Episode: Show 50 - Blueprint for Armageddon I

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Show 50 - Blueprint for Armageddon I
The planet hadn't seen a major war between all the Great Powers since the downfall of Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815. But 99 years later the dam breaks and a Pandora's Box of violence engulfs the planet.

Dan Carlin's Hardcore History
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Automated Transcript (Why is this transcription so bad?)
today show sponsored by all noble please visit or bhopal aghast dot com bore slash hardcore history for your for your new book down in the garment them tonight we're going on bay which will live up to a limit and a pizza to such i'd car while come power the outward for a deal and stout heard what i had had a lot of that unit at our house and you lose had one bite at malignant and lower don't add on the time and played it and lose the meantime really what had he didn't hit him and what did chord wahoo i will lose and that you too little is one that little bit rose up when we're we did beat the murders the dog and i moved we're not used them but on the little ones how can that eats hall and poor history i remember a conversation i had but long time ago and that author of the bull the author had written a book about how john f. kennedy was assassinated by lee harvey oswald just like the government we said it happened and i've been asking the budget questions about conspiracies and the abuser that aspect of the kennedy assassination only one of his answers you're really stands out in my mind now because it seems irrelevant on so many different forms toward the answers on why it was so hard for some people to accept what this guy was purporting is the truth he said was because people are inherently very uncomfortable with the idea the single nobody can have such an effect on all of our lives it's more comforting he said to believe that powerful no groups of people or conspiracies are actually wanting things even if you think those powerful groups are nefarious somehow comforting to think that somebody's in charge that knowledge is random another plane you couldn't just robbed from the sky and land on your house tomorrow and i thought about this one was kicking about there's someone if somebody asked you a question who was the most important figure in the past a hundred years in terms of why in the world has gone the way it did no you would think of all these famous people whose names almost anyone who's a half way educated would recognize and yet what's interesting is you could conceivably put the name down somebody who was historically speaking when nobody lee harvey oswald on the pages of the history books besides the kennedy assassinations and nobody can do anything else of importance but that is endless que try if he actually killed john f. kennedy the waiting area says lee harvey oswald change the world the change the president he instantly right i mean how many of us have the potential to change the president denied states is that lone gunman did if he was indeed the lone gunman personal maybe most responsible for the modern world this entire world including the nine eleven attacks that killed many commentator thousand shape the modern world right we live in an era of terrorism or the age of terrorism you'll hear them say without them seem to really understand at the age of terrorism supposedly sparked by the nine eleven attacks in the very very very early twenty first century we're themselves manifestations of an act of terrorism that launched us into the twentieth century if we actually live in an age of terrorism as some of these people like to say we've been living in it for more than a hundred years i think you could make the case that the most important individual mama last century is there for you know printout and governor principle isn't name very few if you'll recognize how can a person of so little achievement in on the world stage the perhaps credited with creating the entire world around us mean if if every logan said doesn't live is there are nine eleven attack ever and if that was all he did when he be important ila more than that if reprinted is the reason there was a second world war the discovery of principle mr reese numbers of first and to be fair to principle if you could've gone became a show him the ramifications of with that one day how would do the world or i think you'd be horrified he wasn't trying in one leash a global world war he just became latest example of someone pulling the trigger in a giant historical game of russian roulette trigger the demon pulsar four times already with nothing in our happening all were flawed the time the principle that that would be the time that the u. metaphorical or fall for pointed at the skull of the old world shot a bullet into which brain perhaps principal his compatriots would've thought that sometimes when you're trying to create a new world you stop utterly destroy the old one and the people in that old world we're not naive about the potential for someone like a prince of to do what they didn't mean autobahn bismarck one of the greatest thomas of nineteenth century your perhaps the greatest diplomat germany ever produced famously said that if it was going to be some giant global conflict he was going to probably break out because of some damn pulled into the balkans covering the prince upshot to people the city's serious all smack dab in the balkans please to borrow von bismarck and famously said was not worth the bones of the single palmer ring in granted here because to help a lot more than that and principal comes yet another example history probing the west that the sometimes when it comes to something like terrorism in this era by the way we tried desperately to keep weapons of mass destruction howard the terrorists' hands because we're free to be able to kill more people with such weapons we forget that sometimes not about how many people you kill sometimes it's about who they are and often and it's not the terrorist act the changes the world the response of the victims and it does every opens up kill two people and he did so no way that almost make should believe in fate i truthfully and i'm how much of trade believer a lot of things i like about history is how would forces me to challenge some of my own preconceptions and certainly make me think about other possibilities have always thought for example that history unfold for chaotic reasons that somewhat random that millions of people going about their lives in her own ways which friends and forces acting upon them and people important decisions making decisions all this together create a dynamic it's completely unpredictable as us in somewhat chaotic and random and it unfolds into the future i think my biological side of the brain appreciates that sort of viewpoint the problem is is that sometimes history and francis with events was a logical part of it least my brain want to flip sides and wants to logically defend what i consider to be the more theological point of view in this case the logical part my brain was some time shift and try to defend something like fate what destiny or pre determination those to me of the two ends of the scale chaos alongside randomness on one side and theta predestined nation on the other and it is we're twilight zone with a true story of intersect and that event that happened in late june nineteen fourteen is what the best example to find from history where an ecological side of your brain scans a pretty good chance of flipping in trying to defend the logical position this is somehow predestined i mean let me challenge you with a similar kind of analogy assuming you harvey oswald did kill president kennedy what is so lori schiller of breadwinner and the rifle when he was aiming at the room or she was forcing him to sort of scotch the whole thing screwed up the whole assassination attempt at the last minute in oswald storms out of that texas book depository angry that is no bidwell laid plans and been destroyed any goes across town whose favorite restaurant he goes to get tons of a bite to eat money's coming out of the restaurant angry families pay has gone up right in front of him with guns five or six feet stopped ball wall him up is john f. kennedy's car with kennedy in it close to oswald i'm on the far side of the president his wife jackie what are the odds of something like that happening whoa what you think it could do just a weird coincidence off on june twenty eighth nineteen fourteen covering the principia bout twenty other guy is this is the church's beers c show up in the city of syria though with murder on their minds they wanna kill the body of the governing figure comedy series able a person who was sort of the prince charles has the same role prince charles plays in the british monarchy right now in the monarchy of the country there are the overlord sincere evil country that doesn't exist anymore called austria hungary and austria hungary is led by really old very well loved guy named franz joseph was going to die soon because he's very old and a person who will take over when friends goes and dies is this guy coming on a visit to syria eva prince charles of his country all bullen like prince charles whose role is completely ceremonial this guy like to have some real power we get the throne for some you know we look back and it looks like a stupid reasons this guy whose name is archduke franz ferdinand has decided to go to syria or watch military maneuvers chap and coincide with the anniversary of the most emotionally important hardcore inching up the battlefield lost in all serbia street the battle of kosovo way back from hundreds and hundreds of years before this time period serb nationalists and the serbs are very very patriotic even today even more so back in nineteen fourteen look at this is a slap in the face to the emissary as always slavic in should be part of it we step an islamic country or maybe part of serbia the urban balkan wars the last decade in a concern when you beat nationalistic question tool should only serious and in in the hands of the ottoman turks who the slavs definitely feel should've been running the place and it was transferred to the hands of the awestruck erin empire which the serb nationalists still don't feel should be running the place and now the archduke was coming on the anniversary this historic defeat you know from the serb nationalist viewpoint to rub their nose in the fact that syria was still held by begun on slavic empire and animate franz ferdinand pay for that and then remarkably similar situation to the kennedy assassination for names route for his motorcade is published ahead of time he's going to be arriving and going down the main boulevard in an open car with his wife sitting next to him the story you're so assassins align themselves but there is intervals on this parade route and trying to kill the archduke assumes they can the archduke scars either going too fast or there're too many other serbs in the crowd nearby the first few assassins of the first few assassins don't try to make a run at him eventually he passes one guy who runs out from the crowd with a balm breathing more of a hand grenade