkers amongst the allied leaders and then decision makers are looking at is already at the end of nineteen fourteen and they can see it in the distance and it thinking to themselves must we go there a french think you're supposed to have floated the idea first but was picked up most famously by winston churchill an idea of finding a flank in neither fighting theater why do we have to throw more troops and the meat grinder the british empire is just starting to produce a decent number of people they've got some building up of troops happening these volunteers that first be joined up at the very beginning of the war in el gone through the training period i can be throwing it really like to call for can i give those port student soldiers economy has been dead for just the right time the agreement with their training to must we throw these pressures in troops into the meat grinder or empire troops but we're also showing of the canadians as we said meaning during your brother troops really from diminutive degrees in common walter we're at all the term was in use it's not officially the right term until between the two wars one commonwealth status is granted some of these places on blisters call them dominion's troops from new zealand and australia we used up again in patriotic fervor for the cause and large numbers of people relative to the total population these places the runaway are you we've got a sacrifice all these troops into attacking these deep fortifications well for the commanders on the western front french or british were in all the opinion that every person should be thrown into the western front they would argue that it's only a meat grinder on the western front is we don't have enough man yet to over one that meat grinder you give us enough people will end this war lasted a lot less people die it was as i mentioned earlier the kind of co ball no thinkers would come to the conclusion that that's or thinking was mistaken and surely there are better ideas out there than to throw you mourn more human beings into the teeth of the enemy's defenses at the ball had some famous members at winston churchill for example maybe the most famous callable lord ratio kitchener the war minister not for mahoney and these people were on the opinion aggie should compare it to us of a predatory idea they had been trying to take down the nastiest animal in the herd for months now and they getting gored in the process the germans had been damaged every major member of the allies by this time and they were the great lines of france and britain and russia looking around at the duma cells will while we just follow the traditional predatory sort of approach until after the week and the sick and the old instead of going after the strong in young and dangerous and there was a country in the war now all that meant all three of those key classifications is a guy like church would've made them country that was all i'm sick a week as more than a country was an empire is dying empire i've been calling a turkey throw this whole show because that's the proper name for tougher for war but there's another proper name to the conjures up a whole different set of images and perhaps modern sounding name of turkey that's the ottoman empire and that conjures up images of sultans and janice avery years and i share rooms being on the gates of the n. r. almost all running into central europe at one point the height of their history of knocking down the walls of constantinople formerly known as byzantium to the greeks constantinople to the romans and then after the sultan and got through that historic barrier and conquer the city he renamed it the stempel as sort of a momentum old and giant monument for what he is on a man's have achieved that was when the arms were young neons were cold now and they were losing territory over the decades like nobody's business they were seen as a carcass to be picketers be said the sick man of europe they were call and someone like virtual looked and turkey just sitting here they come into the war in november serve almanzar for the war officially start and they're surrounded by water they are maybe not even the secondly how were they had the territory of the big secondly power lots of places trying to get out of turkey but still stuck in turkey and taiwan or might look at her ripper might look at warner armenian might look at it nonetheless without the means to sort of protect all that territory knew what the main reasons there'd been a war called the crimean war in the middle of the nineteenth century is because turkey was so weak and yet so filled with territory you could take the british in the french had the good of all to keep the russian from snap amount to much of it so disappeared to be the easy animal on the herd to take down at a crucial place that might have all sorts of impact on the war if he did take him down take for example all the countries that had decided which side they were mortified on yet when turkey years wars we said today that headache for the allies 'cause they open up an entire new theater of operations really there might've been in a little stuff on the side door number one turkey get to the war november nineteen fourteen the middle east is now and why india may be implied southern russia is implied or bad for the judge and why the balkans his inquiry the balkans is territory that when the ottoman turks were young and powerful they all they had fought two wars in the past couple of years with the former territories that they used to own and watch them pinochet goffman ottoman empire serbia bulgaria romania greece all these places had been pulling themselves away mormon influence for some time now and none of 'em a decided which side they were gonna fight on in this war yet and it's fascinating mean the talk about watching open diplomacy in a way that like watching a horse trading going on is watching the allies on one side and the central powers on the other side tried to convince the country go their way in which he italy for example it's almost all been optioned time i mean one alliance will walk in the front door inside well if we win the war you join us today of this province from the enemy that province by province to when you believe in any of that or comes the other line systems in his alibi promised to what we we need to have this badly edited and this was going on with all these countries in the balkans and in greece for example the gene the number to a thing they were all concerned with what would they gonna get the gun in the war we promising mean you know going to the highest bidder but the number one thing we were all concerned with is which dandelion these countries knew that they were absolutely like road kill they picked the wrong side but in early nineteen fifteen no clear kite dominant side had emerged as a churchill in his compatriots have this idea that they could strike a big blow in that theater right and that for the world even if they knock anybody out we did it might convince a lot of these powerful you can see right away in france going would join the right things to portia war that way so all these good arguments like these are starting to improve for disco ball of people like winston churchill what all of a sudden something here means to bring the whole thing to warhead put it on the front burner and make the government consider whether or not it's a good idea to twenty and have a good idea to managing to really be thinking about cases we do and request from the russians changes as for the theoretical question to one that they're debating in early january nineteen fifteen the russians are asking for help they're facing the turks down you dear the border in the church in the russian territory typed up or away from where russian forces are fighting the germans and your strong gary is because of the distance the russians are pretty much taken their troops in there fighting for their lives against the germans news um or now the turks are attacking in strength down south the situation will be critical in late december one on december twenty ninth the turkish forces up against the russians on their mutual more start the battle sir thomas and try to attack the russian defenders for multiple signs of wanted to eat very optimistic jury napoleonic in concept bomb plan and led by a civilian strategist actually who'll take a hundred and twenty thousand men good turkish army and ruin it bomb in this battle because these russians the smaller for stomach hurts attacking them are ensconced in the natural for curse that is the caucus is not worry in the middle of winter all this fighting as can happen elevations between five thousand feet in sixty five hundred feet turkish soldiers are going to be fighting as though they're dressed for the lowlands the logistics of this hundred twenty thousand man army are gonna be carried up into these mountains on tiny little windy mountain roads and is not even many of them and it's snowing like he can't believe we're told of your multiple day is a fourteen how we're marches through you know we steve snow by the time these port turkish