Episode: Show 51 - Blueprint for Armageddon II

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Show 51 - Blueprint for Armageddon II
The Great Powers all come out swinging in the first round of the worst war the planet has ever seen. Millions of men in dozens of armies vie in the most deadly and complex opening moves of any conflict in world history.

Dan Carlin's Hardcore History
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Dan Carlin's Hardcore History > Show 50 - Blueprint for Armageddon I

The planet hadn't seen a major war between all the Great Powers since the downfall of Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815. But 99 years later the dam breaks and a Pandora's Box of violence engulfs the planet.

Dan Carlin's Hardcore History > Show 53 - Blueprint for Armageddon IV

Machine guns, barbed wire and millions upon millions of artillery shells create industrialized meat grinders at Verdun and the Somme. There's never been a human experience like it and it changes a generation.

Dan Carlin's Hardcore History > Show 52 - Blueprint for Armageddon III

The war of maneuver that was supposed to be over quickly instead turns into a lingering bloody stalemate. Trench warfare begins, and with it, all the murderous efforts on both sides to overcome the static defenses.
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Automated Transcript (Why is this transcription so bad?)
they show sponsored by laudable please visit or ballpark guess dot com for slash hardcore history for your free audio book download how much time do you plead to explain development the gap that's a perfect example of the soul of question the bedeviled us in this episode which coverage by the way when the two ghostly short span of time what are the most important let's just say mom or psalms in human history it represents the greatest mask outpouring of organized violence of the world had ever seen i don't think there's ever been anything quite like it in the second world war begins with a german attack on poland and fighting between germany and poland it's over rather quickly and it's like eight months before the major powers actually come to blows this war starts with all the major powers coming to blows had on instantly on multiple fronts with casualties that no one ever even seen their wildest dreams at the same time at speed there are starting to realize is the program it was happening that you can't get into the minds of the people on the human stories in the drama in the story without getting into the military affairs and eat it again today progression because that's the driving force that's what sets the timeline that's what the term is the turning fortune and that's what creates the of the human impact on the ground you know we called the report talking about what looks like in the hospitals in france there's a reason that the hospitals are full of her people and that's because the events of the ground continue to dictate what's going on but the military affairs are complex as all get out how much time you spend on the gap you mean the battle of the modern right that they missed miracle alma mourn is determined by this gap in the enemy line how much time you spend on you why there's a gap and at that really is a war losing situational have developed you get into that what you get into that ishtar enough all wine in detail the judge will take you off into the weeds the difficult story to decide when to go off into the weeds and went to stay put on the main road this is our attempt i'm explaining this most complex and yet bill lishman trauma angry defense and larger than life figures and really changing of the guard in terms of no one's century to another as best as we can do it again carl approach to the first war is called a blueprint for armageddon this is part two the hermit crab my being going on hey which will live they and i'm a eats that allow for well where gone i've a good i'm up to you live stock had what i had had one eye on that today have to have a house and you had had one by a group of lawyers in the end yet over the owner of dead wrong that i've been playing hide and loose the meantime the high and his and and that what had do kid was what i will listen to you that because two of them that portal will the long list and going to we could be the martyrdom of gardening and whose i'm a vision that from phil coleman hi each floor and coleridge history what year did humankind acquire the capability to destroy itself if it's an interesting ideas with the idea that every civilization in the universe and if it continues to progress technologically down the road or reach a period when he can kill itself you're on purpose or accidentally this fits into something bombs some physicists theories on what's called the fermi paradox and in this idea of reaching in danger point in your civilization is called the great filter the fermi paradoxes of famous paradox that was on initially talked about supposedly by much of the great physicist in the world on a lunch break when they had done the math trying to figure out the possibilities of intelligent life being elsewhere in the russian the math is so overwhelmingly in favor of the idea that there must be reduced hundreds of billions of stars in our galaxy hundreds of billions of galaxies in the universe just seems like a slam dunk right so then enrico fermi famously when the great physicist ever famously consist of the groups where is everybody and that's the farming paradoxically masses they should be there but they're not there what's the reason they're not there and that's where the great filter comes in because some of these people who study the stock has suggested that there might be appointed every intelligence civilizations development would acquire this ability to destroy themselves and have to get through that period they have the capability in get to the point where they'd figure out how not to do that and it's panel like to pass fail test run tillotson civilization growth everywhere in the universe and sort of by its very nature most civilization is don't pass it and so maybe that's the reason they're not all out there and guys like nick coster most are you in a global catastrophic risk and stuff like that and you know what accommodate the planet with nanotechnology goes on to control means looks of all these issues to suggest that the eucharist entered the civilization of phase this great filter period in our own history nineteen forty five the atomic bombs were for students to now i think about this in terms of the first world war because i think that's when people first realized that human beings have acquired a military capability that was frightening not frightening treasure and amy had frightening the trish human beings hat you can go back and look at history there are lots of times when people were afraid of the deadliness of weapons but they were free to the deadliest weapons either because they were freed themselves of getting killed were their country in getting taken over whenever they want afraid for this the seats they weren't afraid for civilization as all holding the closest you'll see on you know without coming to abacha mongol in beige your invasion from the stepanek it did it strikes the sensible civilizations of biblical way even washes up a certain amount of civilization up on the beach but it doesn't destroyed everything in the nineteenth century as the first time period where you can re writing sure people for asserting that maybe what they're developing battlefield capability wise can destroy a refund now their version of everything as little bit different than ours we talk about things like access to ensure risk we're talking about the survival of life on the planet that at the post atomic no idea what existential risk means we understand you're you're nuclear war most all the great powers and you didn't just life on earth to buy war certainly our level of civilization of the free that phrase bomb someone back to the stone age we modern people have the capability to do that right but it was in the nineteenth century the duff that the idea that that's what a major war between the major powers might amount to that one idea takes hold those people are worried about the definition number two of existential threat you guys with big bostrom have to definitions one is the wall we think about wiped out life on earth but the other definition of what existential threat is is being knocked back down a few rungs on your level of civilization and then never finding your way back to your former greatness we had to have statue of liberty in the same moment as i like to call a war you look up and you see the statue of liberty like in the plan of the gate come out of the sanding you instantly realize in a blinding flash of light you're living in an arrow that is off the civilization all hires and that's what the people riding in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century especially in places like great britain united states were everything seems just great white way to screw it up a war and really nothing to gain a big blue's those people are writing about living in the golden age that they believe is fragile and that these shiny war machines that are equally deadly in terms of their abilities to kill people on the battlefield but also their ability to simply bancorp the societies that have to maintain in is causing consternation at end of the better weapons systems themselves in the arms race is that they're having create more opportunities for some sort of violent outbreak of war the woman sees things employed the funny thing about human history study military history is that up until about two hundred years ago you can imagine armies fromm of very long time ago fighting and the army's for not that long ago alexander the great army i think beats the carolyn june army of charlemagne which is in a first rate army of thousand years later i don't think they must the macedonians must their hair their books like order for rosie gordon's war without yesterday that credible historian can help the play with the battle of waterloo inserting alexander and his macedonians from the three thirties b. c. in the place of napoleon and is french sending the macedonians up against the duke of wellington is british in their coalition allies and having alexander run the macedonians to at least as well as napoleon so was that show you what shows you how all of human military history changes at about the time of the napoleonic wars because all the sudden a new law of historical nature takes over which says that earlier armies do not be later armies when the rules changed thousand percent fertile think about today due to the u. s. army from today added by the battle against the u. s. army in nineteen forty five they she was army the stories that second world war army mid twentieth century and maybe doesn't lose 'em in when they do it but that nineteen forty five u. s. army would defeat easily any army from the first world war the army for the first world war the major powers would easily defeat the united states in the u. s. civil war ammo civil war armies if they went back to waterloo the beat napoleon so that's sort of the rule of law of technological battlefield development the last two hundred years and that's what the people in this story have had to try to stock up and understand is seventeen hundreds of ruler can decide on a new mosque in design and not change it for a hundred years and he still probably okay in nineteenth century if you miss fifteen years of development in rifle technology you might lose a war cousin i think about something like the naval arms races and how this just destroyed everybody's treasuries and everything else but at the beginning of the eighteen hundreds you're using ship the wind type stuff i mean you know the same naval technology of giant would be shipped with canons on the side that's been the way things are bent on for a couple centuries when you build a ship and spend all amalia what time it's good for along time that the disney did a story about how much you can serve you for twenty thirty years in just before a great investment pay off over time if you amortize across all hope of the back and on that goes away at the end of the nineteenth century an ye the cost explodes you look at a battleship from nineteen hundred and it doesn't look like anything for napoleon's time it looked like a thoroughly modern battleship the problem uses technology is changing so fast now that in the time it take you to design a new battleship the two were so we years it takes to build and launch and finish it it may be outdated by the time it's ready to be used you take a first-class first rate no fleet from a global power in nineteen forty i knew pitted in battle against the first great top of alliance week firm and you're fourteen years ago and the one from nineteen fourteen destroys the one from nineteen hundred and maybe doesn't lose our major surface vessel wall doing so that is mind boggling to the people who live back in because that means if you can't keep up technologically with which are neighbors doing at great expense you can negate all the money you spent on our fleet in the first bit better not have that fleet for nineteen hundred if you just cannot lose the whole thing and not even single of your enemy ships they need to keep up with the killing power of everyone else was impacting the treasury's of these countries in ways they created just as big of a threat to their continued existence as the threat of all these dangers armies did the catch twenty two for them take the role but the russians are found himself in eighteen ninety a guy named nicholas the second may be the single most powerful person on the planet he's got a shaky regime the water revolution is a lot of discontent in a lot of it is exacerbated by the cost of trying to incapable marla terry and even with all these cost he's falling behind russia's too willing to read it industries are too small in society still means so much modernization for kinky public places like germany and france and great britain even the united states the problem is is that the czar's powers all in the countryside is in the population and that's becoming less and less important as technology begins to determine who wins and loses battles and that's being demonstrated all through the nineteenth century as these small colonial army is from the technologically sophisticated powers destroy sometimes giant armies of tribal made us all over the world i mean that line a famous woman says whatever happens we have got the maxim the than i am not is about using machine guns on tribal peoples the russian czars looking and seeing that if he can't keep up with this technological arms race this seems to be never ending in endlessly expensive the russians urges can be the new tribal peoples and he hasta have this modern military machine because of his adversaries have it and he doesn't he's gonna lose any war he gets into he loses his dynasty potentially either way honeymoon get out of the mass like that in eighteen ninety eight the russians are things he finds away many issues in public invitation to representatives from the other great powers were one degree or another in the same boat he's into it no one knows what the next major war will look like but everybody's had a chance to see some minor wars in the meantime and if you sort of extrapolate what what they were telling you the next wars going to be horrified nicholas the second is actually reading the guy who turned out to be one of the most accurate prognosticate ers of what the need for it and like we talked about in the wash of ivan block nicholas the second reading on the block and a blocks productions or horrific so those are wants out you want see was that the right way to stop this dangerous cycle that the modern world seems to be forcing all the great powers into and i think it's a wonderful sort of commentary on the attitude of the times of these guys come up to pay to do this it looks like rainbows and you know comes to we modern people but to then they must've thought reasonable people can sit down over cigars whiskey see this dynamic that we got ourselves caught up in realize that it's in no one's interest and reasonable people can on the figure way out of this and in eighteen ninety eight the czar of russia propose something that will be called hate conference to deal with this there are many ways to look at the eighteen ninety nine hate of concern there be another one in nineteen oh seven by the way and truthfully it looks like an early version of arms control agreement you will see throw the twentieth century which you can also view through multiple lenses the first really should be taken at face value the way it is our sold it now if you want use modern terms the czar's p. r. people when he issues this invitation to the rest of the world leaders in a couch is this whole thing is a common sense effort at a high minded idea does the goal of this conference he wants to put together a quote seeking to make a great idea of universal peace triumph over the elements of trouble discord and equal we might sell an arms control conference today like that this is the air or were you really see for the first time in human history the growth of all today we would call the international peace movement it had many conferences before the hague conference to promote these ideas and there was a general feeling of progress on these issues and so bizarre may be applying into that although the czar was kind of interesting dude on very much a similar role on the monarchy dies at the germans got with kaiser wilhelm a very mediocre sort of guy in a puzzle person you can imagine every getting his job if it were merit based he's the same czar bill last czar by the way it will fall victim in under sore the sway of the person the first is sometimes called the mad monk burglary rasputin although he's more interesting than had probably deserve more credit than that but it can begin show zhou the czar is a kind of an idealistic romantic meeting my body and the stuff that might be legitimate on the czar's part but like most arms control agreements there's a reale politics side of the stunning those are knows that his armies are falling behind in this technological race the old line about arms control agreement is if you're losing an arms race it's a good time to have an arms control agreement and when the powers that are invited to this hate our friends ask for clarification of what's on the agenda the czar and his people give it here nine points that are going to be goals of the conference in the air nine points to a twenty first century mind fascinating because it really show issue with the czar wants to come on this conference the czar's number two goal for example that the agenda of gives to the rest of the participants it says quote to prohibit the use in the army is in fleets of any new kind of firearms whatever and a new explosives or any powers more powerful than those now when you lose either for rifles or cannon and cool now this is a stable to some degree of arms control agreements ever sent to mean if the u. s. and soviet union are having an arms control agreement or anti ballistic missile perimeter whenever they may have rules on technological progress but they are trying to stop all technological progress with the czar wants to do is freeze things where they are you know someone anymore research to increase the killing power our existing military use he doesn't want any more deployment few accidentally discovered that new battleship gonna will shoot horses for sure kirwan get the ball and he was the size of armies frozen and then reduced he was the size of military budgets frozen and then reduced as a person who clearly shows that his main issue with the way things are the pace of change anyone's this conference to address it now to modern people who will often freak out if the promised foam upgrade that supposed to be released today is late in the unit will with angry people who have had their pace of change sabotaged the people in the late nineteenth century can probably be forgiven for thinking something we would assume is impossible is possible the first time ever encountered this idea but what we see james brooks wonderful t. v. series nineteen eighties again the universe changed we asked the question is human kind looks faded down roll back we're particular branch of knowledge seems to be taking them can they decided they don't like the destinations just not learn that branch of knowledge of all our wallet off so that no one learns it to modern people that sounds impossible to people and late nineteenth century they would've been able to show you multiple historical examples would that be done catholic church was very good at it in medieval times for example there been chinese emperors you could do well bomb the idea of creating for big knowledge and in preventing people from having it or using it is not unusual in this time period that's what the sword lots you want to slow or retard the pace of change i we tried or my myself how whips on all these people were in this time period by the pace of change too that's really what the nineteenth century as the arrow where it all speeds up if you could for example grasp human technological progress the way you would a stock market performance graf starting at the beginning of human history n. yesterday your having your pops and downs oh for artistry you'd notice a couple things right off the bat the first thing you notice is that there are cops handouts one thing i'm our minds seems to find in comprehensible is the progress ever moved backward the people who lived in nineteen hundred for example we're reading history books that made that sound like a historical law of nature they had every reason to believe that the gear were they were living in might be the last of a golden age before fall because after raul that's what happened where brother golden age of the look back on the first thing i'm are mine seas with looks of the historical stock performance charge on human technological progress is due to the body hop sort of dynamic going all the two steps forward one step back you might get a big upturn in it when the new kingdom egyptians come on the scene maybe another optic when the handwriting is arrive another uptick when the roman empire rise that the roman empire high she teach roman empire bubbled to the couple hundred years later when it's gone yet germanic barbarians and formerly roman territory looking up a crumbling i would doubt i'm wondering what sort of giants once roamed the earth they could build stuff like that to the first thing you didn't notice is a modern person is the technology doesn't always move forward second thing you're gonna notice is that ramos to human history whether rich going up we're going down it's moving a glacial the slow pace the amount of change for the beginning of time to about the renaissance is nowhere near what she would expect if we were anywhere near the pace of change we have now they're really little overall growth until he hit the renaissance in the sea looked at them the century after that little bit more than about eighteen to eighteen twenty the graph becomes almost vertical overnight shoots opposite of ever by telling us we all know he goes evermore vertical every day now we're used to this because it's been going that way for why does our generation yeah that's century that's the first time it really takes off and those people are looking at that isn't the extremely de stabilizing force those are things perhaps in an arms control agreement will help russia from falling too