would be a good discredited a penny flings this hanging to archduke to open car in very athletic maneuver the archduke sees it got behind the door the car and granting bounces off the car hits the concrete on the street and the fuse doesn't it nate until the next car in the motorcade has passed over it it explodes some twenty people are badly hurt in the blood on the street the whole thing chaos the crowds gather some mean obviously i'm afraid is over the would be assassins shows a cyanide pill into his mouth and runs down into the side of the street jumps in the river but cyanide pill was defective and only makes me vomit on the reverse only about six inches deep so they capture him very quickly and run him off to be interrogated and basically the whole day is now scotch all the assassins along the parade route have had their bitch and spoil that everybody breaks up and goes to separate ways the crowd dissipate and the motorcade it takes off in a couple of different wrenches the injured were taken to hospitals in the archduke goes to the hill local magistrate residence to elijah complaint do you think okay there's a bullet dodged literally so after complaining to the local authorities the archduke decides instead of just leaving town one new mosca killed them so leaving town in a very heroic sort of on movie decides know he needs to visit the people injured in the bombing general hospital he gets back into the open car with his wife and the speed off toward the hospital to talk to the wounded and confident it the local authorities or reduce you might imagine so they give him some extra security including one guy who's i'm a member of the local aristocracy at coming friends on her ra and rock takes a position on the running board run by the archduke send the car and they speed off to the hospital now no one always where the archduke is going now none of the people who were mia would be assassins readings not published route nobody knows that the archduke is heading in this direction so the car drives toward the hospital near while i'm covering the princess has gone to get a sandwich mean his dazed and totally destroyed he could've been a good movie must've felt like it failed somewhat and the driver of the archduke scar not really knowing the route very well turned down the street realizes he's on the wrong street and reverses the car but this is nineteen fourteen cars are relatively new and simply reversing a car could stall the engine which is exactly what happened to try traversed the car the engine stalls and irina sitting now moving in the twenty get started again and out of the restaurant we gonna get that big issue could say consolation sandwich to make him feel little bit better but how is that they want steps covering opens up looks up and sees his target from little while ago five feet away from him immobile the slightly below him in an open car any whips out his pistol shoot him and his wife what the odds are not happening it's considered to be one of the most why old coincidences in all human history which sometimes forget because it's such a monumental historical moment that this is still a terrorist attack and it was quite upsetting thirty year when mr lived through part of what makes these things seem so unreal that we only have grainy black and white footage of even the events before that she can go see movies where you can see the archduke in his wife getting ready to go into the motorcade you get an idea what it looked like a talk and moving a little too fast away those old fashioned movies were living in it just doesn't look real but you can go and you can see pictures because they have saved the tourniquet the archduke was wearing that day and you can see in living color that this was a bright light blue to an economic feathers on the helmet he was wearing or bright green emmy must've been the most colorful side imaginable but after safire the most colorful side imaginable became a lot more glory because the ship terror in the tunic where the bullet exited the archduke snack and the tunic is covering more news on mistake oblique even a hundred years later blood and blood has always been more of those things were when you see it in living color there's nothing like it might tend to believe human beings are programmed to react to that specific color in all ways and in the difference between scene blood in black and white and one dollars but i think what that the person who was closest to the whole thing count on her ross who was on the running board not doing a greater good job apparently at security and he says as soon as the shots were fired they were forced the car any later testified this coke but the car quickly reversed that is stream of blood started for his highness is now farnham are right cheek as i was pulling out my handkerchief to wipe the blood away from his mouth the duchess cried out to him for god's sake what happened to you at that she slid off the seat and lay on the floor of the car with her face between his knees i had no idea that she too was hit and thought that she had simply thing to do with right then i heard his imperial highness say sophie sophie don't die stay alive for the children but i seized the archduke by the collar reversion reform to stop his head drooping forward and asked him if he was in great pain he answered be quite distinctly is nothing space begin to twist somewhat buddy went on repeating six or seven times ever more faintly easy gradually lost consciousness it's nothing then came a brief pause followed by a convulsive rattling his throat caused by the loss of blood deceased on arrival of the governor's residence the two unconscious bodies were carried into the building with a death wish to mr bush and it and as a way disorder prove that the old adage that one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter rich true the spot where principal standing when he fired those fatal shots when moralize now in the city of syria but with apply to any actual footsteps note in metal on the ground worthy the spot was to serbs this guy was a hero and to his compatriots who are eliza pay or like desperadoes at the time that they are realized that they would be immortalized too the actual circumstances by the way we're in this plot was hatched our worthy of a spy novel it's hard to believe it has him in romanticize some degree but nevertheless if you ever do the definitive big screen dramatization of knowing he'll want the whole story thank you mama structure movie off without seen the inside that belgrade cafe obscure place can run down lit only by candlelight with a group of nineteen and twenty year old guys at the table no shit for mama's of hot young these people are not old enough to legally drink alcohol in the united states is how all these people are under your told by people who were there but what happened is one other number comes in the door sits down at the table with them as a package with him any opens up the package in his side is only one thing a newspaper clipping no note no not signed it by anybody no correction is just a newspaper clipping and clipping announces the imminent visit of the archduke franz ferdinand to surrey of the one of the people who was at that table and lived to grow older and write about his experiences after you've had time to pack it go from terrorist to patriotic ironing board joan jett cheech and if i mispronounced about the way let's just get use to that says can be perhaps the most linguistically yannick sensual we challenging show was ever done i'm sure the main goal many beautiful languages offer to foremost french so my apologies to all of you in advance i'm sorry i have limitations and you're going to hear them all calm board shall judge each world years later this about that moment in history double try not to be so very important in a way that you can imagine anyone at the table then we've known they know they were poland the trigger regain a russian roulette game they certainly didn't know that if the word that was the time there was gonna be a bullet my chamber to teach road after the fact quote a tiny clipping from a newspaper mailed without comment for most secret bandit terrorists in zagreb the capital of croatia to their comrades in belgrade was the torch which set the world of fire with war in nineteen fourteen that bit of paper were old pour out empires he gave birth to new free nations i was one of the members of the terrorist band in belgrade which received it in those days kind my companions were regarded as jasper criminals the price was on our heads today my little band is seen in a different light as pioneer patriots it is recognized our secret plan was hatched in an obscure cafe in the capital of serbia that led to the independence of the new yugoslavia the united nations suffering from austrian domination and now ever since that time that people have been wondering how connected that group was to outside entities no they just a bunch of in a small little salt organize terror groups put together by much young kids really working for larger entity today we would ask whether or not they were example of state sponsored terrorism was there a power behind this group or rival power i mean it's understand how big of a deal this could be in a europe that was already kind of a steady has stressed in terms of stability imagine the united states president i know the president returned from now we would be controversial down the road is assassinated and we have all the shock and anger and desire for retribution becomes a bad then very shortly afterward assassin is captured we figure rotted that assassin is working with the intelligence service for most antagonistic enemy i mean think for second how america would've reacted if lee harvey oswald had been a hitman for moscow and that came to light which by the way he's not on that outer reaches of thing to consider when you look at oswald's ties to the soviet union in cuba think about how the american people would've reacted regardless of what the facts were if they thought that was the case and it's interesting to note that that's only a year after the cuban missile crisis a year after world war three is potentially dodged what you think the leaders of the united states after kennedy's assassinated our were worried about in terms of worst-case scenarios you think it might have occurred to them man who by the early nineteen sixties had grown up during the end he eat years after the first world war do you think they might have been seeing in their mind ziad history repeating itself world leader killed by a gunman in an open car with his wife sitting next to him in the public by a a young person may be working for foreign government and then having the world spiral out of control despite what the major players may have wanted you think the people around kennedy mite worried a little about how that might've turned out because those guys in that cafe very well may have been working to the serbian intelligence service a lot written about this no no one knows for sure they certainly have ties to groups that the united states today if knew we were ranking group from nineteen fourteen would probably call terrorist groups like young bosnia and another one called the