troops get to the russians their darn near defeated then some of them surrender right women several course to surrender the beating he does get this image of the starting you know units that are just falling apart at the end of the rope some fight bravely animals fanatically anyway and then the next part of the story of spain this is the retreat of this turkish army back to turkey they lose about half their strength were told of the people that you may get back to turkey a third of them were so badly wanted to go have some part of their body amputated and the stories themselves and it's amazing how alike they are book the book but they they they create disorder mental image of like napoleon the retreating from moscow in the winter hair read the whole way back with these soldiers that were freezing on the march to the so called in the mountain passes in the middle of winter and the army is supposed to be followed by packs of wolves treaties enormous bram stoker rish like to wayne it and taking the frozen soldiers as the freezer is they become too wanted to defend themselves into horrifying story and the church we very bitter and affected by this battle the russians will be though to because even though they technically when it for all in all the church could do this in another three weeks or another mom but there are ready for this again the turkish attack down here prove that this is not a quiet say front and you better be ready for more than a ready for more this is why they ask for help and he asked for some diversion to be made double draw some of these turkish troops away from them maybe something that will open the op the supply lines again because the church controlled one of the most strategically important spots not just in the world but in world history when you take constantinople in a fifteenth century like the church did the darn else come with it the darnell was are the actual separation and this is a geographically to the goes back to you forever between asia and europe people get on satellite images of looks like a rather large bomb river but it really is only a mile apart in some spots in this is the waterway take she forum you're the aegean sea which is connected to the mediterranean sea which is connected to the rest of the world and yet she from there the black sea which is not connected to the rest of the world unless you're using the darden hours it's a straight of extreme importance and a church control it therefore purses on both sides of this glorified river with cannon and they've got mine as you their water way to prevent people from getting through that they don't wanna get through mostly given the war in november nineteen fourteen they'll what the russians to get through and what the british to get through an effort to get through and this is a huge problem for russia because they know how lot of places where people can trade with them via the ocean especially in a fit anywhere near the winter months if it's near the winter months you need this port open the black sea port open and now the turks are close to the russians are in such bad straight day you're sending soldiers into battle whether rifle and then another soldier whose job it is to shadow the first soldier and when the first soldier dies pick up his rifle when you see because the second person didn't get rifle the russian industry cannot keep up with the military needs so they're having problems like that to conceal imported is for them to be able to trade with britain and france may be outside powers it just to get rifles to barnett troops with the now the turks are closed off an important area and winston churchill thinks he can open it he gets an idea it will involve any ground troops only continually point this out is built by the wind abused us both to the show but not as a history book 'cause it's not the penalty wanna use to find historical truth is to get a book you wanna look to find the truth as churchill saw it and justified and afterwards which is a very different thing turtles fingerprints roll over this thing in the stingers can go south fast and so churchill book he does what almost any other person with any responsibility for world war one doesn't their post war memoirs he defends him self answered his critics justifies this explains that and i'm the motive and the german generals and whatnot in that respect but his point is when he thought of this idea eighteen involving u. n. troops in sicily n. troops are gonna be a huge part of the tragedy that this unfolding to be basically says he washed his hands of the whole plan wants that situation changed churchill's plan was to take largest most powerful fleet ever assembled in world history and forced the straits simply say health rome wiping out any ford you know that anywhere nearby with naval gunfire and go from one side to the other and i'm one sure on the other side you're right next to formerly constantinople of this temple and you have a jolly and megalopolis underneath the guns of the greatest athlete ever assembled in santa war it's an idea that looks great on paper and then by the time the defense go from any always through the alphabet to zero see who rules the alphabet between a busy woman comes to getting something from the fee radical stage to the reality station that's murphy's law and murphy's law grabs hold of these events and quickly turns this whole affair into something that no one had ever thought was the right thing to do sure shopkeeper looking get swamped by events sometimes and churchill spent a good part of his book on the subject trying to point out that he was one of the victims of what happened he's often been portrayed as the architect and if you ever wanna see how frustrating history can be sometimes look and churchill's thinking on all this because when you examine it so logical he's doing exactly what any of us would hope somebody in a position of power we do in terms of it i'm going down the arguments in the risks and benefits logically and it's still turns out horribly what sort of lessons that teaching you the other commanders were saying yes just keep smashing against the wall oh my goodness doesn't seem to matter what do you think outside the box into the same darn stupid what listing again and again the first world war to equalize is the result of both of that and you darned if you're thinking you darned if you don't think churchill basic assumption was that the british empire was sitting on an enormously powerful fleet that was useless i'm a part that was useless is so useless you can even use it if the enemy fleet comes out to fight as a whole barger birdie ships that were made obsolete only in nineteen oh six remember it's nineteen forty nineteen fifty what happened in nineteen oh six a brand new type of battleship allied dom c became the name of the initial ships name was drained not that becomes the name for the entire type of vessel the granada's to prevent not absent a class name now not because that's how revolutionary the ship was the problem is is be used in the riders on the scene it makes obsolete fleets of hugely expensive vessels dozens and dozens and dozens of them than built up over a lifetime makes them obsolete overnight but of course the bridge being the greatest thing in the world they had the most of these battleships the older battleships the ones in nineteen oh five are the greatest force afloat in nineteen oh six or ready for the scrap heap mr churchill's of all the ships were headed for what we say that i'm for the jews can be scrapped after the war he says that the average had these emotional attachments to the ship's because they've served on the more he remembered the day when these were the most powerful warships afloat and churchill's attitude is these are assets to be used up for dana we can use him in the darnell if we lose 'em we don't lose anything buddy's cowl awful winston churchill's plan of using the fleet in the lightning attack that the turks were ready for with massive force to be just forced the street before anyone could respond with turns into something totally different over the next several weeks and churchill has always claimed that the events were completely out of his control but he uses is an argument the lineup that he was told that there were no troops available so any plane he came up with pre much had have a tiny little group of marines to run on shore knock out a gun if necessary but nothing else so he sued the city can be responsible for this land disaster that's about to happen he never seen him being a trip to me when he is wesun at all at the evening meeting of the war council on january twenty eighth when the final decision to adopt the plan was taken lord kitchener repeated quote we have at present no troops to spare it was on that foundation alone that all our decisions in favor of up shortly naval attack had been taken but has forwarded a series of new facts and pressures came into play which gradually but as c. singly change the character an enormously expanded the scale of the enterprise under these influences in less than two months been able attack