far behind a more technologically sophisticated neighbors now we july expect they're more technologically sophisticated neighbors see this as an artificial constraint on the fact that they're winning take the germans is a perfect example the people we're trying very hard to make up for what they see as the rest of the powers treating them like direct they're the ones building more ships than anybody in trying to catch up to britain and the want modernizing their military every day they're the ones who instead of being panic by the pace of change are taking advantage of them this looks like an agreement that will lock in the ring few rewarding and bought a way that's the situation with pete many times after mr reagan arms control negotiations trying to gain in a cage on your part in the u. we're losing the arms race as i said time to have an arms control agreement finally there's an interesting group of people they really don't exist anymore not openly there on the opposite side of the ledger from save the international peace movement that's in our ramping up during this era the people who think the war is a good thing forget about international your goals are we all polity people that literally believe the human kind thrives on worn it without warp we will drown in materialism to weaken the keeps us focused on higher things that's an idea that his sword gone by the wayside in western culture today it's a peace activist to argue against your real politic people in the eighty the super example you have guys like the elder helm of bomb old devil tries to explain to people why peace is not even a good idea you're deluded he said quote perpetual peace is a dream and not even a beautiful dream and wars in interpret part of god's order ring of the universe in war man's noblest virtues commend apply courage and renunciation fidelity to do we enter readiness for sacrifice that does not stop the giving of life itself without warp the world would be swamped immature realism in a court others will point out the baby decide to try to make war your thing of the past what happens to all those people that are in situations where the other struggling against foreign oppression free simply gonna tell someone they can free themselves from lahore blood pressure because you know violence is bad but finally you also have the people that the modern peace activist would recognize really well those who would hear you were a u. belief system that is difficult to argue with in terms of your historical proof even use history sure guided you can argue that the best way to keep the peace is to be so strong that it is almost suicidal to fight with you best exemplified perhaps by him the shadow church on fisher who tries to explain it to a friend of his that when he sounds horrific he's really in advocated peace he said quote i am not for war i'm for peace that is why i am for supreme navy did i not writing your autograph book at the hague the supremacy of the british navy is the best security for the peace of the world my soul object is peace which you call my truculent is all for peace if you rub it in orbit home and abroad that you were ready for instant war with every new rid of your strength in the first line and waiting to be first in miniature enemy in the belly and take him when he's down and bill will your prisoners in oriole if you take any and torture is women and children then people will steer clear of you end quote well as harsh as bad as it has a certain amount of historical evidence to back it up doesn't it when asked how to make war more to maine nephew of helmet on mold cannot be altered that would be helmet on molten the younger or the field marshal in charge of germany's war effort started the first war famously said the only way to make more humane is to make it short and it's the shoelace and i we talked about this so called actually fundamental last episode of it it's the almost mythological prewar plan for how germany was good deal with this terrible to from problem my analogy is like a bar fight isn't the dummy more more in the reso's comparing we're we're one to a bar fight but the little like you know germany knows it's gonna have a bar fight with france russia but they note that francis kennedy in five minutes before russia so they get to the bar right on time not france on five minutes later when russia shows up late to get to fight the germans want one that the war plan in a nutshell but the question is surroundings war plan and the calmly be the number one most controversial issue that historians argue with each other and froth of the mouth over yours truly get out of a dog in the spine and discuss it but the popcorn more to be very entertaining discussions on the sweet and so called clinton plan because it's not just that this or that it's like the kennedy assassination thing where i mean every different you're you can think of is out there it was asleep and by other was misleading blunder was asleep and climate was modified modified by malta the one or call to treat them all the plan and he just goes on on on the people often on multiple sites uzi she were very credible come on martin is a friend and we in our discussion the sign says she does have to sort watch sometimes i'm not get into position on the so called sleep and when all called daschle can plan because that's what everybody knows about it but suffice it to say this to leave him to retire for quite a long time before the first world war breaks out so whatever plan the germans were gonna use are in the hands of helmet bomb olga the younger the guy who's leading this whole you earlier warren the germans pardon he's been one design his plan for long time after the first world war is over you'll get a bunch of german generals writing memoirs so the castigating the small to guide bomb for deviating from shirley fans amazingly brilliant plan is the way was the prosecutor stayed with the planet we were supposed to be killed we win the war and so is we're talking about the plan old and burma military history standpoint asleep in a plan and again i have to say as it's normally understood because somebody out there's been a very good seven showing it was totally different and i'm saying right now but isn't as it's commonly understood the sleeve implant is a fantastic military gamble it involves taking troops from basically everywhere else you might have to fight and taking as many of them as you can and sticking on that one part it's gonna be the sledge hammer the head of the sledge hammer and your ship your your team members of the head of that sledge hammers to be so overwhelming it's been a crush everything and then you can swing it around and track all the french army is bigger sitting on the french border in a way to fight the germans and the other side of the german border but the head of the hammers coming through belgium a neutral country the swing from about an intimate collapsed down on all those french army stationed germans and trap them in the reader which is huge gamble what if you screw up what the russians mobilize faster than you think it they're going to well they'll be moline down your tiny little forces left there to stop them and they're not therefore for berlin and the first territory the takeover happens to be the ancestral home of porsches nobility including me kaiser all so nobody wants to see the russians and when you're pressure but they have to be counting your prussia anyway so that's a problem also everyone knows the french ago where we take those territories of the germans took the generation before which is down at the franco german border which means the french are an attack there were a lot of force a couple too many people away from there the french to the break in through in the southern germany will the head of your sledge hammers to work in it's way your round french wines mean it's it's it's it's a terrible campbell kentucky screw it up you can lose the war the ledger member two things which we finish reading the war plan any suppose we came up with this idea the conditions are different the german army is different in size so is the french army the russians have all seen a complete collapse in nineteen oh five of their whole dynasty me their fallen apart they just lost the war games japan they're nowhere near as formidable as will be in with ten years later right nine years later but that's what i'm most asked to do with things and situations are different in history calculate bangs and the second part of a whole equation is asleep and afforded the gambler because he has actually have to do it sleeping is a gambler on paper mold it is a guy us to make this work in real time cannot have the downside happen and live through it any sport a pessimist we would say more for realist and he will point as many troops in the sledgehammer part of the attack ashley finn would dictate you show it he wanted knew the other fronts to was greater degree and leave them that wide open he can't assume that the war we won so automatically that you can just know that germany will be safe to be broken true in all these very few denuded in other words molpus a more preservatives guy but it does plan is true i'm lucky to the screamer so don't get in trouble if this plan is true bomb it puts mold imposition of accepting the gamble applied and for guy is not a gambler but that's the plan and in order to understand the sledgehammer side of this plan he has to have some sort of conception of the size of the army's involved comparison purposes immediate so demonstrate how much things have changed in a military sense of how that exploded since napoleonic arms if you look at assumptions made by people who study roman empire of what the favorite subjects that they will debate is how many human beings were in the military on the roman empire at its height to police and take care of that massive ancient state i'm mean anyone battle i mean the total military power of the roman empire at its height and you'll get number is anywhere from four hundred and fifty thousand men at the low end about seven hundred and fifty thousand and at the higher and now the numbers of germans they're making their way through belgium in august nineteen fourteen as part of the sledge hammers head is at least seven hundred and fifty thousand some numbers put that up to one point two million that means that the flanking force the head of the sledgehammer sweetie calling it it's moving through belgium to smack the french like a door swinging on a hinge is at least as large as the entire military of the roman empire are tight and if those lower numbers are actually close to the truth for the empires in total military capability you might have the german army moving through belgium that's twice the size of the entire roman empire in tight that totally justifies all of the worst fears of these new people in the nineteenth century worried about that can of folks who would call a conference in and read about peace in all the chemist of the people understood what the growth in the military technology and the line and blocks ideas are about to be proven true you know on certain fashion means people were used to napoleon will napoleon's in a giant gamble and aiding russia may have had its highest seven hundred fifty thousand men across the entire front your firm that shine in front of russia that's what you have moving through the tiny little road system when the road system of belgium napoleon's grand army you sure flanking forced wow ninety trevor my myself that what the germans are trying to do here is not perhaps as much of a bubble we're gamble issue might think and also need to remember that most of the people in the higher leadership positions in the german military i've done all this before in fact they fought france before to probably the most important war what happened between napoleon's times and the first world war and most people live sawyer know nothing about the franco prussian war between seventy eight and seventy one but essentially forget what it says you know in the history books as makes it look like a nine months' war essentially the germans smash the french in montana half it's a fantastically interesting complicated shaped the perceptions and the use of these people the higher leadership positions because they were junior officers who fought in that war right they watched two amazing things happen they watched the german armies clap an entire french army who might be ninety thousand men in one of the french quarter says that was geared up to keep the germans are crossing the border and then the actual emperor franz himself a guy named napoleon the third another one of those interesting rolls of the monarchy guys leads a relief for me to break the siege right rescues other army of another baby or ninety thousand guys and the germans managed to surround the whole army with the emperor and force them to surrender which the portion that entire army that also trap nearby has to surrender to me the french on for a long time doggedly home dubbed the people paris rose up i mean it was a fantastic resistance after this but the war was over a month and a half that was the way the germans want to do we in the stock and the people who did it last time are the ones in command of a lot of these in a corps and armies in the general staff now as the germans try to make their way you're through belgium and not have this important time schedule screwed up the french on the other side are trying to figure out what the heck's going on part of what we modern people have to remember i was trying to try to put myself in the position very hard because we're in an era where the battlefield especially to western powers and most especially to the dance is the battlefield is totally visible for the most part you can hide yourself and foliage sometimes maybe for your buyer been having a thermal sensors to stop but the battlefield is visible to us now on we use to this in most of human history the fog of war as it's known as you should because he keep you from seeing what about the happen until they didn't just is about to happen you know get a lot of advance notice to plan that's why aircraft are becoming really important because they take the high is all of the military put 'em up in the air and a street extend how far back you can see if you see in army is moving to another area you can safely assume all i'd better move my army to members of an apple there during his early part of the battle no one is sure what's happening on the allied side the french are is worried about how they get the british over here fight with as many men as they can bring over as they are about where are the germans come in and in what sort of strength you see the french have suspected for very long time that the germans written into the south flanking move in belgium that was not wholly unexpected the part that may have caught them off guard is what they were out flaky you know the french through belgium we asked the guy is running a french military this time working on their own warplanes assumptions simply won't believe that the size movement through belgium is as big as it is an let's remember old gal we criticize that the war by other german generals were many times bigger i mean end of the french have a huge problems here because they have laudable lucius agreements i've ever run into in my life for the military cooperation their battle plans call for the british army to guard their entire law lines we talk about law and the french military line runs from switzerland in the south to belgium in the north millions of many in multiple army is about the way on the other side of the board the germans are the same thing first time in history the two had millions of man's squaring off against millions of men but the french left flank is counting on having the british army they are to endure it that agreement has less paperwork attached with him you would normally generate when you buy a house for all intents and purposes as we said it's a handshake deal hey nishi keel that we will go to war with you if war breaks out in a handshake deal with only one government in the country were government can come and go a more public opinion is a unified and the nation that you had centuries of antagonistic history with an omen like fiery years of in a friendly cooperation what's more when britain gets into this war and in the first thing that the british people here is we're gonna send the troops that would defenders of the germans decide the landowner coastline to france does allow the question over how many troops to spare eventually be yaffe will be a difference with seventy thousand men five divisions for infantry and cavalry to give you an idea of what seventy thousand men are five divisions means on this front the germans are deploying like the five divisions on the western front seventy thousand men seems like nothing that's the tiny little you know it it's the army of the sea power isn't it that's the tiny little force that bismarck a generation before that higher in blood german diplomat and famously said one of his aides said what the british when the army are koci says that all have them arrested this is the army that was so small you can joke about arresting them but here's the difference on like all the other major armies of the participants in this war british army your professional long standing regular force with a lot of people wouldn't specially the non commissioned officer went to war lifers and when this war started immediately called up their reservists guys who served ten fifteen twenty years before had fought in places like south africa and the boer war in the turn of the century the institutional memory of the units was deep equality in these forces was intensely use to have been on limited marksman practicing give financial rewards for winning it it actually yolanda people arrangements for in actual combat with modern weapons my favorite source from this early period is an irishman you know as you might imagine off was actually fighting in the yeses name is john lucy any one of the few british side bar were portrayed issue to calmly to soldier who writes for is a very early period does he was right in the first way any explains the other difference between haitian it and the rest of the continental trip to the desolate every chauvinist pig are very proud fashion but he claims court the british army in nineteen fourteen was more used to battle than that of any other nation to possess the highest in the bravest tradition is the camby engendered in a fighting force and it's experience of wars was such that are on regiment know young woman the army and so many battle armor is that they were difficult to memorize and co but john lewis he's only twenty you can have a long service history under his belt the winner reservists arrived he watches man who appear to be just regular folks off the street transform themselves into grizzled british veterans or our reservists came streaming in to make up our war strength cheerful careless fellows of all types some new bowler hats and smart shootings others in descending scale down to the garb of tramps soon the white guys they were uniform been equipped with field kits and change was remarkable smart sergeant incorporate should be ridden veterans of the south african war hatched out of that crowd of nondescript civilians and took their place in duties as if they had never left the army they were next one blocked but their numbers increased our strength to an uncomfortable extent and co what john lucy found a beam uncomfortable increasing of numbers when they arrive at the continent seemed like a tiny little trickle of british soldiers but the quality of disarming the king to be known as the old contemptible so was of the highest level matching the top german units he was ironically on to the command of the british general named french would you very much like the french sir john french will lead the yacht off the british expeditionary force on the continent just in time to play their historic role in what sir arthur conan doyle called most terrible august in the history of the world we'll be involved in several battles they are all called battle of the frontiers discipline showed little battles are all to wrap up the news one big event called the battle of the frontieres would really means is that is all bullfighting it was going on along this front of there're several sword thrust and parry sink our thrust ago on i'm going to spend a little bit more time than we planned to for the rest of the series on this battle because this is battle of the frontiers in so many ways the most interesting moment of this war first of all it's what we've talked about for an episode one half now it's the rubber meets the road moment the testing moment for all this military theory and hypothesis it's been happening in some cases in over the last hundred years you get to see these peoples assumptions about this a weapons system work or that tactic would fare began to see which of those turn out to be correct in which ones don't and a lot of the time these armies will go into combat hamstrung by decisions that were made a decade before in terms of what the army's doctrines gonna be with the tactics or how they're gonna be i'm dressed in equipped to me take the french the french will go when it is modern worn it is almost impossible to understand this today 'cause it does look a christmas to it it shows off another century you wanna see the nineteenth century clash with the twentieth century it happens in this battle of the frontiers in august nineteen forty the french go into combat with almost the exact same uniform their grandfathers war in eighty seven he the blue jacket with tales why in it red pants the book like targets and acted like it too their officers would have white hats and white gloves immunity and targets they will send a cavalry to go fight that look like when you go look at your history book to make a fortune in the often have pictures of discovery i told my friend who was always asking for we often look to see a picture napoleon's query see occasional his famous cavalry with the brass plates in the horse hair blond helmets in on the same person the whole thing honestly don't have to we sure thank your double weems quiver seers they're going off to war in nineteen fourteen a look identical armor and all that's the old world going off to war and you can see it visually think about the french soldiers hamstrung by that british have been using khaki hill for themselves says the colonial wars in the eighteen eighties the french are gonna go on in this war looking like walking peacocks the town of french soldiers under the pressure of the pay the price for not having much in the way of heavy artillery to any of these were all ideas that you could logically back up the french decided it would have more mobile army so we don't need a big heavy cumbersome muscle or jewelry to slow it down by the time that gets anywhere the balcony over anyway sounds great in theory you try it in you fine actor soldiers are in terrible trouble on the actual battlefields 'cause they don't have any heavy artillery there's a reputation the french have militarily in the united states to use in a wood nimbly influenced by the way the second world war i which i tell people you misunderstand francis military reputation and because for hundreds of years they're considered one of the finest if not the finest land or me in the world a hundred years before this time little corsican guy he's using you know especially as the hardcore his armies to conquer the majority of the world that battered at this time and one that will do the rest of the