black hand and these gersh at times sometimes to the serbian intelligence or the soap you can believe the historian redeem estee lauder believe it's a hot button issue not molest isn't sold for what really happened just like it isn't so important whether or not oswald was working for the soviet union what's important here is what the people on the ground affected by this think was happening to us public thought oswald was a hit man for moscow to weapons then the austrians thought the killing of beer or you're the throne was an act of state sponsored terrorism and if it wasn't we're gonna make the case that it was anyway there's really no doubt that your straw hungarian empire want to deal with the serbian problem that and that dabbling in for some time once and for all and be honest it's hard to blame them in the serbians in the slobs will counter with the idea that the austro hungarian should not possessed this territory for very long bosnia herzegovina and places like say relied not been on stronger in for a long time nevertheless you try to think of what nation state on the planet could put up with the nation over their border fermenting revolution in their country and eventually killinger public figures of unimagined if you're an american is happening in the united states imagine seyi mexico creating a new stability and on reston fomenting subversion revolution in places like southern texas has something new mexico the southern arizona southern california and then eventually these revolutionaries had been egged on by the mexican intelligence service sheila major u. s. public figure how long the thinking that state to put up with some to like that the reason it becomes so important though is because of all the many controversies in the story of the most enduring important he's whose fault everything that's about to happen ideas no this is a civil lawsuit trying to figure out who's responsible for damages is a key part of the story on the austrian during an empire is in a position to decide to go or not to go to war that seems to put them in the driver's seat responsibility walkers there are all austrians bell living at the time of who basically saying it what choice did a half take this austrian writing after the war's a perfect example he talks about archduke franz ferdinand is one of the best friend's the slavs ever had in effect pardon me and actually was council and his government to treat the serbian problem more likely because he was worried about sparking a general war when he was killed was seen as an extra perfidy us act because the slavic folks had killed a person who had been what they're better friends in the austrian government the austrian but i'm talking about a second ago after the first world war wrote this coat when the news of the murder archduke franz is ferdinand arrived in munich i happen to be sitting at home and heard only vaguely i wasn't forced seized with more worried that the bullets maybe shot from the pistols a german students were one of indignation at the errors apparent continue was work of slob is a shindig wanted to free the german people from the central enemy what the consequence of this would've been was easy to imagine a new wave of persecutions which now would been justified and explain to the eyes of the whole world but when soon afterward i heard the name of the supposedly saracens and moreover read that they had been identified as serbs a light shudder began to run for immediate this vengeance of inscrutable destiny the greatest friend of the slobs had fallen beneath the bullets of slavic fanatics anyone he says with constant occasional last year to observe the relation of austria to serbia could not for a moment be in doubt the stone had been said roland was course could no longer be arrested those who today he writes showered the beings government would reproach is on the form and content of this ultimatum issued you would in injustice know what their power in the world could have acted differently in the same situation in the same position at herself eastern border or austria possessed an ox rubble of mortal enemy which shorter shorter intervals camp challenging the monarchy and would never have left off until the moment favorable for the shattering of the empire were high end quote ashley entry with that it makes me uncomfortable because the austrian writing that statement after the first world war is the man most responsible for beginning the second of hitler what a blind eye of the killer here you know was his line that the stone had been said ruling that nothing could rest because something could ever rest today because something had been resting at that you're reasonably are stronger intend to attack the serbs are ready the reason was that the serbs have very powerful friend the russians who considered themselves the traditional protectors of the swamps and the serbs were not alone most of the powers of europe had at least warning usually more powerful friends and analyze this was the terror in european history and it's often used as an example of what the main reason this whole story unfolds away does this is the error of a very complex web of alliances that bind european countries to each other it's perhaps the most enduring a work of oro von bismarck we mentioned earlier the nineteenth century german diplomat is more played every large world on the foundation of modern germany but he also place you twirl and creating a system of alliances the bolt expanded in a germany's possibility is bottle the same time preserving the a general peace in europe there were wars between the polling in the first word or there's no doubt about that some of them were directly to fall to bismarck but there wasn't a general european conflict involving all the major powers and let's not get that this is in iraq we would today call multi polar world which is hard for us to understand and then her rock bottom one or two superpowers your work during this time period at least five first rate power states britain france germany russia we are stronger in empire many people throwing turkey in italy to which would make seven the states all we're bound to each other with complex alliance systems and complex is the way business owners it bismarck had set up so that basically no matter what happened he was in the driver's seat in this work on unbelievably well especially for german interest buffer european interest out as a whole for a long time but by the time nineteen forty miles round his genius to create the system that so complex only he knew how to run it a typical courses on his marquis and diplomacy for professor she's better whole life studying it and they don't know why he did some of the things he did while he was writing it it was fantastic by the time nineteen fourteen roll around he hasn't been running it for some time he'd been fired by the leader of germany and now this complex machine that the genius of bismarck had created in rome with being run by people who couldn't it'll carry his jock strap is what we used to say it was inevitable that something like that would break down the reason that the austral gary n.'s dangerous march into serbia yeah the minute they found out that the search worst possible for killing there are there to the throne is that they knew that would mean war with russia and that is something that the austral in syrians were not prepared for at least not without checking with their main friend on the world stage and finding out you know what they would do in that situation their main friend on the world stage with the german empire now the german empire is attitude is very interesting the first thing i have to keep her mind myself about the german empire during assailant is between relatively young it's a new country almost was only founded in nineteen seventy one thousand forty years before this error that was in just a new country than they need it was proclaimed in a tower happened in proclaiming lady timber claim france and germany is a modern nation it was that they were people signed papers and look at the next day as of tomorrow germany exists and i mean it didn't exist it was the most powerful empowering europe with a larger population in france traditionally the greatest by empowering the erb up to with time period and a larger run faster birth rate and more industry and how de stabilizing would be in our world today if a cop all the different nations a moderate power signed a piece of paper tomorrow the united the middle one country and no one now combined country was the most powerful country in the world even if it was just the most powerful land power for the most powerful seapower you can see a bunch of nations they really didn't deserve a lot of the perks that the superbly nations claim for themselves what all the sudden do that once they turn themselves into was super nation in eighteen seventy one with the creation germany the kaiser right you have any instant great power around the world stage it was prussia on steroids with a population like eight times as much and the rest of germany with the militarized on the prussian model with the prussian king that's a very destabilizing trying to win that country begins to demand some of the perks that the other great powers have been out of their own france great britain they got all these colonies all these other things a little hollander to them looks like they've got places all over the world but go on all so the factory just having be mayor for a while you were round during the aged exploration you labonte shipped out to you what did the colonies germany didn't come around until malta the good stuff was taken as a cause of instability germany worried about being encircled ed hours all around them that didn't wish them well history neil ferguson i'm in the thing i really thought was was quite wonderful because you're in the west of those of us who fought the german empire famously said that they had this repairing only got about being encircled it were woodward bobbing encircled will look at them on a map they're born in the circle very central europe to get any power is all around the new ferguson said they want paranoid about being encircled and looking encircled they were more you bought a coming war and up until or von bismarck goes away he'd neutralized russia that was like water the main things in his diplomatic alliances to keep the russians happy he said in a five superpower world make sure your country's was three it's was always three against two and russia was always to be kept on your good side when he has sat and basically the foreign policy begins to be heavily influenced by the german hi these are the emperor kaiser mean caesar but it was a badge and in calling your emperor she's or in nineteen fourteen in any case the kaiser what a strange guy de sacs bismarck because ms marsh can talk him down in the scanner running the show is an old guy by the news much revered and it had a growing your own man with that guy hanging over your shoulder so inspires him the allows that machine to make my own mistakes bismarck never would meet with a diplomat and she by the mistake number one he lost the russians he intentionally drove them away basically right into the hands of the french the