with its lack of certainty with its limited costs and risks became subsidiary and in it's place the rosa military development of great magnitude over this new plan the admiralty had no responsible control our advice did not prevail are criticisms were not welcomed an even inquiries became a matter of delicacy intact nonetheless by the results of this military operation we had to stand turf all and all i know you don't need translation for me but isn't that the same as saying and i was in my idea change to buy stock to be responsible for it you see a lot of post world war one the worst that sound like that nonetheless inadequately explains how look out of control the process seemed once churchill in his cabal had taken their little private idea and had adopted by not just one government but the allies as book why then of course in the final analysis the people with the most control over your plan if you're winston churchill are the ones on the scene who actually have to make it work the military commanders this case the adults on february seventeenth to a couple of those admirals are leading the most powerful fleet that to vermont war my stinger missiles of leaving the blue folder the most powerful fleet in the world is debris should lead sitting up in scalpel flow all been scotland waiting for the german fleet to come out why but the fleet's never done anything they're waiting for their chance the largest most powerful think it's ever gone to war try to do something so far this one eighteen years old battleships most of the british some of them french most of these the old battleships they were made obsolete a decade before but also including you're the new was super grin on the queen elizabeth with fifteen inch guns twelve or so cruisers three destroyers a couple hundred transport this fleet might not last very long against the crack german fleet but in this part of the world it's the most powerful enough force afloat it would've been the greatest clean the world a decade before your eyes you off the coast of turkey and begins shelling those straits on february nineteenth and things start slowing down the plan is to batter your way through to destroy all these porter says you can do you move deeper and deeper into the swordfish were referring like a piece of geography but you know the weather gets basso the fleet retreats into a safe distance and in comes up the michelle's unfortunate something else goes wrong in church was sitting back in britain going crazy pulling his hair out sending messages after message is basically saying hurry hurry hurry the whole plan requires you to hurry to the longer they take the more you lose this whole idea that there's some surprise to the catches the turks off guard and so the turks every figured out what you see the largest free didn't ever gone to war all the british are doing something down here the good news is that does take away troops fighting the russians and take some pressure rapunzel or which was the reason he asked for help in the first place the bad news is instead of the british advancing against a totally on rainy follow your taking advantage of surprise they're sitting there giving the whole basic idea way for months on the eighteenth of march the fleet decide to try again in a big way churchill's back there prodding and get to work it out there do with big attack any eighteen battleships in the whole fleet goes in start shelling the forts submarines are detached this anomaly indigo take some of these boards that are particularly troublesome and then shit hit some online french battleship rolls over really quickly about seven hundred people died boehme fast and for humans had time to digest that another one item on and then another one by the weight on the scene they don't know the danger mines mines all other things they thought about torpedoes or another all they know we zbig expensive imported ships at least in the old days are starting the sink and wisdom explode and the commander's pull everything back and by the time they get away from the straits they've lost or seen cripples six battleships no winston churchill would say what he did say is who cares these are old battleships they're not of the use to us all so use him to take the street with least take a straight he said the admiral's have a whole different thing did you see this as an asset to be used they saw it as a charge to protect the general to set an emotional attachment to the ships they walk to their decks back when they were young officers in the ship for the queens of the season he says now they had this attachment the more wisdom than the whole what was they were there 'cause they were lose a ball again was so terrible about what follows is churchill seventy was that the sweetest totally expendable but in order to protect him is expendable fleet the high command aside the ground troops have to be sent in they pulled the fleet back to begin assembling he's eighty thousand men that they're going to attack this area within the plan is to overwhelm his peninsula called the glibly peninsula that right next to the garden owls and take over all those four jamal was gonna positions with your ground troops then those guns will fire on your little teeny minesweepers were clearing the streets of the mines and then you'd be battleship a good time but it's the tail wagging the dog here and churchill and others have said ever since the war was over that this was a disaster waiting to happen because the whole point of this plan is to use strategic surprise to catch the enemy off guard how's the enemy could be caught off guard which takes five weeks after the battleships pull back to get the ground forces on the beaches the turks are commanded by german general in this case very competent guiding liman von sanders who supposedly says if the allies will just give him the day she can put together and he's desperate for tiny taste in eight days to give him five weeks among the title landings take place in late april or early may nineteen fifteen to say that the turks or rainy maybe is a little bit presumptuous and what they're waiting and you get a chance to see what the worst nightmares of allied climbers were planning for d. day in the second world war you know the attack across the beaches across the english channel landing allied troops on the occupied french coastline you can see what their nightmares most of them like because they were young man when they got to see how something like an amphibious assault could go wrong 'cause they saw it on the beaches of glibly first of all he was a nightmare of improvisation these troops were trained for war not trained for amphibious assault the land and sometimes on the long beach is they had completely it somehow gotten much rain or wrong utility real surveillance in the poor australians are landed in a cold amadeo from where they were supposed to lie and it's like there were first amphitheatre an historian john keating who visited the site of the one thing that overwhelmed when you go there to hang need assistance tiny little cold and drop the time of australia's they are with the high ground or round 'em like an amphitheater and just leave a manner on some of these beaches the allies were able to lay and rot relatively easily and try to capture the high ground on other beaches they landed on sure what to do on a couple of the speeches the turks are waiting for them and massacres and she would wanna be a allies had taken a eager to transport ship and caught out a hole in it so that they could drive it wait upon the beach in the soldiers could just jump out and be ready to fight the turks trained machine guns on the door open the door opened and all the strips jumped out the machine down one by one by one that at the beach less than twenty five of them made to the beach of several hundred even when the allied forces a great car sometimes take the speech is there now are we sure what to do next they have no idea how things are going on the beach next to them they don't know what the ship's know where they are the ships don't know where they are there's no coordination going on and you really get a wonderful object lesson in which we're also getting on the western front concerning weapons systems really missing from this war did exist but not the way it worked coordinated not the way the you'll see come of age in the next world war one of those things and when you consider it in a vacuum addressing the sound like a weapon it's like barbed wire gilding the barbed wire is weapon you would think of real communications as a weapon either but in the missing ingredient in so many of these missed opportunities in this war if only the troops that broke through new they broke through if only they could change with your turn the river shooting if only we could bring up reinforced with this happens all the time of western front now what's happening echo with billy sometimes these troops landed major so was standing there on on what they're supposed to do nectar they take the first position of the plans ahead of time call for them to take an a. stop there what would you