majority of the world is colonies and did it with french troops they will often ro weekly throw their lives down to try to overcome these deficiencies that they can sherwood i think you could make a case that all three wars that over seventy five years the french and germans far with each other from the team seventy dimension forty five that the average racial from the ground was hamstrung by his leadership in all three of those conflicts in the second world war in historically tragically but i would suggest that the war of those three in which french leadership perform the best was in the first world war you're i'm one should defer generals but i think second world war friends would get in there right on to have bombed led by a guy who was icon i'm always gonna miss like the french churchill what churchill was to britain in the second world war this guy is different in the first world war any at all the same stereotypical we interesting anecdotes uncharacteristic suture drive instead of them being stereotypically british as turtles were there stereotypically call it a french in order to have this thing with alcohol was part of is a major part of the fine with them this guy it's food and that's because it fits perfectly with his physical sort of image you punch in every way he's tall he's fact in johnny emotion white moustache a placid look on his face all the time thing is joseph doctor and if i mispronounced a beginning images can be the first of many my apologies because he still in the lion of france in one french households preserve obviously interesting guy that your friend is significant amount on this person and i'm not sure i understand him any better than before i started once more mature these authors didi either he is like in kabul ask me is you corrupt her mobile good luck scratching the surface of figuring out what you have there and even his contemporaries felt that what one thing we read quotes that people who knew him say about him is wanting they say different things sometimes and two sometimes they even now what this guy was up to mean isn't as you look at something you would refuse just a little dollar swallow or receipt you know sly like a fox and is hiding everybody it's it's he's an interesting guy you could produce guy along time and and still not really get a good idea but which are dealing with here the one thing you can say about him is he he's got one of those qualities in general ship it's just gonna be a perfect match for what's needed at that time but i've always said that and general ship is absolutely a part in the same way that art is seized the manifestation of the artist's personality so translated in it's own unique way of in the art form general shippers like that too you can see all these different kinds generals will have these different kinds of personalities and a command that way in and the key is to try to find your strengths and then nothing to run away and make those strings were pre war battlefield take for example these really aggressive commanders these quick thinking hard pushing dashing saw regattas compounds could irina famous by you and basically created the german tank approach in the second world war he was back pentagon a guy by the way whose commanding the most important army on the german side of this war that the sledge hammer had army first army is a guy just like this too hard driving aggressive can a guy that sorber perot just perfect in some situations and so maurice but in any to being a coward are sometimes to actual bomb all the agencies be encounter he sits there and and planes reaching out to the nth degree you make sure all the t's are crossed in the eyes donna knew of anything and those guys are very useful to the inspirational general dugan alexander the great to get out there and picture troops to perform in the feats of heroism that may be a lesser man or woman could've gotten to perform this is all these different kinds of generals joffrey is the kind that has never yet we're awful that's what he brings to the table he refuses to panic he's almost frightfully calm in situations that he's about to experience that that they're not only stressful to the point of panic but the perhaps panic is the right emotion i have the other historians out their procedures that we should not look at that is such a great quality to bring to the table because it might be huge offers all the shortcomings in some of the other parts of general ship to be made it necessary for there to be a guy who wouldn't panic at the top to begin with wooden beads meeting to panic if he'd been a better player or that blind chess game of the top of earlier and maybe she offers not that goes back and hence the situation becomes panic inducing and so leader that's very good and stopping panic is just what you knew the top the white might be self reinforcing sort of thing but i think it's hard to deny that france was given up right arm in both legs stab this guy in the second world war and the reason that this guy's could be so necessary his new perturb abilities to be so necessary is because of how this first round in this heavyweight championship fight to the go go on for four years ago if you can use a boxing analogy here for this is a good deal of boring fight on as the fight goes on in the worst thing slow down to adorn the breeze looking for tactical opportunities and then but the first round is why it massive haymaker swings mrs dropping the other guy for the new maid kauai mean it's gonna be awhile first round any few lucia warhead you colors do war so having a job for at that the french heightening shows of the french are not to lose their head i can't help but think about the german commander does point oh bomb old cousin very interesting guy in the sense that he almost looks like a guy who doesn't wanna be there you know he is the nephew of one of the greatest heroes in german military history it's almost like you're leaning to the family business or as those guys thought about nothing the war all the time and remember sharif in the legendary writer rubbish we can plan is supposed to have died still saying stuff about the sweetened buy in alaska origin is blitzer supposedly make sure to keep the right wing strong injure people who have no hobbes other than war one mosca the younger is a guy who famously said that or closely lived for and i think about this guy in the most won the most stressful positions in all history wants this war breaks out forever he has no illusions about what the stakes are he's the one famously said but the war that he's launching will decide the course of history for the next hundred years and certainly has picked up the pressure on that though i think about the fact that his plan that he's operating with is a terrible gamble and watch how old every flip of the colina so far in this conflict has gone against him but if you're judging this fight based on coolly and the latest punch on malta and the germans are losing weight from the very beginning and think about the coin flips of every happened mean think about the belgium one to begin with i mean you were hope when the when you invaded belgium they do so as stood by the side of the road election go through maybe with the g. when everything right you would get from that which i hope was couldn't are a foot of the going instead of the belgians resisted you they destroyed the communication and transportation system you were hoping to use and animate matter for someone were shooting at you allegedly sigurd troops have been executing belgium's which rachel terrible on the world stage so that point that the wrong way don't you put the going again maybe britain will get involved we violate in the neutrality of belgium right just to scrap of paper is the german diplomat famously said all that landed on the wrong side of the going to the british came in you watch that foot another flip happens starting on august fifteenth in the timetable doing it we're now because their stuff happening law multiple fronts that overlap with each other because while this is going on in all the first maneuvers are going on in the west you would but on the fifteenth of august if you're a bomb old watching how your your planned attack is he's going in you haven't even gotten your sledgehammer head through belgium yet to bristol ways away from your attack doing anything but you get things started to collapse around you august fifteenth the serbs remember this is a moderate country fighting a great power in watch some serbian gunmen killed the austrian archduke in that's why we're here right in the one thing everyone we're sure about is that tomorrow what happens in this conflict serbia's can get a bucket 'cause they're fighting austria hungary is right next door and they were global power the austrian gary answer came down to a more hillside by river one on the fifteenth of august a hundred maybe thousand serbs attack them you're stronger in army has about two hundred thousand people and it it allowed just collapses and we told you before the serbs are one of those people story gleeful in the military since kind of hunch about their weight class there are ferocious fighters the regressive aggressively landed and we are stronger in forces were apparently more riddled with problems than anyone knew that a lot of them will drown routing across this river bomb pursuit closely why hundred needy thousand serbians in three armies think about what this does secure von mold in terms of storehouse big azure opened up the austro hungarians can help you keep the russians off your neck until you're done in france remember you get a deal with enemies on each side if you're hoping your ally right here is gonna be able to help and yet they just got their tail kit by a moderate sized power what's gonna happen when they faced the russians and then on the seventeenth of august the biggest disaster all appear bond moved to her courage and the russians will arrive early talk about that in the coming before the war should meet you can get all the stuff down before the russians mobilized and then they mobilized early so by august seventeenth on molpus has problems everywhere and and and becomes real question whether or not he's ever going to be able to use his war winning sledgehammer because maybe shall have lost the war for world for that even happen to mean there are writing a jerk and you can read from this time period nineteen fourteen the thing that the war some all-star really over meanwhile on the fourteenth of august your friend the french launch an attack in alsace lorraine the first we'll attack i should say that they they sent a token force in there on the seventh of august palm which is no better members of the bodies is four days after france and germany declared war into this and the token force in there you with messages from the french leadership about it here we're home you're back in the bosom of france all these wonderful things kisses picnic baskets flowers why in the whole deal you know welcomed with open arms and then all the sudden it little token force would the roses and wine everything asked around back across the french quarter because the german force that's nearby is not a token force for august fourteenth the day before the serbs smashed that are stronger in army bomb that so discomfort to bomb olga the french launched two armies and alsace lorraine in its seeley us now now it's on now we have two of the best armies in the world clashing head on a significant numbers of people the french push the germans back them the next day the potion back again and the next day the push 'em back again now look it should be noted the wall the rest of the world thinks this looks like just one more disaster for germany side you know it abroad is the russians are in east prussia and now look at the french the first time the watch is significant and the germans are backing up but that's one thing i'm sure von malta wasn't stressed about because that retreat by the germans was all part of the play it the germans of course for decades knew that the french would involve alsace lorraine in any war effort and so they put troops there who had orders to retire to just so to keep the french engaged but move backwards as they move forward to let them even into germany shoot them as they're pursuing you take your toll on them as they're pursuing me about retiring good order take your guns with you in just a uphold them away from all the parts of the war that matter you see when the french figure out about the sledgehammer have also compared to a door unhinge the gem all these german army stretching from the swiss border are all the way up to belgium and most of the largest there to keep the french occupy the damage that can be done as can be done by the door sort of in belgium and luxembourg bitch weems closed on top of the french nation the other german armies job is to keep the french in front of them occupied so they can turn around and move in a different direction and do anything about that hammer at most french army is way down south in alsace and lorraine richard del mar the swiss border better you're pursuing german armies back into the interior of germany are just getting farther and farther away from where they can help once the french realize they need every or needing to get their hands on to deal with that threat so pummeled does not upset about this this is part of the deal and let's start on august fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth the continues to read the russians are nice prussian out the austrians been defeated on their front since the seventh of august the really big on the eleventh and twelfth of august the british expeditionary forces vanilla icing on the continent they keep saying that could be ready to fight until maybe the twenty sixth of august but the french would like them there sooner one frenchman in particular is desperate to have the british officer earliest possible this is the french general was commanding the army on france's laughed like right the last or me no it's it's kind of the susumu belgium where if you look to your right they've got several armies millions of men all the way down to the swiss border totally protected from anybody penetrating our ranks to venus in the flight but if that fifth army under general mainland resnick looks to the left looks north there's nobody there there's open land there's maneuvering room for an enemy began around he is lying son destroy him and we're all the whole french lined up all the way down to switch to necessary please have a vested interest in being aware of any potential threat to their 'cause he's gonna take in the flank in which one shows up and he perceives even before the war starts he's sending messages in july the job for saying when all signs point to a german advance for belgium basically which is one reason you the high command knew about it they just nobody knew how big it was gonna be that this general one resident tell them ever gabor daisy sending messages to the high command going no latest reports are we're in a huge attack any heat basically the way history will vindicate the sky is he correctly perceives the power and destination of this terminal all long before anyone else does and more the historical what ifs in this time period is what if joffe red taking more he was saying seriously sooner again maybe you don't need to be such a wonderful bomb stability factor one panic is all around you if you make a mistake like not listening to this general which creates the panic inducing situation begin with jaw for basically things the guy's panicking and the start saying you know is becomes apparent that something is moving through belgium who sports are going down calm he starts thinking this is gonna be a good thing for the same reason it's a good thing for the germans have those french cultural suffering keep advancing away from where the action to be amish offers ideas listen even if the germans or going through belgium with large force all the better our plans gonna be the kind that large foresaw that this is a swinging gate or door we will heed and they can unleash and we will roll up behind all the way up to the water you know when they're in the north sea the english channel right there and then you're caught often in this wonderful no sledge hammer blow all becomes a surrounded trapped cream of your army he turned and maybe even a positive and basically would tell when resent the him having to worry about one resnick thought different and figured his chances would be improved if the british force would hurry up and come up on his left so that even though the british might have an open left point he would not want any more and it's at that point that the battle of the frontiers breaks out now the battle of the frontiers he's named that because it's the time when they generally were option of violence calm on the franco german border habits and there are a lot of different powers overall all part of this larger conflict essentially that is an umbrella term the covers all the violence on the franco german border breaks up almost simultaneously and it turns out to be are really important thing for the german war effort that did it because you know by about august nineteenth the german situation really is bad as we said earlier but things even got worse most russians in east prussia and shown up sooner than expected it to feed into german forces the one on try to deal with them all of sudden it looks like a flight might be collapsing it's hard to get real excited about anything if you are malta whose nickname don't give in to him by the kaiser was something that translates loosely to gloomy gus any why not exactly an optimist anyway he could've been feeling too good about the situation on the nineteenth or twentieth he receives a request from one of his generals in the field it's the guy wheeze retreating from all those french forces retiring in good order taking is gone to the muslim thrown them away from the action he's one of the wonderful german royalty that part of this this isn't the good of their moffat in the second week in having in business for affordable these guys like prince rupert of bavaria and he commands bomb the force to switch reading he doesn't like retreating in a young people i'm medals for retreating it's not exactly what he was hoping to do with an army in this war so we requests to mom old pecan i attack now this bill was against the idea what he's supposed to do right he's the rich rereading polls is french force away from with a sledge immersed in it but he makes a party good case these french are asking for it they're sitting docks they've been sort of like getting more and more disordered and strung out after days of pursuing us and we've been shooting them with artillery and weakening them they're ripe for a terror attack will crush them and this is one of several incidents the wall happen literally in the next few days that some historians appointee to for years as the moment when the germans lost the war in this case some historians say that mold his response to crown prince rupert number of area lost in the war he told them ruprecht that he could counterattack the french we're strong out disorganized mask and for it on august twentieth yes he crushes them now this is the time we you get to see perhaps for most soldiers perspective the thing that had changed battle in war for the most really coming to its own machine guns made a huge difference make no mistake about it and a robot things that seem relatively ben ari when you look at them in a huge differences to like barbed wire but the element the technology in land warfare and altered the most in terms of something that would change the face of warfare or how it was for an experienced by human beings on the ground artillery and calm leaps and bounds beyond anything anyone had expected and it's artillery that on august twentieth pitch the french when they're still in tight columns marching and mustering and just sitting around mean later in the war first younger a german soldier will write about the effect on rochelle one single artillery shell landing in a group of people that were just he was sitting around the town square hundred and fifty of his home soldier comrades annie said the one shell killed seventy of them out right imagine if you're in march calmer sure gather rhonda a mess of the center or are taking a religious service seen in the field or whatever when you're closely match with your bodies and then modern artillery hit you you remember part this is the technology of the guards the other part of it is disorienting during the goes into the making artillery affective notches shooting a gun up in the air but you should see that the scientific calculations the soldiers on the grounds of the mathematics they had to do to make sure that everything was home to the right way in everything and that really differentiated by the way the good armies from alaska the army's the russians have the time of artillery they never gooding junior and people shooting it so was often inaccurate or not affected the british and french and germans had exceptional people working their artillery tubes very effective in the german artillery was bigger and better than anything that the french and this is were they find out that the idea that light mobile seventy five millimeter artillery getting the job done in every situation was horribly flawed in fact it was our range by the german pieces the germans could hit yet when they couldn't get the germans when the german army under crown prince rupert hits the french in a counterattack on august twentieth the artillery just devastating as historian eric perot's right school the first furious fighting occurred in southern lorraine were the french second army having progressed thirty five kilometers was hidden rang by the germans sixth army the counterattacked with soup your real artillery fire for ma hundred and five millimeter anaheim and fifteen millimeter howitzers the barrage clashed second army formations that were stumbling in tight winks for the day's march forcing it to fully and thereby compelling in exposed for stormy to retreat as well and co now what burrows is talking about here is that when the germans crushed the french second army and it has to retreat it creates a hole in the line and that's the most dangerous thing for any of these armies me what i mean to maintain an unbroken line because if there are places they can be penetrated by enemy forces those forces can move into those gaps and then at the turn right or turn left him hitting another army in the flight courts terribly vulnerable or they could continue to go deeper into the interior strike it logistics and supply and we're your areas i mean the whole point is don't all while your gap to open up in your line and do whatever you can to create or exploited in your enemy doing something like that with their forces so when second army gets smashed a bastard retreat backwards for star we asked to go with him just to make sure that the lines stays on broken and nobody can get into or interior now there's a lot of different things you might be able to draw a conclusion watch for what happened you know in alsace lorraine wood which warnings were hit by the germans john for decided that does allow him to see with the germans were weak as we mentioned earlier this is about playing chess without knowing no we're the other guys pieces are part of which offers got to do was to come under some detective work he has refined yeah how many of forces the germans have if he can identify you know we're those forces are he can start to figure out where the rest are the figures if he's