historic german enemy to one that they had beaten the franco prussian war need to seventy eighty seven would allow that to berkeley the german empire which they did in the french palace obverse side which is one of a rubber nose and a kind of thing the germans in the french assumed they'd fight each other again someday it now the french were aligned with the russians and now the germans the years of encirclement had become reality the germans had been trying to plan for what they're gonna do with the war no against an enemy to their west and another enemy to their released at the same time right how'd you do that and now the situation in austria boils over and the austrians say to the germans us if we can go with sir be russia's gun attack as a porsche taxes were you stand in the kaiser this controversial but traditionally the kaiser supposed to told the austrians to go for it get serbia don knapp all and some historians again this is all very controversial everybody has a different opinion on that but basically the idea seems to be that the kaiser believed that if it was gonna quickly enough the serbians could be crushed before the situation spiral donna controlling your because even as moderately intelligent will put will give him some credit that the kaiser was he knew that europe was a power k. in the key thing that had to be avoided it was this process almost a machine the cranking up of the doomsday device that everybody would actually been present when the thinkers who dealt with the doomsday device explain what the doomsday device did it understood that wants to trigger on the sting was pulled it was gonna be really hard to turn it off so the austrians to conquer the serbians before the russians are you flip the doomsday device switch it would all be okay again a lot of controversy on this because this is again another one of those places where the war guilt question hinges the germany tell austria to go crusher be a new cares if the russians attack everybody but of course the problem wasn't that it would just involve the russians attacking everybody because of that complex web of alliances we talked about earlier or other country shortening get dragged into the conflict this was something that was well understood by the intelligent heads of europe take for example the british prime minister during this time jury herbert ask with ask with the world a letter or private letter that come down to the history books right after sure be received the ultimatum from austria and so important an ask with writes quote austria has sent a bullying and humiliating ultimatum to serbia who cannot possibly comply with it and then demanded an answer within forty eight hours failing which she will march this means almost inevitably a rush job all come to the scene in defense of serbia and in defiance of austria and if so it's difficult for germany and france to refrain from winning and one side of the other so that we're a measurable or imaginable distance of real armageddon happily there seems to be no reason why we should be anything more than spectators in the core but you're not obviously to be wishful thinking on the bridge prime ministers hard but historians like neil ferguson who bread with asian escort fire to pay you for his suggested that if the british had stayed out we have a better world today for all sorts of reason he knocks off many of the biggest events of the twentieth century the most horrible thing that ever happens that never happens that ever happened to berta stays out war britain can stay out of the work is a don't have a hard alliance with anyone dare not caught up in that web of alliances will not too much they have an understanding with france but an understanding with enough wiggle room so that it was a lot of talk in britain about do we or don't we get involved in this whole frank this whole thing was something that hadn't happened in a hundred years in europe but general european war it hadn't happened since napoleon since waterloo and that war was so terrible images that were the entire napoleonic wars and wars the french revolution in iraq public seventy nine to eighteen fifteen so awful in terms of military destruction the lesson had been taught to the impound hands of your bundle lesson was war's not as much a game anymore it's no longer in the small private armies that we move round our european chessboard of all why lost to you sir you can have this problem cinnamon next time on beach will take a province back in all nobody was trying to topple the regime and if he was if anything gentlemanly warfare if there's ever been such a thing it's been called in history books limited warfare or restricted warfare it was an italian historian in ferraro in nineteen thirty three who talked about how intimate error of warfare was the kind of warfare were to the leaders of countries could actually have fawning going to war war or something you just alluded like pheasant hunting at least to the minds of some of these guys i'm fuller writes quote restricted warfare was what the lofty us to chief months of the eighteenth century it belongs to a class of hothouse plants which can only try been an aristocratic and qualitative civilization we're no longer capable of it it's one of buying things we've lost as a result of the french revolution end quote the french revolution was when no warfare got at least in the minds of the europeans of this era you're really serious what war they were gonna go to war the crowned heads of europe attack france after french went or revolutionary you have to understand how much of the shock got was historian when dire as a great way of describing it he says to understand shock of the crowned heads of europe when the most loyal of european countries the french were overthrown by leftist revolutionaries he says you have to imagine if mom west's toppled the u. s. government today malice of course being a very hard core columnist group imagined and toppling today zhou s. government and big edi govern because that's how the crowned heads of your belt about the french revolution and how to stabilizing it was seen to inevitably the royalty of europe which is almost all of your clashes with this new republican france and coalesces into an alliance and everybody a tax perhaps may do so with their private mercenary armies and iranian should the entire french population the people in all arms because friends started by losing at the magic the state with the entire underpinnings of the stadium been broken down including especially the army and then all the pressure on russia austria in great britain all these powers in europe attack france at the same time and you're stuck with a renewed like a bit of your army left over the artillery stayed with the people so the old furniture cho rhee was good but you got this mishmash of an army with officer should all have any authority to crazy and france is about to be defeated and then as olean you know totalitarian taper she's can do what they basically tell the people of france to the war is now every thank our entire focus the entire society exists only to win this war the decree of the french national convention in seventy nine the three said quote from this moment until that in which our enemy shall have been driven from the territory of the republic all frenchmen are permanently requisitioned for service in the army is the young men shall fight the married many show forge weapons and transport supplies the women will make tents and closes serve in hospitals the public building shall be turned into barracks the public squares into munition factories all firearms of suitable caliber should be turned over to the troops get you were you will be policed with shotguns and cold steel all saddle horses shabby seat for the cavalry all draft horses not importing cultivation will draw the artillery and supply wagons end quote in other words the entire society was mobilized for the war effort this was not something that the other countries did in fact most of the royal the leaders of europe could think of nothing more scary than arming and training your population oftentimes they used their professional militaries to put down rebellions by their population the last thing they want to do was give them guns and training i use it right when i'm a big otter street fighters what i'm gonna happen the french had a different our society one that was supposed to be won by the very you know low born people everybody was in this together and you combine the willingness to throw human life in all there on the battlefield in almost endless number she says that haiti's people either he could to say i'm sorry your honor work right now you go to the front and a steal some chickens from some former on the way this was crazy and all the subdued the french were able to expand lives on a scale that was unprecedented n. to create armies they were enormous mean look good alexander the great probably the greatest conqueror in on world history alexander conquerors a very large chunk of the known world energy suicide chunk of the unknown world at the time with an army that numbered anywhere from forty to ninety thousand okay zombies ingenious and what he did it but imagine if alexander could be used a historical xerox machine to duplicate that world conquering army to the now he's got to forty eight to ninety thousand man army is roughly comparable to each other now maggi does it again and duplicated again and again and again you do then enough times to were you got one point two one point three one point five million men maybe eventually close at three million men and now you've given alexander the great twentieth century army a twentieth century or me is many many armies from the past the french revolution is one that really starts when you start putting so many troops into the field that it doesn't matter that they're practically incompetent that their lives are wasted that it turned into canada far as napoleon who will inherit this in a people's army double conscript every man may wanna conscript us long as they need the mosaic troops are born to be chill and as napoleon famously said to the austrian diplomat how matter nick you cannot stop me i spend thirty thousand lives a month if any of the major powers except maybe russia are inured to this time lost the re towels and men in amman it would be considered quite a blow napoleon lost thirty thousand men amount as a matter rough course because he had a new kind of army yet people in our midst and in order to beat him up the other countries of europe had to do with the same thing as the german field marshal blue shirt told oppression your government after the portions of the defeated by napoleon give me a national army give me what he adds when he got it in which the persian aristocracy did more deal for the same reason that the european leaders everywhere didn't wanna do it in orbit the people of arms but when they did they were able to triple the sizeable to charmaine took an army of four napoleon with the creation of a nation in our house was the first step in creating the modern war machine because now all of a sudden life was cheap not only was life cheap but the modern nation state see now deepen off to be able to truly take