expect him to do they don't know what's going on they have to be careful other roll marcela reagan or shall i i'm the problem is is once again it allows the turks to burst paul and then you will see a lot of fighting going on for the high ground of these aliens that overlook the beaches now this whole pants don't wanna work at the turks it turned out to be a soft enemy you know they turned out to be is weak and is decadent and is it was motivated is allied planner sort of assumed that they would be instead they fought like a lion is which the turks are capable of the trucks are very danger soldiers the catholic church especially no be an incident about the tops of these heights where allied forces are fighting with turkish forces led by a guy named mustafa kemal west of the war would come on the most important figures in postwar turkey top thirty five years old and he sees the allied forces in his ear real reaching a height everybody knows that these high target of the important anymore just troops that are out of ammunition to hold them off and he says these famous penalize the gone down in turkish history he says cool i order you to attack i warn you didn't die the time which passes until we die other troops and commanders can take our place and call that's about the opposite reaction of what the allies were expecting the term resistance to be like the allied resistance is justice be lead the australians and new zealanders anger appears to be on this will prove themselves some of the best if not the best fighters in the war on these beaches but they're completely hamstrung by there squirrel lot of the situation i mean almost no time the gullible we campaign turns into way mediterranean version of the western front and it's got all the same tragic hallmarks of the western from hands barbed wire artillery no man's land trenches the whole thing and military story i'm going out the course it does it's the same situation the same things in conditions that created the need to have people dig into the euro anna created the power of the defense over the authentic is just is present in the mediterranean in the aegean is an ism western front the australians find out about this firsthand the migrant next to an air force colonel hours again for the second world war i used to ask included top as soldiers were one and ate that was an interesting question to me and i always wanted to hear something like the germans an armory surprise we want by saying the british in general and the australians and new zealand troops specifically i said why and he said because you would find yourself in these horrible situations and they would be laughing and joking nice to bats and the tedium of oval level of bravery to trigger more we see but it doesn't always help you there's a story arm of an australian corporate world about being pinned down on one of the speeches when they landed the turks have high ground the shooting down a peace corps australians or trying to get their act together get organized figure out what we do next wilder under fire while their friends are dying and yes for a little while some of 'em are laughing he writes quote i'm calling fire were enormous from the left were there were high cliffs one man dropped down alongside me laughing i broke the news to him gently you got yourself into the hottest for you'll ever strike by joan were the enemy were he fired a few shots and again i heard the sickening thought of a bullet i look at him in for the bullet and fearful we matched is facing gone down his throat rendering him dom by his eyes were dreadful double hold how he scorned in agony there was nothing i could do for him but predicting might die swiftly to them about twenty minutes to accomplish this by that time the tangled up his legs and pain and stiff and i saw the waxy collar creep over his cheek and breathe easier pinnacle amazing to think about this one person who's got to consider his own life which is under attack how he deals with true to medium and he gets to watch that going on for twenty minutes to if i tend to focus on the horror in the story later with it because that's what gets to me any history read on any subject is going to buy its very nature or the person telling a story usually historian but some time to get stuck with me all meat is gonna focus on the things that intrigue or interest them for me it what these people had to go through on all sides at the horror that i constantly try to imagine myself experiencing in it's mindboggling to me and i think after his money shows we don't want of stayed with me listening like you at to be something that touches you to have to literally you have the same charles house situation we're dead bodies we're part of your life and live in almost them is part of the horror it's bad enough bitter white as always it's taken to watch all this death the destruction but to live with corpses corpses of people you often now or you this is a remembrance by british soldier leonard thompson who rides at the garden hose right after the major landing cork we arrived at the darden else and saw the goddess flashing i heard the rifle fire they heaved our ship the river clyde right up to the shore been cut off hole in the new legal key or so we were able to walk straight off come on to the beach we all sat there on the hello spot waiting for it to get light the first things we saw were beaten wrecked turkish yarns the second debate marquis it didn't make me think of the military but the village fats other people must've thought like this too because i remember how we all rushed up to with like boys getting into the circus and unfounded always stop we are wasted in rushed in is full of corpses dead englishman lines allies of them with their eyes wide open we'll stop talking i never seen a dead man before and euro was looking at two or three hundred of them it was our first be your nobody mentioned this i was very shocked but i thought of suffolk and how it seemed happy place for the first time we set to work to bury people we pushed him into the sides of the trench the bits of them kept getting uncover in sticking out but people in a badly made bed hands were the worst they would escape from the sand pointing begging even waving was one which we all shook we passed by saying good morning in a posh voice everybody did it the bottom of the trench whispering it like a mattress because of all the bodies underneath the night when the stench was worse we tied creep around our mouth and nose is this creepy been given to us because it was supposed to orphanage from being gassed the flies into the trenches ignite analyzed them completely with a density which was like moving a claw we killed millions of them by slapping are spades along the trench wall but the next night it would be just as bad overall lal c and we couldn't stop shaking because we caught dysentery we wept not because we were frightened because we were so dirty in court unlike a bad movie the glibly campaign which was supposed to do in and around the suffering of the western front indeed more quickly by striking you know the week joint in the enemy's alliance just extended that's offering to a new front the entire affair wanted continually worse as generals and admirals who don't want would make defeat keep pouring more and more reinforcements and with the church do the same thing it just becomes this ongoing hal this ongoing how will eventually cost winston churchill his job in fact the british government essentially esther reorganizing the creative coalition government churchill's blom laughed out he will leave the admiralty were told after being sacked with tears in his eye is sure to the fiscal year is over talk about one of the great mistakes of all time obviously he has agreed to it hennepin the treacherous we're got it which have to watch myself with him because i like him but a lot of us like him as a historical figure he's quite likable teddy roosevelt's the same morning but you have to remember that these guys have qualities that make a somewhat unusual it's hard to factor those qualities and the man structural told of his best friend in february nineteen fifty the tying run he's planning this whole glibly thing something is relatively shocking to hear when the whole world is spawned by the carnage of the worst war in human history he told us from the school i think a car should rest on me because i love this war i know which smashing a shattering the lives of thousands every moment in yet i can't help but i enjoy every second and co imagine if the people whose loved ones were over there fighting and dying and her church will admit that and one of the things that happens when you use trickles account of these events that he played an important role in michigan all his excuses needed his point of view and you get in order one side of the county's affairs were churchill is the role he was right all along and only people do is to him if only they hadn't screwed up his plans all would've been great but you're very good historians peter hart would not find the very fair he had this to saying he's not only churchill