gaining so hammered down in the south on august twentieth and if he believes that general is flying to fifth army general that keeps tell 'em in the germans are made in a major repertory belgium we are all those troops coming from they have to be pulled from somewhere jar for figured the germans are weak at that point he decided that they had been pulled from the german center so they're strong down alsace lorraine by switzerland the strong up in belgium with a knockdown most fortunate their commanders with the door on a hinge so they're weak in the middle shot from a major mistake here and a major mistake was assuming the germans would treat the reserve forces the same way the french did the reserve forces are those forces they're not as competent was highly trained the regular military forces in the french practice with those forces which to keep them in the reserve to keep 'em back away from the action you use them to support people who need more troops thrown in the dobrynin you were vulnerable we you could lose the war with inexperienced i'm not up to standard troops like that the germans to hold we integrated the reserves and their armies and plan for this for a long time they were using all their reserves so they had greater numbers actually involved in all these combat then shot first estimation is and this will cost him dearly when he attacked the center of the german line in the battle of the frontiers on august twenty first or second in the center is weird area because of the left is up by belgium and the right is down by in alsace lorraine in switzerland the center is the par with the terrain is hard to fight in the movie johnny a guardian forest is they are nuts hilly terrain would not along roads difficult country right it's the same country that everyone was so shocked when the germans came through with tanks in the second world war 'cause it was thought to be impenetrable will the first world war that's what a shock for decides to attack us he's determined that they must the germans must be weak there what's more this is sally's good deal now with a sledgehammer the issue if it really exist he's gonna cut it off he's gonna launches attack that the germans center right without heaney shapiro use with the door swings between the forces of the germans had moved in the forces of the germans this the stationery they should be a gap smash through there get behind him drive all the way up until you get you know the north sea you're the english channel and caught off that sledge hammer had it's not a bad idea she can make it work it's like you doll he just took a great enemy the image of so many good troops in one location there with a steamroller and turned it into a negative 'cause now you can cut off the best part of the enemy army surrounded and to live in one place it's a great idea if you can make it work the french were totally incapable of his point worth making something like that work because they had learned o'connell for they were in yet that's what the battle of the frontiers is gonna be this first round of this fight we're we're everybody strong haymakers indian smacked on the job twenty to waddle lessons to people joffrey will fire more generals in this first month of the war than anybody's ever fired history alot of the other military it'll do similar things 'cause this is what we find out nino which generals to really fight in wartime which ones are more peace time commit generals and within a couple months you'll have much more competent people you know hey at the helm little water places which makes it less funny right now it's in the wild west on hearing of all kinds of different quality people take the russian generals the burgundy within a minute i mean the berry able quality and in this becomes real live fire test for a lot these people on the twenty first of august the twenty second of august comic jar for launches his big offensive in the yard dan he assumes he's running into an inferior number of german forces based miscalculations he's instead walking into a situation where he's facing almost equal numbers of troops and they're down again i'm waiting for and this is where the idea of bayonet attacks and charlie sheen machine guns and not digging in which your red banners when we don't even mention the fact that nobody's armies none of them are going into this war with helmets there were no helmets folks they're wearing caps okay you know many people are gonna die because of that mistake this is all kind when that romance in war get shot down literally i mean to people in the nineteenth century sort of world view and an attitude about on your duty and other things other expected affirmed civil officers in the field this idea of french officer standing op with the sword and white gloves and all from the white hat he may storm of steel in a move that is absolutely suicidal in those brave people must've known imagine how the soul gets conflicted going to do your duty and live up to the standard in expectations of your countrymen in your people during this time period you're expected to stand up they are and then essentially face issue or death when you might survive simply by lying on the ground and throw away the white hat in just to scan it in a high by that tree one of the top permitted observer only into certain standards and this is her whirlwind death is with the elder von malta was talking about italy quarterly we talk about how perpetual peace was not even a good dream occasions all these wonderful values that warfare brings out to him that officer those officers those many hundreds of officers dying on these fields in their white gloves because they wouldn't take cover we're doing something beautiful an admirable remember he said that quote we used bidding war man's noblest virtues come into play her region renunciation fidelity to duty their readiness for sacrifice to this got started giving up like itself to him this is what the charge of the light brigade over and over and over again modern people look at this as foolish to watch c. it's a waste of that officer's wife and potential use him in the way that will achieve a useful and abs to give a bit like so what more do you leave them at to people of the time period the robot hands really what this war there was a value and what those officers were doing simply by dying like that in upholding the standards he knew that they were holding by doing so they hire fidelity to duty in readiness to sacrifices bomb malta said one of the things that this war changes is that whole view the people in nineteen eighteen at the end of this war would feel very similar to the way we do about how stupid it is to stand up in a hailstorm of steel and just be a sacrifice your wife for nothing the generation that does that in nineteen fourteen in most of which doesn't make it through the war bomb they have different way of looking at things from older way and that's why this war is often seen as a separation point in history between one world the mother the running into this new world as part of this attack against the giants center rather from through the yard in forest and everything comes off sounding like a dry affair bomb was to reach right about it not that they're dry but listen history sometimes takes the emotion the blood and everything out of it i mean didn't stevens in has a great one volume work on the warriors have he describes these offenses by shock for an french to illustrate the games would we certainly week german surrender right he says called the result was a multiple disaster or the french forces entering yard in were weaker than the germans in recognizance cavalry on the morning of twenty second august mr grounded their aircraft groping for war in echelon along the few roads through the forest they blundered not in the weaker forces but in the twenty one divisions against their own twenty years seventy five millimeter field guns were ineffective in hilly terrain and portly linked by telephone with the infantry they were no way a trip to the german machine guns and field howitzers which wreaked havoc in equal what is wreaking havoc me historian peter arts book on the great war has many wonderful firsthand account of what these experiences were white and hard himself right about the stumbling into each other that are these battles in the middle of the from three was forced to kill each rain court in these battles few people of any level of command had much idea was happening there for the troops on the ground it was all on early baffling prewar tactics seem to have no impact bayonet charges would only the more slaughter all calling up artillery support was often doomed to failure he says or sometimes the gunners were too for baja mind sometimes too close to call her fire from longer range german got whatever the reason he writes the infantry were often left in desperate straits many coats are kept in from hundred the regiment was caught in desperate straits cold my company was sustaining heavy losses evidently it's action was hampering the enemy who concentrated the combined firearm is infantry artillery and machine guns on us we were surrounded by heavy cloud which at times completely bail the battlefield from our eyes little burg irish spring up shouted vive la france of the top of his voice and fell dead among the man lying on the ground one could no longer distinguished living from the dead the first four entirely absolved by their grim judy the others lay motionless the wounded offered a truly impressive sight hoping to use sometimes they would stand up bloody in a horrible looking amidst burst of gunfire they ran aimlessly around arm stretching out before them eyes staring at the ground turning round and round until it by fresh bullets they would stop and fall heavily our brady cries agonizing appeals and horrible groans were intermingled with the sinister howling of projectiles furious contortions told of strong youthful body is refusing to give up like one man was trying to replace his bloody dangling handily shattered raised another ran for malign holding the bowels calling on abysmally interest tattered clothes before long the bullet struck him down we had no support for more artillery and yet they were guns in our division and in the army corps besides those destroyed on the road where were they why didn't they arrived we were alone and co twenty seven thousand frenchmen will die on the twenty second of august many many more will be badly badly wounded mean can scar for life now let's put this in perspective a hundred years before this time napoleon used to brag to his opponents but you cannot stop me i spend thirty thousand lives amman as though there was a big deal and that when napoleon said it was a french had just lost thirty thousand lives that day and their contact against the other major army base and precipitated all those deaths has only been about twenty four hours long what's tomorrow the moral climate and the next day already troops were dealing with you in new phenomenon created by this artillery the bigger heavy guns the extra ammunition and the fact that balfour going on for a long time now and people stay in place for while mean the people are staying under artillery barrage for longer longer periods of time this is a frightfully upsetting experience as you might imagine and it begins to drive people insane right as the war starts the french surgeon world in his diary about these often susan you're damn august twenty first twenty second he said quote the guy is recoil at each shot night is calling him a look like old man is staking out their tongues and spitting fire heaps of corpses french and german airline every which way rifles in hand rain is falling shells are screaming and bursting shells all the time artillery fire is the worst i lay all mind listening to the wounded groaning some were german the canon eighty goes on whenever it stopped we're the wounded crying from all over the woods two or three men command every day and co a man who will turn into the water france's greatest public figures in the twentieth century was that these battles to he'd been indoctrinated like everyone else in the romance and heroism the ideas of the bayonet charge any offensive in all these military ideas from another age the tokyo one bottle to learn the lessons that it would take manners on all sides in this war quite a bit longer learn lieutenant charles de gaulle wrote of these battles and his experience in them called suddenly the enemy's fire became precise and concentrated second by second available to the ponder the shell grew stronger are those who survived lay flat on the ground admits the screening wounded in the humble corpses with affecting calm of the officers let themselves be killed standing up for it some obstinate platoons stop their bayonets into their rifles bugle sounded to the charge isolated heroes made fantastic leaks but all to no purpose in an instant it did become clearer that not all the courage in the world could withstand the spire and co the machines that always been important on the battlefields of humankind had become the dominant factor would become a tool to be used by name was now something that was so devastating in the hands of each other that the entire ideas about warfare admitted being played in most societies during most time periods up till this era robl beside him no longer viable the battle of the front years in just a couple of days manages to completely change the whole complexion of war we've seen to be leading up to a german defeat all of a sudden looks like maybe the germans are going to win this war and quickly nobody expects the french to lose him a couple of days more than seventy five thousand men killed in more than two hundred and fifty thousand wounded that started us everyone but the french especially when you have to understand how many people this is the americans still celebrating them in a more bitter way the famous civil war battle and tedium famously called bloodiest in american history in terms of warfare and partly because of so-so warn everybody down on both sides happens to be market but those casually levels for comparison purposes or about six thousand little less than six thousand dead i think and little less than twenty thousand wounded six thousand and twenty thousand be compared to more than seventy five thousand dead and two hundred and sixty thousand wounded in the first couple of days of action on the western front of pressure just on and now if you're the german general patricia off and on moral issues remember the stress we talked about and all the sudden you were presented with a dilemma if you just did this to your palm reading you stop them in the wrong road to milk or during the headlights for a minute what you do you stick with the original plans a little gospel to attack here we have the sledgehammer going stick with the sledge hammer and just let the french recovering from a few because it's part of a plan or do you say as the on call twelve on mold castle famously did it that no battle plans for buyers first contact with the enemy and look at this is an opportunity of battlefield opportunity the present itself almost as to make some decisions unit becomes another place in the story which story is aboard you'd ever since whether or not he lost the war here and those who didn't believe you lost it really restoring probably be lost to your lord german generals writing memoirs after the war no needled him about this savagely making bad decisions weakening the plan we all have to understand about the plan as it's i'm normally thought of and some very good mom restoring to do a great job of putting this out is that the plan was probably flawed from the get go i was probably never meant to be implemented in the way a lot of these german generals portrayed in an even more important and that evidence seems to show that members of the general staff maybe bond malta included never thought the plan was gonna win the war anyway which means that the conjure plan for starting the conflict in which everything is in motion you know you look for opportunity should try to create some new trunks with fringe mistakes that's traditional general shipment the french are due on their side and so far more to make some decisions based on having slam the french so hard he's got prince rupert the bavaria down in the south scream and now that he's pushed the french back all the way to the french quarter why'd they need when they need to slam on he could collapse the whole southern flank in the whole southern flank collapses and you still get the northern flank collapsing because of your sledgehammer my gosh you've recreated the balcony at the romans and annabelle all over again it's every generals dream a double envelop meant that whole rules surrounding i mean the bomb old guy walesa been part of fanatic in more of a military arm in the hobbyist i would think he would find irresistible who knows maybe he's just looking for opportunities to outflank french forces as historian david stevenson suggest to your arm call it small does actions at this juncture suggest that he was determined to protect germany's territory weathering east prussia oral socks willing to strike were ever the enemy seemed week rather than staking everything on his right flank and quote so the staking everything on the right flank idea is just what to do with no water better opportunities develop one crown prince were breached suggest attacking the french down in the south again i'm all depends about us as okay agrees to take some forces that would be used to bolster the sledgehammer head and instead use the mama told all other side of the flight down south to help were perched in his all offensive against the french in the south to the plane is now being diluted in the minds of the purists and they may be right imitating saddam hussein the traditional ideas that that malta screwed up the warrior now answered very good history discerning not all this is what you were trying to do i look for opportunities in exploiting without losing the war elsewhere which creates a situation know them all to himself even says after the war was a mistake and balls his attempts to try not to lose the war elsewhere but again if you put yourself in his position it's hard not to do this mold come looks at the western front and it looks like it's going pretty well the battle of frontiers annie and a battle in alsace lorraine all these things seem to show that the germans are better than the french as i said last episode this is in my opinion with the great armies of all time what they do show would it is did they dominate and other great army in a pre easily if you're far more you could sit to look up and go okay wall our calculations are out the window maybe we don't need such dominance in numbers your quality is such that maybe we could get away with taking a few troops from here are and taken them to the east because the russians are taken towns in east prussia not trouble could did first he changed the commander's over the sack the guys he was haven't brahms with any puts an old retired guy who was more known for the franco prussian war services and in fact cause a lot of retirement so quick to be asked to put on his old blue uniform busy doesn't have one of the newer gray warns the blue ones pink back to the early war the combined this older retired guy whose name is he engine burn coal born into bird with the hero from the german encounter view of that attack against it of the belgian city of liaison for purse there who banged on the door of the four prefer the to the sword into the surrender of the city can abide self sort of on barracuda dorf little orphan hinton burkett this job or sent to the east of the situation on the bomb all to send these troops which you know historians would yours well it really need those troops molestation person i'm any shall descend but you know that he said after the war's over the biggest mistakes he should the senate because it'll turn up the by the time the troops get from the west to the east on the trains there are no longer needed now again you know not a historian paul ball historians debate isn't argued that never sense of who knows maybe we can all take a position on the stood looking at it from the sources that i have looking upon malt this decision here looks like prudence i'm in the russians are taking towns in east prussia forcing the little teeny german forces that are there to retrieve it looks like we're gonna be threatening berlin meanwhile on the western front it looks like before she'll put there is simply keep the french occupied while the killing forstmann hoover's around their flight may have defeated the french all by themselves what happens when you beat the french before the killing thing even gets there and as someone is it because bearer couple of course for the eastern front a bomb old is supposedly even asks one of the commanders of one of the army's that makes up it's sledgehammer swinging keeping you know that flanking force that the size and the napoleon's grand army with the size of the roman empire is complete military the tight he asks the commander certainly von bulow can you spare a few corps for the east the mongillo said yes you know why he says yeah part because he just master french army from him during the battle of the frontiers which happen to be the pool or fifth army commanded by that one french general who saw the sledgehammer forming even before the war started for general and one resnick and because he argues with the high command alluding to shift his army little bit to protect it's like some history speak the same fifth army from total annihilation he does have to retreat bell move backwards once again to keep in line with the rest of the french forces better retreating sort of all along the line up meanwhile here come the british now this is a source of contention in legends like all the stuff is the funny how much of this holy warriors but the friendship been badgering the british since the beginning of the war move faster move faster move faster we need some more pure on our left like it's critical right the fridge for a few territorial our unit together which are like an old man reservist is often put them out on a flight to so that there's something out there but against what's coming up and it's not fair and so they get me hurry to british open the breach worship in a state run into belgium so that they can take the position on the left like to protect airport general when resins army and before the big yet there are aggressive moving the other direction he's backing up to stay in line the french army is exposing the british army's fly again that you can read the british historian zubin mad about that ever says would be left in the large by the french but so far these are real these accounts wake up we are russians account lucy's account of a bumper riding in france and how much the french love them in these wonderful welcomes when you read other accounts here for later in the war with the soldiers are going in the french don't much like us will wipe them they're alike as andrew leadership in the british army didn't seem that the liberal fringe or vice versa there should be a lot of origin between them and then some weird order almost totally understandable by the head of the british military right before the b. yes goes to france complicates everything lord ratio kitchener the arm british legend from the colonial war should never seen a guy like the spot where i always look at this picture wonder why he would look like without that victorian error waxed mustache thing he has gone but we see so fantastic figure that the character it in his own