upon cash and as what sets the modern military is often the modern states off from the ones in ancient times in ancient times be refueled states could take upon shouldn't use a boxing term but many of them could dish it out and take a state like the king in the persian two one two four plus barn supermodel him all but the persians could do shouting really good blows but they couldn't take very many good blots most nations in the past could that's why if you look at a book that the greatest battles in history if it's biondi albano hundred fifty years ago sometimes the great battle is the only about wars are won or lost on one big battle to the nation states couldn't take too many punches they couldn't really is armies the speeches couldn't support it it was french turned the entire nation into the war effort nations can take punches battering been in the past and the mongols the chinese could take some ponchos though the roman empire could take pouches that would set those nation states in the past apart for most of their enemies right that they had more staying power they had modern staying power the french revolution teaches all the states to have modern staying power the only problem with modern stank our is that the killing to go on longer in boxing they always feel like an early knockout is more merciful been alone match because along that should take a lot more punishment all the phony white give everything to be decided in one big writhing battling the distorted the war that is a lot less costly over time enough for her five year long conflict we're both sides behind each other down to the knob the napoleonic wars created multiple states in your capable of fighting until they were ground down to the mouth which meant a lot more damage and destruction before these wars came to a halt the modern nation state provided the support that the military's that involved entire people's enormous needed to keep the struggle going on for long periods of time one half of the equation necessary to create the modern war machines as military history when dire right trajectory talked about the human cost of these along napoleon war she says quote almost as important is the fact that you're working in society did not break down under the strain there was hardship but no starvation the warring powers were able to keep at it and keep your people that you're after kiewit no end in sight the european states had developed the wealth the organizational techniques and the methods of motivation he did to fight mass wars with a degree of popular participation but no other civilized society had ever even approached all that was lacking he writes to transform mass warfare into total war with the technology but the industrial revolution was already almost a generation old eighteen fourteen and soon it would begin to fill the last remaining gap end quote what was missing to make this new deadly machine that the napoleonic wars in the french revolution created was the technology to increase the deadliness by exponential mouths now was already something that was happening in the eighteen hundreds are in error in military history with the killing power of machines sky rockets the machines have been an important part of battlefields just before they were cities in human society stuffy old master armies on all think of the bone marrow that sydney olympic weapon at the stony each machine that made man and a more efficient killer both in hunting but on the battlefield as well by the time the eighteen hundreds roll round to me she is killing power sky wildcats by the cow is there is no major war involving all the great powers between napoleon in the first reward the actual demonstration of how the stuff can be used is lacking and the military powers of the world trying to examine the conflicts that to happen to see if they can learn any lessons about what the next wars likely be like they were european observers for example that the american civil war to try to see what you could learn from that the korean war breaks out in the eighty fifties between russia and britain and france there's a war obviously between united states and spain the involve cuba in the philippines you're right around the turn of the century going into the nineteen hundreds probably most importantly the war between japan and russia in nineteen oh five where are some of the use of these in a new weapons did one fused together create the modern war machine were some of that was observable the one thing that seems to be the key element as far as european planners can figure out though is something that hearkens back to phrase from a confederate general the u. s. civil war and said that the key to warfare was to get their first toast with the most pissed and the idea now of these mass or means that your bag created was that you needed to be able to raise them and get them to the battlefield before the other side beecher to act the timetable for mobilization the calms of force that none of the major european powers seem to be anything but a slave to launch the assassin's bullet in this area below cost around the austrian archduke when the archduke is killed by prince said he does the equivalent appalling opinion on hand grenade imagine trying to hold negotiations to ward off an explosion of the guy was already pulled the pin on the grenade right you're the limited amount of time to convince them of anything winston churchill during his wife and famously said the jaw jaw was better than war we're meaning negotiations with another war but the persons are you pull the pin on the hand grenade you have a very short window of opportunity to avoid the inevitable and that's where your finds itself after the archduke his part everybody's worried about the same thing to do some old phrase the yam peace movement used to use in late nineteen sixties early nineteen seventies were they would say with the gable war nobody came all the military planners in europe at this time curator worried about something a little bit different what if war breaks out and on monday is that hostilities commence on one side sceptre or neither and if it takes you thirty days to get your reservists in uniform to the mustering point to the battlefield before they're ready to fight how big a big deal was it should only take sure paul and fifteen day is to do the same fang this puts a huge crotch your time was on everybody in the story and constrains the ability to negotiate your way out of the situation repeals like okay the first person that flipped the mobilizations which we all go 'cause nobody wants to fall behind the germans have constrained themselves even more timewise by the way that they had found a solution that to their terrible dilemma of how do you find it to foreign war in washington by elite ms marks dictum of the nikita russians on your side and the russians in the french ally with each other and war breaks out to be fighting french in the west and russians in the east the same time and in the intervening decades the fantastic german general staff and figure out we do not to survive that situation but to win that war but in bald exquisite i'm in which further constrained the modern negotiation room you had before the grenade went off the timing involved taking advantage of the fact that everyone thought the russians were gonna take forever to mobilize the russians were seen as a giant somewhat clumsy colossus less organized and the germans and the french and people like that and so by the time the russians to get there at the gathering get their monstrous armies in the field ready to fight germany already would be in france they were entire plan fraction involve throwing almost all their weighed against the french immediately and then turning after french forces were defeated and throwing those forces against the now ready to fight russians but this did two things to the germans want it meant the russians could have no advance time mobilizing you collect them mobilize for three or four days while you waited to negotiate putting that came back in the grenade you never catatonic your biggest corporate tire plant for winning the war to do that the other thing that meant is that you went to war with russia you had to attack france you had to assume that the french would come in at some time annually thing you had a plan to deal with which to attack the french for so if you go to war with russia you get to attack francis part of the bargain the busy been more of a concern done that it involves attacking countries besides for his country you had no disagreement with all neutral countries just happen to be in the way the germans had come up with the plan to deal with their encirclement problem the vault a launching essentially a world war in their own defense the other thing the prince subdued was provide an opportunity for rwandese leader she thought war was coming anyway to decide that now was better than later and this is another interesting side of the conflict but if you're part of these many military staffs that are absolutely sure wars coming in here you can read accounts from every major military the time during work numbers of their military planners the war was inevitable the question is is if it's going to be inevitable is it better to fight it now than later the germans were under the impression that the russians were on their way to superpower status which if you look at what happened in the twentieth century is exactly how it turned out germans felt that by nineteen seventeen that was going to be reality the russians were competing major military with a major transportation reforms they were taking advantage of huge french bank loans to do to stop the germans bigger get more comes in three years we're gonna be in a much worse situation than we are now safe it's here we might as well do it now we are the damage now we will have later the french delta similarly about the germans and the germans bob russia's they were looking at the german birthrate just going for him be swamped you're looking at the growth in industry him in the germans were work what hair so long came in fiber six or seven years but richard justin be worse off so that they get the same thing it was going to come let me come now and the midst these interesting conflicts of interest and worries about timing of all this stuff the world sees where it's heading and tries to pull back from the brink but instead of having the greatest statesman your care produced during this time period some of these countries are saddled with people for like hailstones around the neck of peace people like kaiser bill from the second the emperor of germany the leadership is such an interesting side of this conflict because i firmly believe and you had a guy of oral von bismarck scowl lumber the position the story in germany won the first report is due on the verge of happening that they could put the pain back in the grenade you know that govern opens up enough for crippled in surrey able i think it could've been done at all award for choir it would've been some real we'll diplomatic quality earlier this with a great army and the key to that to some some high-quality workmanship which the german to produce time and again the problem was in this time period