was right bandwagon rohrbough to hold up ugly affair called apologists for the glibly campaign of law and try to boast of what could've been with a heavy emphasis on if only this fails to recognize that the allies bought the campaign with levels of naval and military support to were considered acceptable until the turks defeated some time and time again hamilton promise excess again and again he bailed till the bully was one of the series of military eastern or adventurers launched without proper analysis of the global strategic situation without consideration of the local tactical situation ignoring logistical realities underestimating the strength of the opposition and particularly hugely optimistic assessment of the military capabilities of their own troops not for nothing is hubris regarded as the english disease but the gullible weekend pang was a serious matter vital resources have been drawn away from work really mattered the turks were all but helpless if left on their own been trying to launch an ambitious attack across the sinai desert on the suez canal budiman easily thwarted the little league achieved nothing but to provide the turks with the opportunity to slaughter british and french troops in copious numbers in this situation which everything was in the defenders favor meanwhile back on the western front was the real enemy the german empire an equal he ends by saying the gullible lee was a tragic sideshow and blaming churchill in large part of the disaster well this tragic side show was going on another horrible disaster was as well this is a conflict afterall full or bowl disasters but this woman was somewhat different from soldiers fighting it out on battlefields this one vault an entire people several entire peoples in fact any news perhaps the most argued about case of genocide in world history in order that in the context of we're bound to talk about it we need to recall how much of our role the idea of ethnic self determination plays in leading up to the conditions to create the first world war and to the first world war itself remember there are one shoe of centuries old free twentieth century empires and so stumbled into the twentieth century carrying all sorts of baggage from previous eras with them baggage that is in part tearing them apart on a lot of this baggage is ethnic take the cost ron pierini umpires a perfect example using mole typecast megan parke when the time of different ethnicity synod there are presided over by a german slash hungarian delete on paper all these people are equal austro on various subjects with the happened in not being german of hungarian often you'll feel very equal and during this time period many different ethnic groups are you looking to create the wrong states themselves or their looking to join with ethnic brethren understood every down the house when the first four wars touched off which were college touched off by serb nationalist some us laws would probably look at as a patriot but the austral and gary insulted him as a terrorist and what did any of their own people they want to join with serbia they not that old country created by the ethnic serbs anyone want to do that was an austrian during subject was now treasonous an insurrection est and rabble if you're actually in the war with eccentric your fifth columnist or a cancer on your nation and there's no question that there are a bunch of empires in dealing with these problems and they were bound to sort the cult proms off even the winners in the first world war for example britain and france are only going push these questions for the down the road and after the next four war the british will be dealing with similar situations in india and the french will be dealing with it in north africa in indochina but the oster hungarians and russians and the ottoman empire deal with it now creech huge problems and it does so in your realm that historically each to really violent inducing ethnic conflict in nice cold empires were people have very long memories and everybody has your atrocities that the other side is committed over the centuries that they can point to as a justification for what they're going to do now more people can think for example of the situation in the middle east right now and how to sit down with anyone who's involved no close at hand with those conflicts the first thing you find out is everyone has a time of bad things that they can point to the other side did after why you're had just been a big issue even know where start everyone's got such long memories and there are so many bad things that happened at the point to the other side is being responsible for did you just don't even know how to solve that problem and untie the gordian knot but that's nothing compared to the ethnic memories of people in europe and anyone who remembers the breakup of the former yugoslavia in the middle nineteen nineties you were member that's a perfect example of how deep these ethnic tensions go no we were all under the impression that that whole ethnic animosity between groups in those areas had been detained in that those fires had been completely put out little did we know that the heat under the ashes were smoldering the whole time at all to puzzle gasoline pour on the the smoldering keep free to flare up and for horrible things to be done and when you one question anyone for example acer or croat for bosnian muslim about it they would point to the other side and talk about hundreds of years of awful thing is that they had done to them you don't even know were to begin with ethnic hatred like that the war situation of this kind that happens in the first world war although what happens in a lot of places but not forget during the nineteen fifteen retreat the russians didn't want terrible things to polls and jews and these things get pale both in the history books by comparison with what happened to the christian minorities in the ottoman empire for example the greeks we've been inhabiting the anatolian plane of asia minor since the bronze age or the assyrian people the christian assyrian minority bombing what's now kind of northern a lot and who claimed to be the descendants of the ancient series which if that's true but uh we're a horrible cormac we'll genocide coming round hit them because after all the biblical assyrian sir one of the very early confirmable you know instigators of the ethnic cleansing genocide you can find but of course the most famous of all armenians the armenia's or in ancient people who would have an area during the first four wars kind of around with the border serve russia and the ottoman empire come together to historic arch enemies you're meaning intercontinental they always have been certain period in history they've been able to form their own independent state for example one roman persia were little weak they could do that and as soon as roman persian the ancient world got their act together for an swallowed up armenia army was the first official christians state steve not particularly make the ornaments enthusiastic it's kind of part of the reasons that the armenians in the ottoman empire had always been treated as second class citizens and they were mine wanna of the jews in russia where periodically you would have these whole groans or these babies incidence of violence break out there just a hallway when men women and children which is the slaughter mean there were in a charity for the tierney six assault and how mad i'm did awful things and from fifty thousand to three hundred thousand armenians died in just a lawman there was another one a couple years later another one a couple years after that nineteen oh nine it was another one and the armenians are between a rock and hard place because part of the live in which the ottoman empire upon their territory and if the group extends up in the southern russia in the area by the way that russia had been taking over over the past century so it's it sort of a battleground area and you take his people that the ottoman turks had never been that enthusiastic about anyway and then you started this war remember the russians in the trickster fighting in late nineteen forty early nineteen fifty and the trucks get defeated by russia's they have the napoleonic retreat with walls reading all the frozen people and a lot of that army could beat the church in a battle or composed of armenians the armenians from the russian side of the border bon jovi ottoman troops in the defeated army were also armenians and make matters even more complicated there were some armenian rebels were trying to create some sort of the state of their own and who can blame them by the way for wanting to rome study after so much persecution for so long the way the ottoman empire view these people you know what the best of times was unreliable once the russians when important battle in late nineteen fourteen early nineteen fifteen and the turks feel they're back up against the wall now they begin to read that the armenians on their side of the war were positively dangerous to them no the ones were loyal are potentially vulnerable to subversion or