right buddy famously tell the british commanders going over to france something to the effect of look the seventy thousand men is ninety percent of all we have got france and germany date that millions of men in the field this is our army don't lose it in other words be careful problem is is you know war where men are thrown into me grinders on a very large numbers the french will lose the equivalent of the british expeditionary force often in this war in a short period time so will the germans to the british are moving up into belgium to have their first real contact with more and more they thought in south africa big esteban shove for farmers and guerrilla fighters got an idea of what in about the rifle fire all that stuff to do they haven't moved up against an army they can fight like they did fight and outnumbers them many times over the stumbling the disarm he had a place and loans the battle that shaping up all the legendary bridge baffled called about old moles and dom it will be an apologized in a very similar way to the dunkirk affair in the second world war nina without was right when germany smashes france in nineteen forty the british managed to evacuated army miraculously every ship it can flow comes across in every the robo calms across the channel page three soldiers away in the local office held a day in and they can flip the germans are for crossing the channel say ha-ha missed us technically it to defeat right but she sort of a portrayed the spin that awaited me to both of the glorious victory dance abiding the enemy and rearrange the long run there's some truth to that raided the work with that is the hubble so sad the battle mosses very similar to those things it's technically know better how you look at it a defeat but there are there were awake narratives that sort of come out of it to me it's like the moment with the cloaking device is removed from the german flanking attack has until now there's been this uncertainty about is it coming in and what strength is it coming in and how many men are we talking about here what exactly is it going all the different kinds of things the british ronnie in to the tip of the speedier they run into the most honored arm of the army's better involved in this attack the one that has the key important most important position the one that the retreat in famously said on that these guys should brush their sleeves against the english channel meaning that that's how wide a flanking maneuver they should make through belgium they should make it so wide that they actually almost touch the last man on a ride touches us leave into the water but commanded by one of these great german generals a guy named alexander von cloak and on club is what these guys that fly kites good area of the guys in the second world war he's an aggressive general he's a hard drive or he seizes the nishi did he get you off balance he keeps pushing and he moves it's all about speed and deadliness when he gets to the place we you're expecting it to many three hundred and twenty thousand men in germany's first army right next to him as germany second army also moving through belgium also part of this on flanking maneuver to one hundred sixty thousand men under von bulow on how was an third army blow him as a hundred and eighty thousand men this is the flanking maneuver the british ronnie and should be german army on the farthest right like the only one into a part of it actually bought a hundred and sixty thousand men were surprised to find a breach waiting for them behind the fences positions along twenty five miles of the canal which we call a defensive obstacle right this is something that magnifies the power of the defense is now the germans have to cross this canal under fire for it the british inter going to face a corporate germans may be too instead they're facing for plot scores and they're doing it in this kind of another world we sending i give our recap wins good for this contest of the sheik's planes beginning you might think that this is like the wonderful belgian foreign country side of the canal with blue water going through but she's playing is it this is a mining town and the water that runs in this canal was more the slide him into blackening gives off chemical fumes and she says amongst the flower gardens and vegetable gardens are the slag heaps liverpool we do book whitehall witches hats all round the the landscape she says it doesn't look like a bad boys for modern bottle gone down in history though on with one area but of course as in everything now should any time you're saying that is having a service with a whole nother tower narrative the regional meredith is the dunkirk wanted that turns this thing into something that is so old legendary dead within a year or two legends popular legends will spring up there are angels on the british side of this battle which you go to me i wouldn't push on her because even though it makes it look like god might be on your side if you get the angels are near signing you still end up having to move backward to retrieve after the battle that doesn't speak to welcome the fighting power or the particular angels of all but let's not go there let's talk about the part we can confirm about the spell it to twenty five mile front to the seventy thousand guys have to hold most of the heinz can now as we said and it starts with encounters between power winters remember it trying to use be easier for abstinence in the germans are better than most and it took to look at things and see things but every time anything to me steal foggy they can see anything from the state was so it's still cavalry that does this job and while you're counter resolve frontrunner beady eyes and ears of you or me the enemy's cavalry is out for being the idea to their army and the fight this is what you normally have your reconnaissance forces to do it and so the first topic goes on here is the british allies in years encounter german eyes ears and there's a cavalry skirmishes and jealousy or four irishman in the b. yes talks about this he says you we run into work our readers are wounded people but they they they beat the germans it'll look how boring data but the germans are coming and so that the british in his unit all get ready they can get scratched amount to be too strong a word scratch themselves on little depression in the soil only wait for the germans to arrive and i should point out something dead maybe i'm estimating year but i would say between eighty five and ninety percent of all the account she read from soldiers going off to war in nineteen forty anecdotes in the matter which arm you choose most of the use overwhelming week positive in terms of the emotion that these young men feel going off to war others russian accounts especially the people who hold off of forms and don't want to do this but most of the young men going off to war you're are excited it sounds like an adventure the full romance of war still in bloom to them this is excitement remember what these people are pretty dreary lives in all of a sudden they're caught up in in in world affairs that are huge momentous biggest thing that's ever gonna happen most of these people right amino admit they're caught up in the excitement a lot of negative stories yet but if built into the public realm in explaining what happened to guys who came before you 'cause there are no guys became before you priory shumpert should usually for soldier of john lucy is moving up towards malls scene the jury where we're on august twenty second of august twenty third hand says that when he first heard the gardens it was a queer the railing sort of feeling they brought on but also worried him but maybe not for the reason we would think of as an adventurous young man who finds all this you know interesting and exciting in a different reason to be scared he writes about his unit as he comes up noteworthy situation most like this cork we swap news with the nearest men in the ranks and learned nothing exciting it happened to the battalion interactions except a line of trenches had been dug is a defensive measure about a mile behind and then abandoned on the orders of the staff officer who wished the battalion move forward toward the town of malls now visible through the slag heaps of many mines on the right front of a marching regiment is jury looking factory town had no particular interest to us and for us until suddenly above the sound of the trend of our marching feet we heard the blooming of field guns a queer thrilling in menacing sound about which they were many conjectures the most popular being that they were french seventy thought that they were giving the germans have all this notion greatly depressed us we should really hurry up now otherwise we would miss the battle the french would get all the glory while we with our capacity for deadly rifle fire and dash in the attack would be missed that crowning moment of victory culminating in a sweeping bayonet charge relentless an invincible the grand assault that would drive the enemy off the field so we damned the french were now waiting for us and the crew here's our romance of war again the great adventure could be foreign to be heroes and it's funny when he first gets to the line in his men take up positions of what they call me trenches the shallow little gonna holes are not too happy to not be moving forward in doing something off into bed but they sit down there and then the first shells combine them an indian they find it more interesting than the kind of have fun with it he says quote the salvo shells pastore for our heads and burst about eighty yards in the rear with a terrific firing crash we were highly interested more came and still more all going all over heads of our curious manicured about the trenches looking back to see the burst look they shouted at a black won or won only or four more whites some laughingly imagine themselves on duty right for ranges of holman shouted advice to the german gunners wash out another mayors and lower your sights one wag stimulating great terror cried stand for the police is going to be wrong on the air and another in mock despair oh mother why did i desert shoe any enemy goner shortened and the shells exploded about our trenches and the men are already taken in hand for exposing themselves crouched low so it's getting real right but it shows you the attitude that the head of the time they haven't come with it the great adventure and you read accounts for every major army of the spirit has other russians have little bit more people that were so dragged into this kicking and screaming pomp and the country people always more than your big people but the time or your roles were marching off to do this you target find account for their dreading it yet we can't stay on the road where yo everyone has a good idea what they're going there's a lot more of planning for your own death and worrying about the canister of right now as i said john lewis he's worried about missing the fan he's not to worry does the phones commended him field marshal alexander von cloak is aiming at the german first army the tip of this be your right at him and alexander von cloak is like the german general that central casting in the tv hollywood world was put together scarred face the iron cross during the soldier's rifle and pistol the same time always walking around you're some degree description of him where are the french observer no during the early stages combat in right around now is a witnessing the arrival of bomb cloak someone says it reminded him of attila the hun and he said quote an automobile drove up from eight to send an officer of irrigated impressive bearing the stock forward along wally officer standing in groups and for the villa made way for him he was tall and majestic with us guard clean shaven face hard features are frightening glance is right and he carried a soldier's rifle and is left rested on the bottom or were ball for the turn around several times scraping the ground with the body and it is right for them halted in a theatrical palos no one seemed to dare to approach him and indeed he wore a terrible error in the pool as we said earlier he's like a high into the area this war he's the hard driving the bit to says everything that commanding three hundred and twenty thousand men commander of the first army and he's going to have problems with german generals were not as aggressive in hard driving is he is it's his army well about half of it but we're running into the british at mom's and the traditional store use of the arena for shock because as we said earlier the british are good rifleman but he may even this just so you know even this is contested by the second are we to stop about the same bow from the military history of britain's imperial war museum will kind ago after every single point it's traditional in this narrative but traditionally alexander von coax forces in sort of an encounter battle stumbling in to the british lines and take it on the chin and are hit by so much rifle fire it is so precisely and i'm so quickly no fire that the german supposedly think the runner machine gun fire john lewis he's very proud of this moment and describes what happens to the germans daschle quote finally the shelling us easter we put up or heads to breathe more freely than we are in caen schleicher sounds strange bugle calls the german infantry which an approach to ring the shelling was in sight and about to attack us not a shot had been fired from our trenches up till now and the only opposition to the german to be made by our field gun battery which was heavily engaged behind us and making almost as much climbers the enemy shelling to my mind it seem that the whole battalion must've been wiped out by that dreadful wing of shells but apparently not in answer he writes to the german bugle sir trumpets came the cheerful seven of our officers whistles and rifleman casting aside the amazement of their strange trial sprang to action the great roar of musket free rent the air varying slightly in intensity per minute to minute as whole company ceased firing opened again the satisfactory sharp blast of the directing whistles showed that are machinery of defense was working like the drill book and at the recent shelling and cause no disorganization the clatter bar machine guns added to the dean for ross he writes the battle took the form of well ordered rabbit rifle fire or close range as the field great human targeted tiered or were struck down the enemy infantry advanced according to one of our minute in columns of masses which withered away and the galling fire of the well training coolly let irishman believe the germans fired standing from the hip i mean your opinion about strong warning stop walking toward the enemy shooting from your hip to the coming toward the british trenches doing that the leading germans as you said byron standing from the hip as they came on but they're scattered fire was ineffective and ignored the crumpled up mowed down as quickly as i'd tell what they're reinforcing ways in sections coming on bravely in steadily to fall over is the reached the front line of slain in wounded behind the deaf blind baker converging columns were being blown about by our field guns he then says our rapid fire was appalling even to watts in the worst marksman could not minutes as he had only to firing to the brown of the masses of the unfortunate enemy who won the fronts of two of our companies were continually been used mostly reinforce that the short range of three hundred yards such tactics amazed us at the for shock of seeing men slowly in helplessly falling down as they were hit gave us a great sense of how or a pleasure it was also easy he says the german attack had to be broken off all the german survivors began to go back here in there for milan in the attack him in another failure soon all that remained was long line of the dead heat before us motionless acceptable limb movements of some of the wounded and co as a person interested military history this there were out of the conflict is the one most interesting to me because the way during the war everybody supreme he experienced know with what you're dealing with it to this point the war that everybody's learning the reality of modern warfare at the same time upper body hard experience the british expeditionary force and bonk looks first army are both county getting a real initial taste of what the new weaponry can do and she heard from john lucy the irish rifleman and b. yeah pianist competitors were actually appalled at how effective in deadly wasn't a whole different thing in a firing at why people in the parade ground but if you happen to emerge on a scale of you almost seems to your bolster that idea that this is on a heroic romantic bombed lily donald in her book nineteen fourteen court to budge people who were there including lieutenant chapman who has the british are dealing with the battle tells what's going on to a compatriot businesses about the pulsing of the german human way the tax code they came at us over a bank directly in front of us as soon as they talk did we let them have at the range was seventy yards we were firing at them but why i've never seen anything like it legs arms heads they were flying all over the place we absolutely smash them they simply melted away then the blinders got to machine guns in action in a bad distance we were like sitting ducks so we had to get out of it and by job it was a crochet and co as though it's a farm story right there was a sixteen year old trumpeter and that's not unusual going back a very long time they always without borders bomb nina was drummers and trumpeter swan ship still have the no better position in britain's navy called first boy second boyd and a arthur kent the sixty robbery trumpeter bars describes how he just admire what the british were doing it if he never forgot the fire discipline of these rifleman he says he was sitting there watching an officer powell delmar range of this advancing great human wave and getting very nervous is cigar closer and closer and closer money was saying that the british officer or was holding a rifle fire job with germans got really close and he was counting down range from bitter j. naylor from a third division reports all he was saying that at four hundred at three fifty at three hundred rifles blaze but still the germans came on they were getting nearer and nearer and for the first time i begin to feel rather anxious and frightened they want an indeterminate mass anymore you could actually pick out details see them as individual men coming on the coming on any officer still cool is anything was saying at two fifty and two hundred and then he said ten rounds rapid and chaps opened up the germans just fell down like logs had never seen anything like it the discipline the fire discipline of these troops are never forgotten that i was so impressed as a boy is sixteen i was simply astounded i thought what a marvelous army we are the attack was completely riposte probably not for long it was long enough for us to get the guns away it saved us in a coup now i probably have more than twenty books until around me here for historians talking about the same event in his amazing to go for ms story the story the story is he the different ways this is viewed interpreted on the perfect example is peter hart so wonderful book he's a historian of britain's imperial war museum annie's what those contrary into says all this is a bunch of nonsense and let's understand quickly didn't it's normal in war time for this to happen now there's a single power in balkan conflict that wants to talk about defeats or bad pain is everybody wants propaganda victory is everybody was stuff that helps recruiting you're looking for stop the tube employee out maybe not as peter hart suggest that's what this miracle of malls it's but he shoots down number of the typical arguments pointing out that the germans handle themselves very well and in fact it the casualty numbers or what he thinks they are probably deserve a victory at the problems in fact the french in the germans both bought the british were defeated there are at the time he writes quote where monk looks first army smashed into smith dorian second court at six am mama twenty third of august the battle that issue was to enter british military folklore than it is one of the heroic successful defense would well trained british tommy's mulling down abhorred the germans repeatedly attacking in massport asians finally the british will be forced retreat only because the pickle french had given way on the right flank this view of the battle is a great yarn he writes but like the angels of malls and it's hard it is the product of wishful thinking and quote he then goes on to deal with every single reality we've talked about in this battle shooting down each one of them again as best he can it's controversial but he's a fantastic historian who's qualified to do this i should like to point out though that this was no different you know manufacturing of victory were playing up the victory and and magnifying the very real heroism on both sides there's not only nothing wrong with that that's pretty standard behavior for every military and every word you can think of mean for example hillside home called as to the second for being on a defeated and forced to fall back only to conform with the french on the right flank this is pure nonsense he says the reality is that on many occasions the germans seem to have been all too successful and forcing retreat and go in other words probably the best or me in the world is operating that way in the field and it's disconcerting if you're on the other side for example he says quote it is undeniable that several of the british battalions falwell of modern scholarship has revealed that the germans maneuvered skillfully to secure a local superiority gives the weak point in the bridge differences were ever possibly operated against the planks forcing the british to fall back or risk being a car often totally destroyed throughout the germans seem to handle their artillery and machine guns would agree tactical dexterity born of law practice operating them intended to dominate the british in a firefight effectively rendering rifle fire were secondary importance the british were turned out of their defensive positions in the matter but few hours an event failed to destroy several of the canal bridges an equal even goes on to take issue with the casualties better off than sign one of the things the british uses claiming that this isn't a major victory is how many more germans they killed versus the casualties they suffer themselves he suggested even the interpretation of what those casualties are are overblown again this will really doesn't matter in the grand scheme of things every nation was doing his for me what's most interesting is to watch these the nation's annie's military huge trial where mama fly while they're being shot at and translate years of reread into practice arm by the twenty fourth of august the french will change their mind about this whole idea of olive you'd be off and seven all cos when the offer is forced to say listen we need the golan the defense of all which is it like hair receive a mirror reapply six seven eight days before the reality of the situation in and is changing everybody's mind about the lebow's package without before the war we're gonna be good yeah in practice not so good the british where the water believe that they were forced to retire because the french left him in the lurch or whether you want to noble leave as hard as that the germans were just really quite good and turning flying scene and in employing combined