they're stuck with a ruler or who could not have gotten the job but if married had been one of the requirements of having it handed to you kaiser wilhelm the second was not a great leader he represents the hill most wonderful example you can easily think of of war rolled the dice hereditary monarchy is now sometimes you get a great role in yen up with a gifted ruler and then it almost seems wonderful what they've got so much power wring their hands right because if someone really knows what to do with it does good things which are casting yourself i'm glad they have the power to those good things but that's a bit of rolled the dice isn't as often as you were those people you get somebody who's evil or cruel go insane some people throughout history of world very badly on the dice for too many times but creates good harcourt is tree working for us being tequila might choose to roll whatever the number is becomes up did you get yet another is saying you're lorraine your dynasties made for fun reading but we're vulnerable to lottery in germany this current leaders tried to hide surprise or his legs or in russia where they have an art autocratic king died to you both of those stem from the word caesar or which repairing the twentieth century sounds anachronistic doesn't it u. s. poured this old world existed for reverend king and emperor doesn't sound anachronistic at any time in history before nineteen fourteen going back to like mesopotamia does it to sounds weird in the twentieth century georgia how old is world is that is marching into the twentieth century three of the major powers in this conflict are ruled by kantor's kings were stars the middle of total power will those are almost i was really on the kaiser's had his chipped away at over a couple generations yet the shears in power with the german legislature which has political parties in the handlebar judson taxation that the kaiser still has a tama power we're and foreign policy and political importance of all that any justice below average guy the funny part about the kaiser is that the best thing that ever happened to his reputation was on all subtler because when you look at the propaganda you read the stuff written about the kaiser before hitler comes along and the kaiser is treated as this evil character malevolent in others militaristic wanna take over the world blood falling off of the bayonet you see in the political cartoons and now all the attitude that people have towards him is the sole silly or are these polls in ages from lack of inferiority complex is he's almost to be pitied he's a little mentally doll but but there isn't that malevolent evil for a thing i think are the reason why is when you have hitler to compare someone to all of us and you see that the kaiser was just sort of a you know marginally better role on the monarchy dice for what it's worth he was tied in all the other great monarchies in europe or the funny twist in the story and it actually provides something of importance because in europe at this time the royal families had relatives of other royal families in europe in their families at least family still communicate with each other which provides a good diplomatic back channel with these rollers can actually no sidestep traditional diplomacy in just right the family member that rules the other country for example queen victoria who may be the most famous queen in british history may be the most important role for ever by presided over britain during the height of britain's power which he's controlling most of the world and the soderberg really never set on the british empire queen victoria's grandchildren are in i mean while kaiser wilhelm swath of all he's queen victoria's grandchild he's got torched cars and i'm the king of england king george right but just that those are russian he's married to another of queen victoria's grandchildren so bizarre as her son in law what it's also wilhelm all's cause and when you know he gets upset we want to talk to the russians about something he will often it is it that pena quick note to cousin nicky now the czar nicholas the second now the czar in russia is another average to lower average rule on the marquee dies it's perhaps telling him some historians it made the tubby that you and up with such mediocre leadership in such powerful countries during this time purity it might account for why eight in all these international incident which could lead to war previously didn't but now all are because the leadership socks mean in terms of what you can expect these people were mirrored based leaders in the consumer joulwan about stalin or hitler or even a mussolini who's been portrayed in the west likes of soda clown but all of those people were formidable individuals who rose through the ranks at some level these same thing with american politicians beguiling franklin roosevelt is in which you what about but that's a formidable human being with qualities that allowed them to swerve rise to the top that requires a merit based something being born into a whole one's own family is the oldest son than require anything that's the look of the draw if the job of kaiser done merit based kaiser wilhelm the second would've gotten anywhere near it yeah he's the guy most responsible for putting the pan back in the greater the war's gonna be aborted here and yet he famously said after he sacked bismarck in the second on the case and i am my own chancellor meaning aren't buying dinner ronald as myself what you do when not only are the subpar in intelligence and billions of all i'd but because they're subpar it they can see that their subpar it didn't even take advice well one point in the story the kaiser will ask one of his military leaders to do something that is ridiculous stupid lose the war stupid and the military leader will say he cannot be down the kaiser will embarrass him say something to the effect of your uncle was also a field marshal going to be a different answer in other words you go to don what i want him to do even if it was stupid the kaiser get the show you how what is to see you understand royalty new remember you had your hand and foot royalties like the same military leader i scored again in bonn malta will have to change the way that the german war games system worked before the first world war and you have to put his foot down and take a courier risky move and tell the kaiser did no longer can they keep up with the turkish in dublin ever side the kaiser's commanding into german national war games hast we can think about that per second for field marshal bomb mall to put his foot down whatever side the kaiser's commanding in each war games these national maneuvers on national security importance whatever side has a commanding lead us automatically the mont folks that's goofy and the kaiser's a little goofy he's kept his watch or read that was damaged during his bill with which was weird and had no spring he could look at his own food for example which is so embarrassing to a guy who's already got an inferiority complex he goes to england to spend time with his cousins and they don't really care for him too much the british royal family is can it turned off by william and all you want is kinder law than approval and be like them what's wanting isn't the sort of weir did bomb almost like a tragic playwright ken away the kyser sort of embodies the inferiority complex that his country has at this time to your new country on the stage in the thinking being treated like trash they're mad they're just chauvinistic that's how the british and french and the people see them just ease up start to push their weight around credit people but as many historians point out is no mention the world that up and coming that doesn't start to act like it when they do the nation that already have a ball don't like him have room and the united states can feel about china today so that elbow limits way into that in our power structure here mean we all understand they deserve ed you look at their economic shook it all the signs they they're they're robbing coming but nobody necessarily feels like that person pushing their way and yet there are spaces anything other than a bit of an upstart during this time period united states by system or raul the son of elbowing their way in the world power with the people that are really like it or not make some room here we come back to the german empire was it wasn't feeling of inferiority and kaiser wilhelm held that sort attitude in spades but if you read that stuff of the times is portrayed as melcher reached an honest to the term is most often used in this german empire that will be blamed for everything that's happening here okay militarism the entire latter part of the eighteen hundreds people focused on militarism and the building of these amazingly technologically deadly armaments and the race for power mean it just seemed like the world was arming itself to the chief it was just been exploded this case militarists were best possible the people who look at nazi germany and who were on i know people who were written for all by the bear market in the persuasion marching in the uniforms in this hold sort of militaristic fascist attitude that the nazis portrayed him that we tread tell them that the nazis inventiveness the nazis were revitalizing regular german marshall attitudes that the nazis militarism if you don't like it's marshall if you like it all mean that's what hitler and his cabal we're doing is bringing back a traditional prussian marshall practices that goose stepping robotic on unbelievably efficient persuasion drooling all but those are approaching qualities to go back to predicted great and it freaked out a lot on the countries in your book to dissented just they look dangers it would mean they looked chauvinistic they look like they want to take over your country and they were building this giant maybe now all of a sudden an know we're challenging britain because the kaiser had read that same book that theodore roosevelt read it did anybody do more damage than alfred they hear me and we decide to write a book a naval history as the kaiser like roosevelt read it wasn't for old when all is your adult reagan and decided that the bill does lead to compete with britain into the paint it wouldn't take it for granted fascinating character perfect example of what can happen with the role of the monarchy dice nah course all the governments in europe that matter are not all monarchies and autocratic government there are the famous governments of france and britain for example france's republican gain by the stock and having tried our royal tedium after napoleon decided that they like the republic idea better under republican and britain might as well be broadest time period they still have the kanan the royalty of all that the economy power ring or that they were during this time period the way the royal family is not a. b. morgue robert haas and maybe more able to shift public opinion one way or the other than the more cynical generation today look to the cart royal family but at the time and that's about the extent of their political authority parliament the legislature of britain has the power they like to have the power now that created dynamic whether