propaganda or maybe even having to get guerrilla groups i'm due course mindy cooperation to age old practice is like chilling collaborators as it's called but the best case scenario worse case scenario you're mean you subject of disloyal to the core and are hoping wading in actively working behind the scenes to help the russians way to the turkish government to see is treason they are feeling like you're if you're about to be you or are being stabbed in the back under government as we said never called and enthused about armenians anyway he said that the solution has to be found the solution is to get rid of the armenians if you believe the official turkish line getting rid of the armenians meant relocating if you believe what the vast majority of historians obviously armenians bullying getting rid of them and kill him the process when it began with systematic one village after another it was don with a certain among over i'm understanding and they would be bad publicity be christian powers russia mainly but also britain and france have oftentimes used to persecution against the armenians another christian groups as an excuse to intervene in the internal affairs of the ottoman empire but when you are an empire would look at some of them it was all the reason in the world not to publicize it you were doing this and not make a big deal out of it official line of the turkish government is that during the peace effort to move the armenian people away from the trouble spot it will be a problem if you move on to say see we are a lot i'm died for starvation your disease through hostile ethnic groups that never like to like the courage decided to take advantage of swooping and killed a man and raped women in all the horrible funds but there's so much evidence this was don in the same sort of fashion that any one of us would recognize genocide being if it was the holocaust or rwanda or it really reminds one of the former yugoslavia whole lot and the turks are very sensitive about this the earnings are very angry that they will admit now this is why get will set with this whole thing the idea of genocide as an official international crime only arose in the middle nineteen forties and since that time that war has become legal hot potato where are you would use someone were actually convicted of genocide trigger all sorts of real-world ramifications and soap everybody does everything they can for the most part wasn't a pariah state to find anything except genocide well hundreds of thousands of people died all but it's merely a crime against humanity 'cause there was no when tightening after you'd come unrealistic war world the different things have to be men to big deal with the they are countries can find themselves in dealing with sanctions were calls for reparations or issues with alliances or a trade deals and and turkey don't want that nobody wants that mean even in countries the knowledge to their genocidal practices at one time there are groups that have risen in them were trying to get that overturned in japan are right wing nationalists now we're trying to now cover up and down played japanese genocidal like to beat against china during the second world war two most normal thing in the world but we've all done it that's why it's hard for me understand the turkish added to the disassemble order pride somehow if they hadn't committed genocide baby what were the only people on the planet of any consequence it hadn't it's part of the sheer human experience as sad as that sounds go look at the old testament of the bible the book the jews christians and muslims all hold sacred the god of the old testament quarters genocide after genocide after genocide kill everyone the men women children and all the animals to the sword the reason it's in the old testament is because there was such a common behavior that those people that time would've understood it too i've often said about slavery do we all have swayed blood running through our ancestral means somewhere same is true for genocide we've also had ancestors were the victims could genocidal attacks and we all had ancestor somewhere down the family tree with one's committing genocide in your book why not kill them all professors daniel schorr robin clark macaulay right one of the downside to this whole thing is that we act is go bad bad man was that bad people committed this unusual like when in reality as they say called given the right circumstances in almost human beings are all too ready to kill my category and cool you'll often hear the turks in their own defense were accused of the armenian genocide say well look it was happening to moslems and turkish folks who worked in the balkans and were being treated by those countries that have thrown off the turkish yoke you know to wait and murderer in all these horrible things and displacement and all that is totally true but it doesn't leave the turkish killed in your new situation it just adds more people to the court docket what happened at the armenians and other christians in the ottoman empire during this time including greeks and the syrians was a tragedy between five hundred thousand and one point five million armenian stop it men children manifold people lots of rapes horrible stories sounds like the eyes of screw them under the nazis sounds like rwanda sounds like indonesia sounds most like the former yugoslavia in the nineteen nineties on steroids but i don't blame the turks anymore than i blame the rest of us for thatch human behavior what's interesting is that the armenian genocide actually overshadows something similar to one involving the russians retreating in nineteen fifteen for german offensive in poland and at gunpoint taking hundreds of thousands of polls and jews out a lot of those people never return they were seen in the same way that the armenians were seen by the turks is unreliable disloyal elements like we decide what the germans and interesting early enough in a wonderful for car make way a lot of the reports that are considered to be the most reliable the with the armenians were going through come from the turks allies the germans german advisers and military officials and ambassadors were telling your own government by the terrible things are happening to the armenians in the country and then within a generation those stories will be coming out of germany that's how endemic this whole idea of killing your enemies down to the last person or this terrible was this is that's the way we or as human beings and killing him your enemies down to the last person is not just beginning to look like the equation in these horrible criminal genocide and starting to look like the equation in a minute algebraic problem if you want a military commanders in this conflict of how you win the war itself masculine every man woman and child just killing every soldier on the other side you know after another horrible bottle on western front in nineteen fifteen when the allies lose upon the people to gain literally not an inch of territory the french to north of town that comes with the first allied commander told him we say that this war snot can be won by some miraculous breakthrough for some tactical more strategic bit of brilliance that opens up in all flying quorum breakthrough it's going to be won by killing more of the enemy the lose ourselves the worst turning into a war for attrition the wall by might sound like an ultimate allied victory because if everybody kills you know one person on the other side until there's no one left the allies have a lot more people than the central powers the problem with that little bit of mathematics is that the central powers are killing more allied troops and amusing themselves what do so every single moment until almost the end of the war to that mathematical quaking is as yet assault on predictable but of course modern nations don't fight to the last may but some clarity a cry uncle which in this conflict has been ruled out by the allies signing those treaty say no one will make a separate peace it means to fight until the political system would be or music or the will of the soldiers to resist collapses by the end of nineteen fifteen there's a couple of countries that look in real danger of having that happened and even the country's little quite a bit safer than austria hungary or russia look even though they are showing no cracks and vulnerabilities can this war really go on for another year and i'm on longer than that but not everyone's gonna make it to the end whew i've been saying for years and there's a town of people don't have websites out there that oughta have them in the social networking craze even though they try to pretend i'm except for you need to have your own website in like case is my opinion doesn't i think many v. out their own your own name dot com or dot net and dad are the place we use to have as the roof over your head in a storefront on the digital superhighway and once upon a time our retelling people that like ten years ago and ate their eyes would glaze over when he thought of all the steps and costs in every all the trouble they had to