arms as it's called up to him get the british and on tenable position is called he doesn't matter the british after retire just like the front to have to get out of there the first armies 'em your phone call great to his memoirs to british pop exel the but then if he had been allowed to sweep as widely around the flight as he had wanted to one has as he requested that time that the british would be no position to fight all he would outflank them and smash them from the rear remember they will be a lot of finger pointing after the war over whose fault all this stuff is a lot of the generals were still alive for ratings to defend their reputation one thing if you could actively say is going on here though is that neither the british nor the french were able to stop this movement for belgian it's coming down on them now and they're all ripped firing at speed this is the part of this in a burly war meredith the snow is the great retreat the grey which reaches a launder full example all of those moments when try to get in the minds of these people you know let up a fruitless task mean there's no reason to play with history study history fuel wanna try to do that we all have to recognize how impossible it is but the same time the tribe patricia often issues if you are a lot of the commanders of any of these armies in your overwrought the age of fifty eight fifty nine this entire affair is beginning to look horribly familiar to you from the german side wonderfully familiar to you it looks like eighteen seventy eight to seventy one that looks like forty four years ago it looks like when the germans manage to sir wound to wean tie your french army to get them to surrender sir john french the british commander is already making plans to get his army to the other side of harrison and starting to think about the challenges logistical challenges of getting your me the british army our france altogether and back to the safety of britain he's worried about a completely legitimate threat that the british could end up like to offer in charlie's ended up in the last war completely surrounded by the enemy and forced to surrender imagine if ninety percent of britons luxury forces around the continent enough to give up to the germans in going to captivity that's quite a hostage situation you laughed pretty easy to get a pretty good or miss disagreement when you think if you're holding ninety percent of the british army hostage the french it's confusing use of the british commander named french infringes not confident in the french he hasn't been impressed you know with his dealings with them so far he's complained a lot to secure your boy think we say was the military leader runners warp border ratio kitchener all happens to be a field marshal but in fact at this time he's a cabinet member the secretary for war but kitchener times will feel the need to discard is bowler hat in his suit and tie ins were on his field marshal uniform jumbo destroy your gore crossed the english channel and we'll give french aloof he said as mine bolsters continental that the french has a legitimate worry this quake which reached it's going on is an extraordinary precarious moment because an organized retirement can easily turn into a disorganized panic route and everyone knows that in fact only a couple of days after the battle moans british forces will be required to turn away on in the heat off german attacks against them which is why don't you consider at the germans are trying to catch people that move away from them at the same maximum speed doctor military history not like i am the one thing that's interesting to fall at this point the war is something good he's very unusual military history because if you want him to take the cassano utter history this is deployed in the war were they would tell you if you're the germans the journey to stand out from mobile units now would destroy the enemy try you have cavalry right you go talk to a genghis khan or any medieval or ancient general in history they're gonna tell you go get 'em tenure cavalry after them harassed and disorganized and never give 'em a moment's peace ca stragglers mean if you look at where people gone in pre modern warfare but even more and more for the guy in the pursuit the job of the battle was to get the other side to turn around them when they turn around you crush them when the iraqi highway of death right were so many iraqis died fleeing to wait what would they do when they were fleeing for most of human history the casualty when alexander the great supposedly only suffered less than a thousand casualties in his entire career all boredom five leave them but the steps of the military's to reside in the reason those numbers are soloist as comparatively few people died in the battles they died while being pursued after the battle benson's alexander never lost a battle his troops never had a face that this is the moment when the german cavalry should be unleashed an finish the job the problem is is we have this tiny little window in military history with a cavalry is so vulnerable to it even disorganized which the french and british art but we believe in retreating forces can turn around for a firing line really quickly and the stroller or even pursuing cavalry add a few howitzers in there anyone be carney now in the next war mechanized forces former anti aircraft we create the ability to do with white powder we did before this buley it but it is weird little interim barack the cavalry can pursue and destroy forces like this to the germans have to do the same job with infantry the problem is the german infantry maximum speed is the speed of i'm watching men just exact same speed of the people they're trying to catch and yet nevertheless and even though the germans had marched along the way already they did darn near to catching them several times in fact on the twenty sixth of august the british have to turn around and try to get little breathing space from the east german pursuers why you're fighting them again until we get on the slowdown caused them to form up unhappy we organize again again little bit distance between us and them twenty sixth of august the british including our friend john lucy can be yep find another battle with the germans this time in about eleven hours the british suffer eight thousand casualties not a thousand casualties in the war that about happened isn't going to seem like that much in my goodness the fringe of supper to wandered the sixty thousand wounded in the last few days to the british army which is historically small as we said this is unable powers army that's a lot in fact going lieutenant general sir archibald marie who's with the general staff behind lines informed of the eight thousand casualties a couple hours later he collapses just going to collapse is what the shoshone from pardon military men which show with stress and tension that these people were under the new add to that the fog of war no one was what's going on and it's happening so quickly there's a huge amount stress the german general should do so for august twentieth a mean all these into the real supreme test that separates the men from the boys as the old saying goes this is the moment of greatest danger winston churchill was a high official with the navy writes about this period in his retirement discreet which reduces quote then came the day is a retreat we saw that the french armies of the right we're holding their rome where all the center left was marching southward toward paris as fast as possible all around five divisions were for several days plainly in the very jaws of destruction he says that the admiralty we were sieber quest to shift the base of the whole army from arthritis emma's year and with this complicated business we had to cope the process ever treat continued day after day the seemingly irresistible compulsion was pressing and forcing backwards the brave armies of france why should it stop would they ever be able to turn if france could not save herself nothing could save her an equal the germans are lean toward paradise any allied to be officially allied armies are moving back in that direction here's the thing though remember the war plan you know that the french military leaders offer has not forgotten the plan even if the germans get within sight of paris didn't lose the war if at the same time that happens the russians from the east are marching through the streets of the german capital in berlin zsa friendly whole allied hire coming and realizes that to run away the war can still be won it even with allied forces in the west which reading they just have to prolong this conflict long enough to let the russian smashed the germans in east in the war be over no matter how well the germans and the western doing enter in june burdett unloading door for writing even as all this is going on by twain it in the east to take command of that one alone german army that got to hold off the russian steamroller as it approaches now the russians biggest victory at this point is the fact that there's an army there to fight at all remember the entire german prewar plans assumed a certain speed for everyone's mobilization the russians are what are the slow ones here they are going to weeks enter ready taking towns in east prussia ease pressure by the way is this really which conquered aryan the fourteenth fifteenth century by the famous teutonic knights which included a large proportion of germanic nobility who eventually will settle down in those areas and so this is where some of the historic german nobility in o'hara's their biggest states and the kaiser himself feel this is this is historic german territory with an abnormal number of the year were stock received here it's import marry me and instigate weighed in berlin and it's not far from berlin on the russians manage within like two weeks of the war start forget the six weeks to guys like to refund count on within two weeks they've got half a million men operating in a theory may get even more down south against the austrian carrington and it's one of those things where feminism offered as a professor name a show on the meetings written the whole book called the russian regions of the fur for warp worry says the russians are the ones who should bear the entire lion share of the guilt for storing this war the war that the plan for an important reason that they surprised everybody would dare quick mobilization is because they were ready for this war they wanted and they put two fifths of their army in poland which is right next east prussia ahead of time so that when the war starts winning the mobilize people they're coming from all over russia the time of 'em like they are and good units to doesn't make any difference the russians are madhouse an absolute hang on a disaster and it if you look in russian history soviet history to mean you just consider that a piece of russian history that's old traditional it's crazy when the russians are always start these wars as disaster workers in the second row war they can hardly deal with the fans in finland which is crazy when you think about the disparity in everything from resources to signs of the numbers of troops everything they can hardly do with the finns and in the very early for the second world war but six years after the second world war starts deerfield in one of the greatest armies in human history very typical for the russians take some long time to get started but they didn't teach to really formidable wants to get going in hamburg and war for them when they go when the number in luton dorf arrive in the east there were these guys are probably little which called jet lag train line and i mean in timber does sixty six ers on thing and just dollar for tire mina couple of days but when door fizz been on the western front since about start the war read bang a moment or ugly engine accepting is rendered their aqaba days ago he's helping and push land resnick's or me back home western front a now he really is in the east trying to get acclimated what's going on is lieutenant colonel which is a pre lower rank for guide making history books like max hoffman did on the scene though was an expert on the russian army and of course is been there the whole time soft quickly filled and orphan hindu bargain on the situation we choose this about half million russians nearby about a hundred was seventy five thousand germans to deal with them the russians are divided into two armies the first the second army they're making their way across the really difficult the sitter rain it's a series of lakes and forests in marshes in reverse the jest is going to make these two armies have a hard time helping each other route you know walter on opposite sides of this between preacher he also tells in the brig and dorf they have a pretty good idea about what the russians are trying to do because the russians a good broadcasting radio messages and telegraph messages to each other without using any coward we also find it a russian officers body after they kill him and it has the plans on it in fact there so much information that's giving the russian plans of the germans that they start to wonder whether or not it's just the rooms may be the russians are trying to trap us images broadcasting all the stuff all us 'cause it's so obvious and who would make the scanner mistakes well it's not the greatest time in russian military history i wrote them a list of twelve mistakes that were made or or areas that the russians were having terrible problems and it's not only understandable because of the russian tradition of starting wars little chaotic clean disorganized but also because you know even the really bad stormy is we're trying to figure out how to deal with all this new technology a hundred years of the returning into fact the british and french and germans we're all dealing with us on the western front so it's understandable that an army that some really not up to those standards is dealing with all to in fact even though the numbers on paper status half a million russians here they've been leaving gonna spin soldiers all along the way they get here in their actual strength when they get to combat would be a lot worse than it looks like the logistics and supply situation is disasters the troops in some cases are eating they have rags instead of shoes on their feet some don't have rifles the two commanders and anymore and remain calm for coming in the first army on the second armies a guy named sam saw they hate each other which is going to be a problem because the plans that the germans had become aware wrote to worldly different methods say that the russians are gonna try pincher movement on the inner solar one german army in the region so this first army will come from the north the second army will come from the south surround this german army and destroy it but the commander's hate each other the communications is awful and a half the past this train teacher for fifty years sixty miles that will keep them from working together dispenser movement's gonna be tough the german recognizance he is so much better mean the russians are even using aircraft the germans have their care planes is that the ones up there watching what's going on the germans have the damage with ray arose because we're in the road help or nice move fast obviously but the problem is is that attacking normie is once they leave their railroads almost never get the ability to use the railroads in the territory they're going through whereas the defenders in allowing terror which were retained is one of those things that makes the defensive more powerful than the elephants in his war the germans were able to use railroads to reinforce point where they need to be the russian surpassed their railroads now they're walking finally the germans know this country they know the terrain and they know the geography this is an eerie were sometimes the german army conducts peace time maneuvers so they set a trap for the russians and it's a very napoleonic strategy indeed they're going to attack these armies wall bees armies are separated by the strolling up and i'm able to help each other and smash them individually they're going to nullify that disadvantage in numbers the russians will make us a lot easier 'cause they all know what's going on the litter really are clueless as to what they're facing and the high command isn't helping the situation there telling general samson off at the second army was an hour without seeming german forces will expect an attack during samson os taking his time blind to what's going on around him were the germans are moving very fast is using your ears to the flanking taking up positions and setting a trap this is stories michael my burgundy be jordan you pick up the narrative about spring the trap on the russians second army the right quo we're missing tense hours followed as the rest of the trap was blown by the morning hours of the twenty eighth of august the germans had control of almost all the main roads leading to samson all sports is combat begin in the north where russian corps advancing without support we need to german corps the germans who were fully aware of the russian presence and we're lying in wait for them smash the russians and sent the really back in a panic surprise to the unanticipated presence of german forces in the area samson off for the general withdrawal bad night the full severity of the situation came slowly to him as he realized that he was completely cut off his men began to panic throwing down weapons and running least as fast as they could only to end up trapped by strong german forces already sitting on the line serb retreat confusion and panic waned in the russian lines without supplies without communications panic spread quickly when it calms forces were more than seventy miles away would obviously not provide any help of all on the twenty ninth of august samson office self gave in to depend he told the staff officer bizarre trusted me how can i praise him after such a disaster began headed off into the woods worry committed suicide rather than face capture by the germans he was one of the lucky ones samson most powerful army of a hundred and fifty thousand men had suffered what the most lopsided defeats in military history more than thirty thousand russians were killed and almost a hundred thousand under prisoner of war camps with a face to dismal future were forced labor an appallingly bad conditions the germans needed sixty trains to move all of the russian equipment they captured german casualties were less than twenty thousand and co the germans have this fantasy of maybe emulating the famous battle of kenny animals victory of tolerance or cullman over the romans in the ancient world but instead they got that in the east and right after defeating samson all second army those troops they didn't take immediate great cost very soon that from the western front row i have not in time for the initial battle just as luton dwarf had told malt beer earlier but in time to take on the first army overran income which the germans tennis match with similar nasty casualty numbers now run in kabul do a better job of holding his forces back in saving his army from turrell destruction he will get totally surrounded like the balcony but it doesn't matter the results of the same all the sudden king shocking fashion germans have removed the threat of the russians coming in and taking berlin before the germans can't take paris all the sudden the whole strategy that the french and british were in a delaying an operating under the assumption of epic in jerusalem little longer the russians old bills all this war problem for us all the sudden the french and british are going to have to an age to be victorious on the western front if they wanna save themselves that helps not coming from the east in the west as the great retreat continues there you begin to see what the level of human suffering is going to be in this conflict might have to keep reminding myself about the shionogi old joseph stalin line is so true one death is a tragedy million deaths a statistic annie's numbers that we will constantly toronto's conflict which are enormous numbers they fail to register rafter whitey become nome and take what the last several days on the western front and on differences we said seventy five thousand dead more than two hundred and fifty thousand wounded in a couple of days how would our modern medical establishment you with a crisis like that you forget what it's like on the ground that's why you need these reports the comfort people who would they are what the most famous books ever written about the war told now what can be told her british reporter named philip gives one over the continent right when this whole conflict breaks out the reported from it you during the great retreat now why he reported that made and the media is now would you put in the book as woody portable t. t. t. couldn't tell during the war this is the cannon nasty stuff that none of the government to allow to be published as it was too broad and to wheel that's why games named his book now what can be told 'cause after the war he wrote it he described the conditions during the great retreat and human suffering and he reminds us no what it means to have that level off death and destruction in the future reuse mccarney injuries were talking or produce is like having what five eight football stadiums for the people in a few days he injured him we're not talking about hang nails and sprained ankles here gibbs wrote in august nineteen forty for publication later court arana yeah at night had come a french army in retreat there were dead and wounded on their wagons where receiver stumbled as they let their tired horses crowds of people with white faces like ghost in the darkness spirited beirut n. retreating like this through their city they knew that the enemy was close behind no song bedroom whispered a woman and gable wailing cry people were fighting their way into railroad tracks at every station for hundreds of miles across northern france women were besieging the place for the sake of their babies there was no food for them on journeys of nineteen hours or more they fainted from heat and hunger an old woman died in her corpse walked up the lavatory at night they slept on the pavement in cities invaded by fugitives that fernand belgium and dunkirk on the coast of france your columns of ambulances bringing in an endless tide of wounded they were laid out stretcher by stretcher rings station yards five hundred at a time some of their faces were masks of clotted blood some of the bodies were horribly talk when they breathed with the heart's not fall of all smell came from that shot freddy were swelling over the station hall would does infecting fluid after getting through with one days when did the french doctoring charge adversity that telegram from the director of medical services make ready for forty thousand wounded it was during the first battle of them on is impossible so the french doctor or hundred thousand people were in flight from antwerp into which big shells were falling as english correspondence flattened cells against the walls instead god in heaven two hundred and fifty thousand people coming across the shield in rowing boat sailing krauss and rash sedated one village in the hall and they had no food children were mad with bright young mothers had no milk in their breasts it was cold at night and were only a few canal boats and fisherman's cottages and in them or clouds if you did it the odor of human filth exuded from them as i smell it now and it's akins mean remember it's and co this is a human tragedy monumental proportions that to keep