french and british have to worry about things that in other countries on the other side of the ledger or russia don't have to rebut the worry about the political situation yet to worry about their political opponents are using the war situation has a in a political issue in great britain there's quite a bit of division over this whole thing up and during this time curie between money archduke is assassinated what happens on june twenty eighth nineteen forty and winnie on strong during government issues that famous alternate in the list of demands to serbia which happens on july twenty third there's a big exile in there don't i really did so if you were we morning papers every morning in a tree to be war scarce and comments here and there be something new every day to keep you focused on the crisis but historically speaking not much happens what was going on was behind the scenes town of diplomacy i'm won the main avenues of diplomacy were the french trying to get the british innocence or hard agreement for what they're gonna do it this war breaks out in five minutes could all have a hard agreement with the british this'll have a soft agreed instead of a signed a madonna blind contract they have a handshake deal you start to get word that handshake deal beginning or even even if the government in charge in london right now will come for warm handshake deal who's to say they're going to be able to keep political power their opponent be used as war issue but to topple the government to control the government said a french really have an shaky on shore in the government will not comply with a handshake deal sorely lacking in baldness war were nude for we have the splendid isolation and the navy will protect us 'cause remember folks look at the map great britain in the giant mope around their country and the greatest maybe in the world to protect it they have the option stay out of this thing that they want to the french don't have that luxury around the invasion was there on the dinner menu for appearing with germany and they're looking for people to provide some help i got the russians but the russians are long way away but not being on dinner menu for the imperial german military and that the british situation was fundamentally different they couldn't see a real positive outcome for them if they get involved in this whole affair mean there are things the french king day and a couple lost territories a loss to germany in the war between seventy eight and seventy one they'd like to get those back in a best case scenario you of this conflict breaks out they will get them back the british about everything that wonderfully positive to look forward to yes they might alleviate the threat of this german fleet by nineteen twelve it was already felt the debris should proven that the germans could not compete with him in the building of ships not if they want to have a great lander me at the same time and so that's kind of out of the way by this point so no big gain there and maybe you protect france from falling because if france paul gigot the situation you and the second world war in nineteen forty world a sudden you have the german staring across bush in the english channel from you and then also said that mold doesn't look that why does it but that's not a lot of positive stuff to go into the first global conflict in a hundred years four to the bridge this looks like a massive disruption of their extremely profitable business ventures they've been snapping up books like the great allusion written by norman angle work every story i'm going to haul influential this book was your ankle was trying to explain to the people that time period that this war they continually gets threatened like the russian roulette trigger being pulled is never going to happen it can happen the world has become too interdependent in that time period there's too much globalization is the early during world let's start for you and telegraphed providing instant communication in the railroad the shipping lines and twain had never been higher wealth had never been grander than york was at the height of it's in a financial power and britain was at the height of everybody's financial power why would you mess with bad economic situation guys like angle were saying that what happened is it was so profitable to simply do business as usual that there was nothing worth going to war over what angle was saying is that anything you would gain by launching the war would be dwarfed by what she would lose by destroying the system that was allowing ever going to make so much money is an old line 'em when glitch don't across borders armies will this is the opposite situation and goods across and borders like crazy so guys like angle tell yet that you know because of that formula label even if we look you can have a war but the british ishtar in to find out you know is this the dead zone carried from the end of the archduke assassination to the ultimatum by sir be what the british are trying to find out is that angle is at least partially wrong he may be white the u. will destroy the whole system thus making everybody rich seems to be walnut in thinking that the powers that be will avoid the war because of that in the british government having a hard time selling their people on the idea that this is good for britain on july twenty third finally the long awaited response from the are strong gearing government to the chilling of their ear to the throne they send an ultimatum to to the government of serbia the ultimatum is one of those documents you can look after and he's treated as obviously designed to be rejected the demands would eviscerate serbians are pretty no sovereign state could agree to this they're only given forty eight hours to respond all these different point of rejection of any one of which means war but the day before the forty eight hour deadline runs out the serb government sends a message to the czar of russia asking for help they wrote quote we cannot defend ourselves therefore we pray your majesty to send help as soon as possible your majesty's given many proofs of your previous good will and we got today we hope that this appeal will find in echoing your generous lockhart and co the serbs center response back to your strong gary n.'s it's not good enough the austro hungarians declare war on july twenty eighth exactly one month after the assassination and they're shelling in belgrade in like five minutes the russians the clearer mobilization in response to this the system moment when the first outside power turns on their doomsday device easy when you're drunk earrings in the serbians mobilize it doesn't freak anyone else out because they're gonna fight lord nearest each other and they have to mobilize to do that bitch when the first outside power tiger these alliance systems flicks on the doomsday device that everyone else is going to feel the pressure to do the same thing germany the most pressure because they're the ones with the very short window of opportunity i think the designer of the military plans couch leaf and had figured out was about nine hundred nine hundred and fifty hours that they had to smash the potential french enough to be mopped up but she had to be smashed within nine hundred and fifty years so hours before the russians would start to come in from the east with their armies now mobilized if you screw that up they could be in berlin in having coffee and cigarettes in poking the kaiser with the stick a cage by the time in other germans figured out was going on so the minute the russians mobilized you have this crisis because the russians have the flexibility they want to a dissenting those people home i'm to mobilization doesn't mean war to them up does to the germans because they've got to start their plans and every day they don't that nine hundred fifty or so our window shrinking this is the point the story with the military plans began to take over the political process in a way that makes it impossible for the politicians and diplomats to do what they need to do the potentially stop this conflict anytime they need time on the twenty sixth of july the government of britain calls a peace conference is the major powers ugh ugh hash this out talk about the least at the time what's the rush into the mobilizations which the germans are under pressure they tell the russians to stock up the russians say we're only doing this against austria hungary this isn't meant you know against you it doesn't matter the germans have a problem now in the beating going to everyone also saying are you wiener you in the gore the french we say the french are you in this confident about to come up 'cause we're gonna go to war with the russians are they go to mobilize war you gonna do the french abortion act in accordance with our interest but you're miserable listen if you're gonna stay out of this war all yeah he was hand as the keys to all your fortson are fortified border until the war in the east is over that as a pledge of your good behavior will consider you out of this war that is is impossible for the french government to do as the demands on serbia were for the serbians to do french can't do that that's it you hand over your nash of securing teach your most antagonistic historic enemy old thing settled and the germans must've known that they knew they couldn't keep friends on this conflict which is why they had these in a fantastic military plans to defeat to powers the country they were really hoping to keep on the conflict is great britain we can't negotiate with britain sank in awoke and you don't have any deal here we're cousins or bob anglo saxon for the same race you know the french are your historic enemies are you really gonna work with them on the thirtieth of july the british prime minister in his diary quote the european situation is at least one degree or say was yesterday and it is not an improved by rather shameless attempt on the part of germany to buy our neutrality during the war by promises that she will not an ex french territory except colonies or holland or belgium there's something very claimed he writes in childlike about german diplomacy while the french are beginning to press in the opposite sense as the russians have been doing for sometime the city he means london which isn't it terrible state of depression paralysis is for the time being all against english intervention i think the prospect very black today and co but something will happen that will change the movie in britain something that will help to create a good guy bad guy narrative in this war hasn't told you earlier obama the key issues because this war so i'm poured into the rest of the twentieth century in twenty first century history is whose fault at all it knows and the british are very concerned during this time period the baby if the intervening intervening on the right side who's the bad guy it's gonna depend on what happens that's again with the german war plans put them in a situation where for the war plan to succeed us to create strategic problems but i cost to war the biggest thing the germans needed two years keep the british out of this war but the war plans involve a requirement that will bring the british into the war the germans can't