go through get is going with no wonder standing down the road of all my god how much time is can the sock up and everything else thank goodness we go live back then anymore and we have people like today's bond through the show square space square spaces applied for a smaller one platform and makes it fast uneasy frida creature of website portfolio or online store basically you know we've seen things like this before the website creation tools were anybody comes with easily treated when side but then it looks like you did so often the square space is different because if you actually look at them there stop looks really professional to keep hey ho hum wanting to have some expert for mcteer do with which is what the old style of being able to do it yourself didn't look like in addition they handle most of the stuff that most people don't want to deal with it you just say a blogger or a musician or a restaurant or a photographer for somebody showing off designs are our work running for public office you had to go on one ready you don't worry about that that can come with me to types of you wanna sit there and go okay we're going what is picture what what the title will want to come and look like an eyesore stop you be most wednesdays and it's creative and fine and it looks beautiful simple easy drag and drop twenty four seven support online education be used to show ya doin' plans for hosting started eight dollars a month and up to the hosting park for ye children are free to maintain at the center for years the design is or responsive so they're viewing it on the phone looks good authority to know pc with a big screen it looks good on big screen you can even do the commerce and everything from online store and every site comes with that everyone gets a fourteen day pre trial when you one additional temper some off your first purchase all you need to do is enter the offer code hardcore don't forget you can now buy the classic hardcore history shows directly from nineteen jeff hyde indian carlin in the search window and if you want you can still purchase the shells from dan carlin dot com you like to help was self help upon cast the book the show it's all we ask canadian carlin that calm for information on how to donate to the shell why he was so salmon that's what the child prodigy ingenious musical composer mozart is supposed to be answered when someone said how do you come up with your compositions in the g. star with the piano and build up a battered easter with us try to fill in the middle or any supposed to said that it comes to him why he promised to summon the same time altogether and then freeze keeps bobbing in my head because that's the biggest challenge in telling us first war war story the second biggest challenges the ungodly amount of material that is produced for many different countries and viewpoints about the story i've never been so overwhelmed with material as i have been for this and it's all controversy ilsa you really need to read a bunch of different the authors and viewpoints to dig pianists over nice for all of you of some of these topics but the stories can even be compartmentalize because they affect each other what's going on the eastern front of textile comes on the western front which affect outcomes in the mediterranean theater and so you can even tell the stories the separately they all have to kind o' we used to gather in which really easy with as much going on to lose track of the story so i thought we would have the rarer little weak happens to where we are right now so the broad trains to get us up to speed it and a few thoughts from alas show them but to just whirlwind little extra food off european and north to charge calmed just to bring us up to speed matrix harbor them have listed things along and make sure i get through i hate to get through this whole show it to all white left that out the last quick recap can be done relatively simply the war breaks out in august nineteen forty the budget east countries have been ready for predicting at the immobilize quickly it's all on time scale and everybody launches their pre war battle plans which for the germans is most famously call bush league comply advanced through belgium in the wide arc smashed the french army is on the head while you're keeping them occupied to the front as well that doesn't go to well it does for awhile i mean that the army's caution the first month the wars commonly referred to as the battle of the ferrante years when you get these nineteenth century tactics running in the twentieth century mechanized warfare which leads to the worst single month in terms of casualties the target again the whole war because you're not going to see ya wad of cavalry charges against machine guns and artillery positions after the first month of war when they're really mind blowing we shocking things mean guys with armor and swords and white gloves and red pants and in a bayonet charging for their positions and in the whole thing is is cookie not last for ma ma but the next month is what happens after the germans lose the battle of the more initially fund plan is broken as of the second month of the war's been basically running away from their earlier positions trying to find a place to regroup finding the wheeling good place to regroup on the other side of the river anemic and digging in and the allies following them on able to take those wonderful positions on the other side of the river a monday he knew themselves inaugurating officially trench warfare then you have the so called race to the sea when the germans and the french and british we don't run into each other's preparing defenses anymore start trying to find a flanking the only open part of the bottom line left from the river came up north towards to see both sides reached the sea before they find a flight they have a couple of terrible battles including the first battle of the perot camp there and then we settle down to the nineteen fifteen warfare basically which is going to involve both sides launching of fences that don't do it either and that if you read the book sometimes they can make an exciting holding almost broke through and all of their only been modern communication but the bottom line is the bottom line in the budget battles during nineteen fifteen on the western front nothing changes on the eastern front nothing changes your bottle washer movement have passed by the people die like a movement happens the overall strategic situation remains the same because when the russians and the germans clash brit the war start the russians get crushed in a couple big bowels timber and serene lakes but then they beat the austro hungarians the serbians be the operators hold on just the happens when you turn around and subtract all the deaths of all the movement everything else the situation saying the russians are they are there not defeated they can replace all their losses and if you really what chase 'em though ronald way back to moscow like they did against napoleon unlike bill billions hitler and you really wanna far above all the way back there so they will have a trench warfare they have movement warfare but the movements not ending anything and then of course because the russians and the turk start getting into it down in the south the russians asked the allies for help which leads to winston churchill's cobalt adding yet another good argument to argue that maybe we should take the door nails of all these preferred not battleships and in the garden else happened that is what we can turn of add the floor fight which is promising you because rwanda sidebar hopes with his darden else campaigns that might influence some of those countries down in that region that hadn't decided which side enjoying it was obvious that they were so taking bids italy most among them they like the allied be better they saw the dark knowles campaign look increase strong back in may nineteen fifty no wonder what landings and troops assaulting heights every day and what like britain and france were strong to the italians join the war they use to reattach the austro hungarians and really the only good spot on their border to do that as the rest of their borders basically the alps and basically are stronger and have a high ground although they find and have found recently it's it's almost like something out of the old captain america comic books in with captain america frozen in the smell of such a course he was alive only the frosted i'm the sport austrian that and italian soldiers of defining with these glaciers melting up in the alps in these caves in the may look perfect like they were frozen yesterday their uniforms their weapons their facial characteristics everything i mean it's crazy but the time capsule of the most grotesque kind nevertheless the one area that good for fighting at least compared to the alps is on the river reece also to the italians attack the austro hungarians right away at the river song so and lose lonely attack began on the river song so this will be called a second battle of the river songs on the news again they do it again and third battle the river