telling myself it's just getting started the french are lost in a couple of days but the united states more than the united states lost in terms of killed and wounded in the ten your involvement they had the vietnam war in a few days that right there should put the lied to the idea that the french are somehow to call tom no one american surrender monkeys they're not surrendering their standing and dying on french soil home you know for the sake of just buying their comrades a little extra time francis showing not owing to the french can take upon should which i think everyone at this time period was fully aware of what that modern nation states can it's a mixed blessing know in the same way that boxers say that the cleanup early quick knockout is more merciful them along polishing fight to restore into say maybe would've been better for your opinion culture civilization standards to your golden age if you will the german teachers ones were quickly you would assume the changing of the guard of the great powers the germans moving into a more prominent position remember there are new country only about forty four forty five years in existence and they've been moving up the inner power chart ever since with the bullets as they say in radio but it works here too maybe this just seems like a natural progression of things and if you could save all the casualties that we know we're coming in the mall tie your long carnage fast which will get to later and maybe save countries from communism and nazi is um maybe prevent a second world war cold war after that made the dominoes would fall if you talk about this war may be ending here well we can by taking forever can she be to concede knowing how bad it's going to get now that already is why some historians of wondered how anything it would be better what they're calling to experience if your friend she may save yourself who never one to live under the german built in a victory was all important what you could have all those frenchmen who died the rest of the story back but if you can avoid the second world war i mean when does it become worth it sinking to the germans mean you look back you see what if we could have those people were acquitted have that wealth back what if we could have that time where we were in nineteen hundred back it's called crying over historical spilt milk that doesn't prevent his stories from doing that all the time and has even less of a in addition on people like yours truly ward historians of all the question of what decision should've happened is obviously historically knew what the question of what's going to happen is about to be determined now and one of the things that sort of makes this battle what ideas that shaping up the bells even the right word for word is it everybody kind no wasn't coming up it's your coming of the war's over basically the germans are moving forward across all of the entire line in the fridge i'm pretty sure moving backwards across almost the entire line at some point they gonna turn when they gonna make a stand they gonna punch the germans in the nose or there's nothing that's going to stop them and the problem is is that everybody said the end of the rope everybody has been marching and fighting for days the units that we're missing a bottle in our in parades across belgium as the germans started this war missing a heck of a lot more than that as are the other allied armies this is why it's so important you can actually get fresh troops into the combat who don't look away you know for example these soldiers had been in contact now for almost two weeks look at one point during his inspections job first riding around any runs into some french soldiers and barbara tuchman describes the experience will go on the same day august thirtieth jar for visited the front of the third and fourth barney's to look for forces he could assign to fall osh another french general doctor continues roti past the retreating columns would fournier dan animal hides civilians red trousers should fade into the color of haiti ulbrich cold war wagon into worn shoes caked with mine eyes cavernous in faces dolomites austin and dark with many days' growth of beard twenty days campaigning seem to abate the soldiers as many years they walked heavily is it ready to drop at every step emaciated horses with bones sticking out and the bleeding a harness sores sometimes dropped in the shafts were currently on harness by the artillery men and dragged off to the side of the road so as not to obstruct the way don's look told him blistered with barely a few patches of their wants new gray paint showing through the mud and dirt and co our rich friend from the b. yeah after on lucy in titles a whole chapter is book sleep marching we talked about how they were people that we just stop at the side of the road and not care if the germans were gonna capture them they would move for anything everybody was exhausted and you know we talked about how the russian supply and logistics and all that was falling apart because they've been or what the best armies are you trying to cope with the new modern realities of the germans probably are the best army trying to cope with the modern realities and their logistics are keeping up either in a perfect example is the number shells of the region in the number of old stare using his soul for greater than anything anyone had predicted that they're running out there rationing um these generals or are limited to a few shells a day for they're gonna makes a very difficult to fight the kind of battles that you on paper or the german prewar plant had soared depended on this is where the operational plans designed before the war whether you wanna call on the shriek and planned to sleep and multiply or just one ever was the german generals but they were gonna do doesn't ever take into account enough the human element in the variables it's wonderfully planned and young she's crossed and i's dotted but there are things you just can't know you can't know how tired people are gonna get how quickly you can know how many times they can fight battles before they can find any more any can't predict when they were gonna be things like holdups in food and supplies the sharif in malta plan or whatever you wanna call it is falling apart duty shimon variables the number one human variable is cloak and von bulow suppression second army troops cannot march fifteen or twenty miles a day every single day while fighting battles and gaining four and other supplies and not heeding i'm images they're worn down by the time they reached this stage in the war these wanted you know chips of this year or worn down to what don't listen fact they're almost down to fifty percent strength what's more remember they had units polled from them you offer over the last several weeks mold it took some torn down south again to punch with rich kiki sent a couple to the east to help against the russian is just when you kind o' lots of nice fresh troops patrolling did this thing they aren't there the trip you do have though are very excited about the prospect of ending this war and capturing paris a member of on coop staff talks about how getting your by paris has re energized exhausted men go to our soldiers are worn out for four days they'd been marching forty kilometers a day the ground is difficult the road search or not the trees felled the fields aided by shelves like strangers the soldiers staggering every step their faces are plastered with just their uniforms are in rags one might call the living rag bag 'cause they march with closed eyes and singing chorus to keep the ball and asleep as they march the certainty of victory close at hand and other triumphal entry into paris sustains them and whipped up their enthusiasm without the certainty of victory they would all exhausted they would lie down with a r to sleep at last no matter where no matter how andy give their bodies and drunkenness like that of their souls they drink enormously the destruction is also helps to keep them up today after inspection of the general was furiously angry he wanted to put an end to this collected the botch we just persuaded him not to give serve your orders it is better not to be too strict otherwise the army did not go on all this abnormal weariness abnormal stimulants are needed in paris which are remedy all this and quo indeed when they saw signs saying the paris was no twenty twenty two twenty three miles in the distance it was as though they've been given a b. twelve shot one german officer for september third world quo what are battalions was marching we really forward all the ones while passing a crossroad they discovered a signpost on which they read it parish thirty seven kilometers it was the first sign posted it not been erased when seeing and the battalion was as though shaken up by electric car at the word paris which they just where the drives them crazy some of them embraced the wretched signpost others dance around it cries yells of enthusiasm accompanied these men and actions the signpost is there evidence that we're near paris the without a doubt we shall soon really be there this notice board is at a miraculous of fact faces light up weariness seems to disappear the marches resumed alert havens in spite of the abominable ground in the forest songs burst forth louder an equal wantonly imagine the disappointment those soldiers most of felton probably a little bit of bewilderment one on august thirty first they change course instead of heading toward her estate it is little left hand turn so that the demarche by paris and in the seat on the right supposedly according to the council malone cloak soldiers were able to see the eiffel tower in the distance imagine the confusion and disappointment and the must've been some bewilderment like what we do when they're sparrows were right there believe me the government in paris realizes it on september second they flee they had a bordello which is as far away as you can get from were the germans are without no not being in france anymore it's on the atlantic coast basically the baby's skin so they leave all are refugees leave and the soldiers who think okay the city's basically wide open for us and we're heading in a different direction this turnip by the soldiers in a different direction will create a million questions and a million opportunities any will make this story almost impossible to understand if you're keeping able to follow with to this point the balcony shaping up here is the most complicated i've ever encountered it takes for ever to really try to understand is an quan chu think you got it you can figure out how to explain it to anyone that doesn't even really need the definition of battle of all but let's understand why it's possible rubber we've been comparing this little conflict here to a heavyweight fight and you know they often have three knockdown rules which means you if you're not down three times in any one round the fights over the french it disappointed been knocked down twice in the first round there's nothing seemingly be keep it from happening again except and giant of a man who comes into his own now in the first world wars version of the second world war is churchill but for franz joseph joffe of and this is where he makes his name this is his moment in history this is his destiny right here you know as churchill and said i felt like i had lived my whole life just for this moment she offers exactly what france needs now what the mist in nineteen forty this is when he takes charge and performs miracles and has won his generals later said on what to about him as we said earlier it's possible the ruling in the situation because of poor decisions by the guy earlier during the blind chess playing side of this thing but now when everyone's panicking the french government is moving as far away as they can and the british commander on the scene spree sure the war for your brings worry about how we get scissor me out here and the kaiser's slap and everybody on the back to back it was turtles as isn't alamoudi mean everything looked really good for the germans it does point and the french could easily lose heart here except offers taking charge and starts by firing general thor within about a week or ten days he fires on the moon forty of them to rule five army commanders nine corps commanders thirty a. b. to divisional generals annie's replacing them with much much better people he the said nobody's guys were great professors retard the academy well in a word could peace time generals he's replacing them with people for the demonstrated in the short period time that they can get the job doctor fighting generous naming a supreme mr faal the baton the gali any and they're gonna help him to turn the tide here soon as they get some troops to work worth unless we shot for does next he gets involved in figuring out ways to get troops to the crucial point in the battle he changes his strategy right after the battle of the frontiers in and out all this offensive operations he has people sit down no hold off the germans on the defensive wall he figures out a way to get enough troops to the important place to make things happen and during all of this the guy is absolutely freaky schlegel which is exactly what friends need to this time are we to be your general ship is kind of bringing what qualities you bring to the table to bury the right time of course is a little luck involved in that to that decision first time among all the panic was going on as g. j. meyer says chauffeur was pooper term bubble quote but in the midst of all the job for remained impassive maddeningly silent calm no matter how alarming situation how terrible the emergency the tall one row time the generalissimo never seemed disturbed he became famous for the care he always took to have a good lunch fall by now in the day with a good dinner and always get a full night's sleep in bed at nine back to work it by even when things seem to be at their worst minor rights he made his staff understand that under no circumstances was addressed to be disturbed between meal times and bad times he was steadily on the move using a big touring car driven by a grand prix racing champion to make repeated visits to his generals especially those on the left england for thus he was able to keep himself in touch with events and observe his subordinates inaction and quo and fire lot of them obviously what this is doing is steadily creating a better leadership in key positions morning from state and taking real-time knowledge not theory and applying it and taking minute could inspire troops in hopeless situations of course shot for doesn't come in and all the generals in this war on his side he's fighting a coalition battle owners from british army that makes up a part of his bottle wine that is hesitant about involving itself in anything involving combat at the moment sir john french the ironically named leader of the british expeditionary force doesn't trust the french the things he's already had his flank exposed wants an important great danger b. s.'s see any evidence that the french can be trusted to win this war i mean the germans and basically thrown on the show leaf and plan if there ever was worn out the window here an attack along the entire franco german border which is that theory that is so well protected by french forts that the germans thought it worth violating belgium's neutrality and bringing the british into the war just so they could avoid that area and most courts will now in all three weeks into the war era tacking on that entire front of the breakthrough they will completely surround a french and destroy their armies the problem is is a plus for twirl rigidly of one per resented their formidable an almost on the french troops in that area are doing a pretty decent job on the defensive dish to losing lots of people bore all the sudden they chance to find out that this war that we're gonna call the first world war is the one with the de france has the temporary dominance over the office of the french the last battle only days ago were doing bayonet charges in advancing in close order all those things are not suppose to do standing up during the shrapnel attacks now they change to be the ones behind machine guns them behind the field guns firing behind them into germans advancing in the open all the french gunners dig themselves little holes over almost deep enough to be call trenches already and see what the power of defense means after them the good news is they don't get overrun by germans the bad news is it looks like they can spare a few troops which is a jaw first doing now this is where the real miracle comes in the guy can scrounge troops from everywhere he pulled them off of the longing in all these battles near the french for personally with the french need every male made that shot first taken people anyway he needs him elsewhere more he's taking newly returned wounded back he's dead in a colonial troops come along bowed to take him to go from the far west of france nice he's using the rail system to get them to an important concentration camps fast he creates a new war me he calls the sixth any budget over by the by the flight of the british expeditionary force be created on call the nineteen put it over is reserved emma by paris piazza wanna have an army in paris which is a great fortunes actually but the government of france makes him have won so they put a bomb jennifer sold commander gaby me home in charge of it and put him in paris and basically ruined the teachers to stay there and you know mammal walls with his men that's the plan anyway theoretically and day after day more french trains arriving in more troops are you teach reining in moving over the front over by paris facing a bit of a projected direction that the sledge hammers befall remember they're losing troops every day there down half their regional strength in here is shop for every day bringing in more french troops to face it also said the numerical advantage begins to diminish and in a on august thirty first aircraft yes the aircraft against when they can impact already in his early twenties century war aircraft noticed that the germans to change direction the same thing we told you that those troops must've been bewildered by all the sudden they're not heading toward her son what's going on and more importantly when they change direction the present their flanks you see in a newly created forces especially the one in paris there's a chance for a counterattack you're a chance to turn around the entire great reach reach an attack she offer needs to convince your john french and the b. yes but now's the time the opportunities they are we need she you he is one of these great speeches this is the way he were corridor to himself and remember sir john french doesn't speak french and the offer doesn't speak english and the translator he is another bridge generally dining wilson who was much more diplomatic and likes to french much more than surge on french dozens of person one moment stay or two years would draw first on account of his encounter with french to try to convince him that now was the time to strike this was our opportunity to last chance all the cards around the table shows that there was another side to this man he wasn't just the impenetrable bob always we you couldn't figure out what that possible gonna space meant sometimes he could be positively church alien and this was one of 'em he told french suspicious and pessimistic french court i'd put my whole soul into the effort to convince the field marshal i told him that the decisive moment arrived and we must not one of the state we must go to battle with every man both of us had been free for more reservations so far as the french army is concerned i continued my orders are given them whatever may happen i intended for all my last company into the balance to win a victory and save france is in her name that i come to ask you for british assistance and energy with all my power i haven't me i cannot believe that the british army will refuse to do which sharing the supreme crisis history would severely judge or absence then as i finished carried away by my convictions in the gravity of the moment i remember bringing down my fist on the table which stood at my elbow and crying miss you in a marshal the honor of england is at stake up to this point french had listened in perturb oblique to the officer who was translating what i'd said but now his face suddenly red and earrings to long impressive silence and then with visible emotion he murmured i will do all that i possibly can not understanding english i asked wilson what sir john had said he merely replied the field marshall says yes i had distinctly felt the emotion which seemed to grip the british commander in chief above all i had remarked the talmud ms voice and i felt as did all the witnesses to the scene at the simple words were quibble into an agreement signed and sworn to do she which was already prepared was done sir end quote barbara dogma of course relate to the little bit more dramatically she says that you're well nothing sir john french's i ended rolled down his cheek before he said i don't wanna tell 'em just tell 'em will do everything we can poodles critical dramatic moments in history when you want betcha what the guy who would've been the real best first host of hardcore history i think the word h. g. wells would have to be churchill wounded in his arm account of the first world war which she knows all of a church alien bias all the things that you normally get with him but what's fun about it the ship is no one explains it like he does even with the biases and he was there churchill's histories are always a combination of romance on history and if he's in them in a personal memoir to i love the way he sort of explains how many things had to line up right all along the the war for this opportunity to be presented to the general in paris who sees bonk looks for stormy turn their flight to him here's a turtle puts it will assuredly no human brain had conceived the design your head human handset the pieces on the board several separate the discrepancy reason the vance had flowed together first the man deli on me is on the spot fixed in his quarters he could not move toward the battle for the mighty battle has been made to come to him second the weapon has been placed in his hands the army of memory it was giving him for one purpose the defense of paris he will use it for another decisive maneuver in the field it was giving him against the we should job for it will prove the means of jar for salvation third the opportunity to look swinging forward in hot pursuit of as he believed the routed british and demoralized french will present his whole right flank and rear as he passes paris to get yene and men are reagan is hanging and observe not one of those factors would've counted without the other to all are interdependent all are here at all are here now galley any realize the position in a flash i dare not believe it keeps going and he's too good to be true but it is true sure to write confirmation rise power by power he vibrate with enthusiasm and call this is what sets up the famous battle more now the most complicated battle you'll ever find the battle of the morning so hard on it every couple of reasons the first one is just like the battle of the frontier is that just recently happened these world war one battles are modern means scale and scope they're so much larger and so much longer than battles in the past were having a hundred years ago napoleon is being defeated at waterloo a giant battle involving three global powers and you could drive from one end of the battlefield