songs of the jury in the fourth of the river summed up by the last juror the war there on the twelfth battle of the rivers alonzo and hundreds of thousands of died and in fact in only six months of war for the italians will have two hundred thousand casualties as quickly lying catch up with the rest of the powers i should point out something like casualties to we keep using that term unsworth defining it casualties as a military terms many of you know and it's simply refers to the los about strength so of your general manager or army we're talking about casualty simply means the number of people you don't have available to fight those who'd been killed those two been wounded those who been captured and those were missing so i say casualties that's what it means all missing in this war you seems to have it if i say dead well that means killed in action so the italians to one thousand casualties within six months the other power the kids in the war does so in october and it's the bulgarians another police powers of churchill and his friends helped convince to join the allied side when they saw how the dark knowles campaign was going to buy out over the garden of campaigns really going poorly the bulgarians to promise and good land and they don't like the serbs anyway so they join with the germans in the austro hungarians all three of them promptly attack serbia bomb and knock them out of the wall in the week the story this harrowing story of the serbian army you're going all the way through albanian the mountain passes with a bunch of race starving until they reach the c. in the we evacuated by french british warships to fight another day one thing i wasn't sure fine mentioned in the story should we talk about the second battle beeper with the germans used poison gas for the first time in a successful way was used on the eastern front and we we want 'em but after the second level any pretty alister using gas to him by the end of nineteen fifteen the standard mix of shells is you want some high explosives in your mixed i knew was a shrapnel shells in units which are like giant ball still the kindly bbc one exploded like a giant hand grenade going off and in the last few hours you want mixed and you'll try and calm we're sickness or your gas shells of gas hikes most of the shrapnel we should all the same time it makes a nasty little cocktail for the portrait on the ground to everyone's got gas never be wearing gas masks now and you end up with these images that are still to my mind that the greatest images of fer for workers they say the most when you'll see for example i love the one that shows a german cavalry lancer are in nineteen sixty nine to seventeen who's wearing a the stall helm which will come in to vote in nineteen sixteen which is basically the same basic design you'll see the german army have in the second reward to run like a german fairmont helmet with alliance on a horse and wearing a gas mask he's like half medieval night and half storm trooper from star wars and that to me encapsulate what this war use these meetings of the modern world with the pre modern world but the historical estuary like i said in fact you know it's beauty it's cool were modern because really there hasn't been a major war fought with gas since this time to read in your been incidents of chemical weapons and gas used but you never had the major mean the sector were war there was none of this also it should be obvious that there been several features the market much or perhaps any attention from yours truly and it's not because i will find them interesting and he could you hold upon cast just on the african experience in the first world war but it's not important to the outcome of the first world war so when you have to shop in places for time these are long enough already been actually look at the pacific in the first world war or africa because it didn't affect the outcome what had more of an effect on the outcome are the soldiers from those two areas that were trucked into places like the western front and who fought there lots of north africans lots of subsaharan africa and lots of people from the far east for cuomo western front end of places like the door nails and eventually epsilon accounting places like that sold in enough on the way the place where are africans and asians have the most impact on the war go one way or the other was the same western front that we normally think of as being a british french canadian soldier preserve them down the road and american one so by the end of nineteen fifteen you basically have a static situation western front stays unchanged eastern front keeps moving around but everybody still standing near facing each other down in turkey the war's been extended to down there but it's just a bold to reasons this is called the year of stalemate in the first four were bombed if you want on a bustling knew that has happened helmet to start arriving we mentioned the german stall helmeted ago the first was the french helmet and the british metal helmet them the german what appears and it's one of those things it doesn't seem like a big deal but all of those helmet designs will be the basic design that the second world war helmets come from to the walt very familiar indian gold for quite awhile least in their basic look the german want changes region will change a little but also because it boggles the mind a little bit doesn't it that you don't picture first medal helmet really till late nineteen fifteen which means all these people have been fighting the most part till every intensive war in human history by far with cloth hacks on their heads digging holes in the ground with the only thing that exposed to fire is the top of your head and it's covered by hat and forget the obvious thing about like shrapnel exploding in the year in just knew he knew they had so many of the shell don't come all that close to the just below towns of locks and stuff up in the air then come down and land on your head how many casualties from the first to the war could you attribute to the fact that money stripped of metal how much it's crazy to think about and crazy to think that it took only you're to come up with that more than a year finally and i think this burly belongs in the casualty here we were discussing casualties modern medicine has changed the situation of this conflict and if you're starting military history you'll notice a very interesting change and we casualty death two wounded figures show up in this conflict on normally the number of people wounded and the number people who die are pretty close together we take the crimean war that happen in the eighteen fifty keys more people died from the c. span from combat were bleeding wounds that might've been no blood stream but not that far off the warmth by the first war war that change is immensely it's because the medical situation has been revolution is modern military matters and really the begins in the first world war a lot of these doctors especially on the western front are doctors from private practice who've been drafted a warm joined in volunteered for the war effort the roth and doing surgeries white near the front these are people live in the modern era when medicine is starting to be pretty darn good any completely changes to gain from these people are not just able to save lives this is a mixed blessing you secure soldier but they will be able for the nation states of the work for to send a lot of these damage soldiers back to fighting in the other day and sometimes multiple times and ends up in increasing the ability of many of the states to keep fighting past where they otherwise would been able to win we have to do for example a look at the birth rate on some of these armies by the end of nineteen fifteen by october nineteen fifteen the russians are losing two hundred and thirty five thousand and every month by the end of nineteen fifteen seventeen months into the war the toll russian casualties were over two million man even though they could replace two human beings what they can do is replace the morale of the people in the capital these are tells us french and british counterpart the end of nineteen fifteen of the population has turned pacifist take an anti allied meanwhile the western allies are having their own problem of the soldiers in the trenches starting to get a little papa dee about their willingness to continue suicidal attacks endlessly that's not a good sign the commander of the german forces creating strategy is deciding that if they really in the war of attrition why not designed the battles to kill the most people most of having breakthroughs in you russell that an eerie calm for kim hyun creates the killing ground to invite the french nation to bleed itself white begin the big fleets finally come out to play new technologies debut whose job it is to break us along jam up of trenches machine guns barbed wire and gas the year nineteen sixteen sometimes called the breaker of nations skinner be some nations who suffer some war wounds before the years over all that any more in part four a blueprint for armageddon in