to the other you know to him you could see one side from the other those little telescopes they would just put to their eye the battle started in the morning and was over at the end of the day i mean that's a hundred years ago now the bowels last for all this will last for officially you we could really last longer than that the battlefield is at least a hundred miles more depending on who you believe or the entire flight according to other historians you could legitimately have fought at the battle of the more it and not know what turn to a body of thought they would you say now we're we're tomorrow so bizarre fighting officially part of that or not because really it to catch all term for all the fighting that is going on one would relieve the mourn is all about happens which is the greek retreat hands and the french and british army's turn around and launch into contact again can be fair there are other parts of the front of him never not been in contact in the south they've been fighting pretty much since minute won it's never stopped as white beetle and they were in the battle to mourn the they might not even understand it because they've never not been fighting historians like eric burrows suggest that the battle of the more news everything that was bought in this one area you're from the center roof france bob it is prejudice waco was gonna be knows about lamar you should really be thought of as the battle of france for altogether fifty six allied and forty three in ash german divisions engaged one another in a titanic struggle along aligns stretching from paris to the eastern frontier and co the sense what really happened is the opportunity was presented by an open flying as we said on coax first army turns shows his flank to paris paris now has an army putting him in the flank in your work and have about but that just becomes the opportunity that everybody was waiting for before they turn these armies around anyway this had to happen at some point this is francis last row everybody knows that this has to look for the problem is is that the commander short actually with the troops not these guys of the general headquarters and the highest out officers the ones were marching with the actual soldiers our hall that this is being considered with the exception of a couple mobile commanders the one commander one general supposedly looks like he'd been hit in the head with a claw but on somebody said that they were going over to the attack his troops have been retreating for days and days and days an amazing pay step closer run rags their weapons charlie fire their shoes are falling off their feet the king of spain 'cause they're so sleepy and they needed the word the chicken attack but sir all these french generals good job friends putting commander top hardcore fighting generals mean fernand forces right now during this encounter called attack whatever happens the german direct each tree limit of their reference the jury will come to the side that outlast the other in the pool the french general who takes over from when ruzicka the fifth army when joe for fires him a mostly comes to the phone like one second after he takes command here sir my commander in the sima says it's impossible his troops are falling down tired they can mort annie says marcher died and job for issues his famous notice to the army's when he tells them that the great attack is beginning and it's a classic stand or die exhortation this is friends leaving it all on the table to offer announces the turnaround in the attack relieved you read commencement of contact along the entire battle line we've seen it how deadly on a day to day basis contact with the enemy in twentieth century warfare is he now says it thus we call we're about to engage in a battle on which the fate of our country depends and it is important to remind all ranks that the moment has passed for looking to the reader all our efforts must be directed to attacking and driving back the enemy troops begin advance no farther must at any price hold on to the ground they've conquered and die on the spot rather than give way on the circumstances which basis no active weakness can be tolerated and quo when the general in charge of paris go yay me and i think a pronounced his name differently every time i've said it and yardeni famously is asked by in the general sixth army what their plans arthur rover on an orator skipped over running in europe runs were really go into the looks of him just suppose where this is it injury war museum or was going peter hart describes the crops of the battle of the more now about as well as anyone can a short space of words he says quote what followed was a complex about all the defies easy explanation by this time the german right wing was actually outnumbered by the french divisions rushing up from the south of the german first army tried to turn to face the assault from the french sixth army along malign other river or a huge chasm of some thirty miles opened up between bonk look and the second army on his left the white amidst the chaos the men of the b. yeah but having to do plea about turned it down themselves advancing alongside the french fifth army into the gap between the german first and second armies there was no great battle no huge drama but the penetration between their armies threatened by their disaster for the germans and on the ninth of september one mold gorges right wing's retreat and call now peter hard to greek reputable modern historian and that's about as this wonderful passage there is you could ever hope to get from one of those folks but see to it they would jettison some of their wonderful his story audacity and for all the lone ranger and drama bomb may be little exaggerations and romance in there you could get something like this from churchill who describes the same thing as only he can and he says this about the british army along with the french advancing into this crucial gap that will change this whole conflict and turn the battle of the morning which let's be honest the french are once again taken on the chin wondering full contact with the fabulous german army this is what will decide the occasional and churchill put it in church julian turns cold no human genius plan that the british army should advance into this gap a series of tumultuous events and cast them into this position in the line when they advanced there was a gap in front of them on the whole front it was the line of least resistance along it they boarded parched and a lady in the district cheated by goals of the german right wing high destiny blind date regulated the none too vigorous but nevertheless decisive movements of this british army did marches on wondering what has happened to the monster which is pursued it was with any yells and small arms on bulow finds his right wing being rolled back by the fifth french army and himself caught off continually for his right hand column red cloak by the british advance cloak justice he's got himself into a fine position to fight my nor read finds his left and all the rear of his left hopelessly compromise and expose in court it's a crazy moment it reminds one of of of warfare in the eighteenth century these two column position warfare were a lot of the fighting was simply trying to in a mortar round of flying corps were good job what were you for sure enemy into a place where they had to retreat just because of positioning by accident as churchill so eloquently put it the british army and almost accidentally perot with its way into the german liver doesn't get much better than that in terms of the high drama doesn't and it completely obscures in other soldiers perspective on the ground over which we have very little more and more firsthand accounts especially from the germans i will be made available to war goes on i keep having to tell myself a lot of the people fighting in these battles will never make it home to write their memoirs these are people who don't get the go home until either the war is over or they're so vitally injured they can't find any more than a lot of the german soldiers on this frontal might leave memoirs that someone like yours truly might be lucky enough to have translated into english leave their bones on some of these battlefields nonetheless you want things clearer remember reading account want to nurse lots of accounts like these and you can specifically find them in publications they came out not long after the war i remember i have one my house actually in may be due to its integrate series of books written just after the war and you read it and it's an account of this unbelievable battle of salvage something of lore of the rings are some napoleonic thing with charges of him ten thousand how remote down by cannon these amazing heroic moment german heroism french heroism really thrilling moving staff and it turns out that that's just one of the little battles will mean comparatively that form something called the battle of nancy the battle of nancy is just something that formed a part of the battle of the modern there are individual stories many battles whose names have been forgotten by almost everyone that form the whole here the battle of the modern is officially tragedy as we said earlier but the civilians or so from a mass scale on the drama and the suffering in heroism and the stories that would break our hearts if we knew them are going on up and down wall line from switzerland to the belgian border in fact they're going on the eastern front do we haven't even talked about the simultaneous events that are happening all this is going on the armies of looted orphan in bergen the easter wrapping up their conflict there riggins ran in tom's army after dannenberg in it the lucile which is over and we're off to hungary and poland and russia new dangers meter terrible battles going on the oscar on geringer getting smashed in a way that they will never recover from this is all happening at the same time part of what makes this conflict so disorienting for everyone is facing it is how quickly it all happen to think about the second world war for example we realized that there's no big fighting between the major powers for about eight months after the second world war is declared hitler goes and hold hold falls fast enough so quick and relatively painless by world war standards elite eight months before the germans are in no we'll be contact with french and british army's this war story weeks old and all the major purchase a pensive clashed head on there's more than a million people dead this is the worst nightmare of every prewar profit predicting it was going to happen when you combine to the mass armies that the napoleonic era unleashed on steroids by the way with the modern technology weapons and systems that were being developed all through the eighteen hundreds this is a great filter when you lose more than a million people in the first to blink of an eye on the wars now obviously going to last a while how many people are gonna die before this gingrich's resolution what is resolution again to simplify it would really happens is when the entire french and british lying turns around and smashes back into the german line there's one spot where they just penetrate there's nothing really in front of them and that's the spot that to be enough to bridget treasury forces are french forces go through and see had mana cloak and von bulow not already been fighting somebody they could've turned crushed these forces that were penetrating into that gap but they are fighting other people that's known as pinning me enemy cloak is fighting those forces that are coming in from paris bonn billows fighting other armies so they can turn it they do turn them the army's they were fighting a reading them in the back they're trapped the only thing they can do to alleviate this opening flying key she least to pull back bomb olga what all this is going on falls apart and if you ask me understandably so this is a guy who's been under tremendous pressure already and as he watches this plan so important that for years it had been known as their toggle day when this plan is finely used to know whatever the heck the plan was really just the day means today that the germans want to war he's watching a collapsing from his eyes realizing also with us will all be blamed on and he's coming apart the scenes the right to his wife as all of this is becoming clearer quote i cannot find words to describe the crushing irresponsibility that is weighed upon my shoulders during the last few days and still weighs on me today the appalling difficulties of our present situation and before my eyes like a dark curtain for which i can see nothing and cool one of them all to staff officers the colonel main power we're buchwald spurred an ecstasy to severely the entire army corps to be more correct that the greater part of its leaders did look at its worst the supreme command malta completely collapsed he sat with a pallid face gazing at the map did you all feeling of broken man and co churchill was sympathetic when he wrote quote everything now converged upon multiple was mauled ca he was the shadow of a great name is the nephew of the old you wore show an id been is a decay of the was an ordinary man rather courtier a man about the palace agreeable to the emperor in the palm need is a piece the sort of man who does not make too much trouble with the sovereign who knows how to suppress his own personality what there is a bit of good harmless respectable ordinary man and on to this ill fated being a crashes the brutal remorseless sentra puddle impinge minute tightening portions under which the greatest captains of industry might imply in cold malta had later written while he still lived in the moment of supreme crisis you've grown quote nervous and quo lots of sources reported on mold coat went to the kaiser it does point to majesty we just lost the war i've never been able to confirm that though and truth be told they didn't lose the war here what's just happened is the chances for an early knockout blow and how right german victory that's what's been compromised the missing compromise because it's an open question whether or not the germans blew this or the french simply rallied and gained a victory there are lots of mistakes in the germans are the people will point to that basically insinuating it without those mistakes the french go down and yet look at the fact they were still there after suffering on unprecedented levels of casualties and punishment and forget about that for a minute minister in the condition that those are the serbian that before they turn around at the battle of the more they are falling apart again on their feet you're wearing rags and unable to keep their eyes open and that's who the general from the first army vanik look that's who he singles out when he talks about the park you know this war so far the surprised him he wrote quo then led the selby killed would they stand is a well-known thing and counted on every plan of battle but that man whoever treated for ten days sleeping on the ground in half dead with that she should be able to take up their rifles an attack when the bugle sounds it is a thing upon which we never counted it was a possibility not steady dinner war academy and call so he was obviously impressed there's no way up deny n. n. listen we don't wanna shortchanged british expeditionary force you the prove to be potentially crucial to this whole thing in as pure trump or not so providence juliet the right place and the right time sometimes but this is one of those victories were you just have to and to pure have a little bit too with the french achieve this is monumental stuff on me is truly heroic it's a little like the alamo for americans but on an enormous scale at the same time one remember the germans in all this to you as we said earlier they get a bad rap i'm juan of us because of the second world war and rightly so but law that's connected to the first war in a funny way i see them you not to bring up some sort of science fiction refers to one guy come from but but there are a little like yeah making skywalker this is the nation that's new in yon has so much promise and potential h. g. wells of the greatest name for the murder ever heard his pony call them the best in the week in this nation in the world in the militarism the so scared him in his socialistic sensibilities was balanced out by the fact that the germans were so admirable and summoning respect but the germans called cultural or their music in there and their writings in their sophistication and an amateur science my gosh in their education wells is overflowing of all these wonderful things to say about germans but the practice of law and it's this militarism and the best of the week is people in europe and then somewhere along the line in aiken skywalker turns into darth vader in the port germans get that to be there in each for that twentieth century you wandering to him you know mistakes of this in a german really defeat or if i'm old and the germans had been victorious you're the entire german history the twentieth century's different and perhaps much much much more positive almost certainly for germans and for everyone else to live think to very interesting mortician ariel and each importer remember that we think about the soldiers dying on the ground nice name was awful battles with the french british and german or very soon lot more people from canada and south africa and australia and indochina i mean is it that i'm internationalize for soon all these people are good people caught up with urges people caught up in the mood in the grand plans and training wheels of of nation states to win into these conflicts for reasons that are understandable today patriotism to do you love of country protector family all those kind of things they also won for reasons that will really important still on the nineteenth century but there are little different today glory heroism romance as a city still exist but not quite like they did back you're from the beginning of history until right around this time in september nineteen fourteen the general named on bofors talked about the changes that this first month of the first world war two created in a facade of romantic wore when he said quote if war was won to chivalry stole it's now a dastardly slaughter and co the suffering on the ground regardless of which side you're on his pitiable and for rafik and in oh i wish try to make sure are and i hope i'm successful does that were never exploitive of the of the terrible things are going on to people in the stories we read tell the reason that i used to amuse because for me the stories intrigue me because i always put myself in them nitride or mansion handling these things and as a person who's interested unique story use of human experience there are almost no exceptions to the stories we talk about lunch program i can imagine it you may just be like a wheel to ponder the pressures that these people live through i mean we talk about being interested me change human nature and wondering what i would do in the same situation i think about the worst places in the world you can think of them if there's a top three or four or five list out there are one of them on my list is the western front in the first world war and we're about to get there and it is about the worst experience in the world whew our ability in our next leading provider spoken audio entertainment digital down loads audi oba looks old time radio shows more than a hundred and fifty thousand titles to choose from the genres you can't even imagine fall into the spoken are you category or boztepe quite a list of things you want to tell when you have some time including standup comedy rick screech beaches in history magazines in periodicals a growing list as i said all the time i'm going to recommend a book to have recommended in the past but the long time ago and maybe you could call this like a preview new sort of we'd be in session for something that we're probably going to get to only in passing in this history series of we're doing want to go pick up the marble paris nineteen ninety six months' the change the world by margaret make know when we always talk about how much the first for war soda pop city apple cart we set the geopolitical map and all the cameras stopped all that had to be written down in codified somewhere it was the paris peace talks in nineteen nineteen and that's what this book is about bats the bold bid high is up the first world war you wanna get a preview with this whole thing is going once the gunfire stops and the decisions are codified that the book for you to go horrible pond guest on common forward slash hardcore history the beach or free or your book to do oh i was joking on the hard core history twitter feed which by the way you can fall would have hardcore history then it's taking us longer to get the episode you just heard released and to you by the way thank you for your patience it's always appreciated benny montana was actually covered in the episode itself and i think if you were crunching the data and projecting now were based on how long to show you just heard was you probably figured that could take as much one fifty episodes to cover the first forewarn god forbid we go afterwards to nineteen ninety minute treaties and all that we do mr rest of our lives were audited aachen to do that to palm look at the so you just heard focused on them to be honest arm the series of events the pre war stuff and need the first an opening moves that common in almost all the approaches to the first war because they set the stage for what comes after which for example already it has the story ends the trenches are cropping up organically along the western front it's the iconic image of the first for war right trenches of always been known for vacations always been known going back to ancient history never on the scale of never this long never in positions no the world is almost a mobile is never entered the sorts of conditions it's going to create an almost unique experience for the people have to go through it and again something fascinating woman consider how right myself would behave in similar circumstances but it's going to make the battles somewhat similar you know so you be able to say little bit about the big ones but not have to go too much into the experience over over again because it becomes somewhere in each of the battles the people fighting in the trenches in one battle often have similar sorts of data the experiences for people fighting in the trenches in another battle so we'll have the opportunity is the program was along to zoom in zoom out as needed this is going to allow us though to focus on abortion other things including how the general's managed to deal with the fact that they're no longer operating with pre war plans that actually think now learn apply their thinking in novel ways rebecca find out how flexible the nineteenth century men are as they tried would just on the fly even real time to the challenges of twentieth century warfare which no one's ever really tried to act they're going to have to contend with it and we're going to deal with questions like changes in the air changes at sea changes involving donahue empty and things we're still dealing with today and changes involving the scope of this war encompasses no the rest of the world basically one way or another the first were wars about to go global and underground in the next episode of blueprint for armageddon whoa we just wanna make it clear that we are bought and paid for around here again carl dot com thanks again for all your bacher show donations they're the reason we're still here