attack the french along their mutual border abortion full of forts it's the most cuomo's fortified borders for oral history ever since roman times it's the same area about a hundred and twenty mile front that will become the national line after the sworn before the second world war during this time period there are fantastically technologically sophisticated forts all three does hundred twenty mile border between germany and france what in your locking fields of fire or at large garrison is it's not that the germans can't defeat that they did in eighteen seventy eight to seventy one that was the root of invasion back then the problem is the germans can't defeat them within that nine hundred and fifty or so our window by the time the germans smashed their way through those boards the russians irwin berlin as sole easier than ever world's right but one thing the germans to cedar we're doing is poured this point when the two front war and that's to smash into france in the part of france baton defended but the reason the part of france that some defended or less defended the news fortified board the last offended because it isn't on the border with germany to the border with a bunch of neutral states these are going to have to be a highway is the german army uses to get from germany to france the only problem is that those highways neutrality is guaranteed by the british government and has been for seventy five years was about to happen is result of the stipulations of those german war plans is potentially the greatest mistake ever made them and put all my top ten was somewhat greatest mistakes are made if you're in german i have to believe that and i am hard time figuring out what is a greater mistake for the entire history of your nation as a unified no country since eighteen seventy one and a hard time finding something you could label as agree your mistakes in this one because so many of the other candidates you might put a shirt greatest mistake only happen because of this mistake before it the invasion of belgium is a disaster for germany on so many fronts and that's what we're talking about your ear regionally the way back in like the late eighteen hundreds early nineteen hundreds holland had also been on the list of countries to be used as a highway for the german army but since that time in as the war planes were flying it was just narrow down that just belgium and the germans were sort of naively hoping that the belgians would just step aside but blinder army up on both sides of the street watch the germans marched through on the british in the prussian original course for the forefathers of these germans were two of the signatories to something called the treaty of london in eighteen thirty nine the pledge to to defend belgium's neutrality in a wonderful lead tragic ironic sort of connection to buy the white the role belgium is gonna play a leading the buffer for war is very similar to the roll call and played leading up to the second in both cases those countries were the reason britain got dragged into the conflict before the second world war britain had try to stop hitler's seemingly endless ambition and by putting a roadblock in his way in guaranteeing the independent appalled and are ignored that guarantee you one in the paula newburg is in the war in the first world war the same thing is happening with belgium germany planners can see no way to win this war without violating belgium's neutrality as we said this is what makes it the greatest mistake though potentially all german history 'cause violating belgium ends up taking a break on that one historian says as recently as two days before they declare war on germany is leaning toward neutrality that's amazing to think back to his before the end of the war the governor is leaning toward neutrality what change that invasion belgium the invasion of belgium does too terrible things if you're looking at this from germany's pointed the the first thing is to change is british political and public opinion almost overnight on don as the breach by mr herbert ask with put it he of course wants to get more involved in this looming workers of the handshake deal with friends she said that the ultimatum the germans get to the belgians simplify matters all the sudden the people who were trying to convince the rest of britain that they have a dog in this continental war looming up as real ammunition the first thing is assigned a treaty with the belgians that's not a handshake deal planting the ink and its long standing as is the national security concern the bird has had for very long time of keeping the channel ports in belgium out of the hands of some dangers hostile power the trouble sturbridge history the dangers hostile power was perhaps but they're calling the kaiser the new napoleon and if he goes into belgium he scorned have those channel ports so what had been in more sort of highbrow argument that didn't really know appeal to the god is changing because of belgium the most important appeal to the god though the belgium has eased the propaganda slash p. r. side of this whole thing belgians would destroy what is your money's reputation in terms of global public opinion and they're always been people who call germany this evil malevolent militaristic country will have you on rommel world stage as soon as the germans invade belgium they participate in the most aggressive acts so far by any of the major powers in this conflict and austro hungarian assaults against serbia maybe before this was the most egregious but that was seen as having some sort of no connection to events mean the serbian government had maybe been involved in this assassination was something to do with one hundred belgium was innocent bystander it's like a shooting war breaks out between a couple of gangsters on the street and the first thing wannabe gangsters does is turned aside and kills innocent bystander because they're staying in their way that's a little like what this is portrayed as by nearly allied propaganda services which make the most use of this belgian thing you can imagine so much so that he means sales people like apples hitler were right later in mind comp going nowhere else to the germans in a fall so far behind the british and french later the americans than they did in the book in the realm of propaganda the nurses the huge mistake and germany and austria hungary propaganda was to portray the enemy as carl mccall and he said that the british and french the americans understand that the enemy needs to be seen as violent dangerous and bloodthirsty as bad a comical because he said the province portraying him as comically run up against them in their top and that seems to shatter all the propaganda to better to say to these evil in alumni and riders of mordor approaching he says and then in the relief pitcher back into cars like that and that's how the allies which is what britain france and many other countries the united states lee liquid would be called this war there initially called the trip on taunt the other side the mom alliance with germany austria hungary later turkey to what occurred to be called the central powers so what's the trouble on taunt against the central powers or the allies against the central powers in the central powers will be portrayed just as hitler said it as these were you present to ledgers and looters and it will be in belgium that the germans will provide their opponents with the raw materials to not have to exaggerate too much at all to portray them as the modern day version of the harms now on august first nineteen fourteen this small war between the austrian gary n.'s and the serbs gets bigger because that's when the german ultimatum given to the russians telling them to stop their mobilization or else runs out historian david stevenson says that this is a clear sign that the russians know what's coming up and you're okay with it they know but if they don't stand down dole out war with germany and they don't stand down to pieces what we're another you have to and for the russians were ready for this i'm okay with it tony clark is first the germans declare war on the russians that they at least as their route they had a nominal lawyers with germany austria hungary but they choose to use amount clause which may or may not be valid depending on who you're talking to saying that this appears to be aggressive war ended their alliance only covers defensive war so they're out to declare that they're neutral on this new conflict is just starting the next day in the west germany invades the neutral concrete of luxembourg the tiny little and for concrete luxembourg at the same time the issues this ultimatum to the belgians say melissa and we just need you sure country to get to france how we mean you know ahmad just let us marched through we break even more pay for it later it'll have any designs in the country long term in response to this the belgians have the hair were with moment with the king of belgium in the wind and the major officials all get together and basically all agreed that they're not going to stand down the attitude he seemed to have his wish for it either way we might as well go on a disk gloriously and they decide to mobilize a tiny little army and fight to the same time he should the calls to the other gear interest of their neutrality saying palm maybe they waited until the moment the germans by the way step in everybody's worried someone's couple fast woman tried at the buy back the french are worried germans veteran if they can then indeed going into belgium first because they think the germans are coming in and germans to say we were the first people to violate belgium everybody wants to stalemate could cite terms of war responsibility the french are so worried about falling into a crap like that they uphold the unprecedented move of all time and on the eve of the warp hold their military forces six miles back from the border remember that's not just forward positioning bullshit troops who picked the spots that they were in because they were to portage de chee jake's bought imported passes and river crossings and other things the big buildup of fortifications for years and the french government is so freaked out about possibly eat being blamed for starting this and the germans not being blamed for starting this that they pull their forces back the french generals are not pleased about this but the move is intended to also make sure that the british people and the peace action impertinent no excuse to say well about french riley belgian neutrality first heard shots were fired by the french first so the germans are position in the spring we have a time limit on this deal the king of several we're round belgium has to be violated for the blood work they can't get the french or the briefed of violate belgium first they tell the belgians you know to what i'm through the belgians say no and on august third germany declares war on france and belgium now think about that folks week ago europe was peaceful now it's on the slide the general war within another week the entire contents could be flaming out at each other that's crazy to go from holy peace tipped whole world war or any lasted two weeks h. g. wells writing a year or two after the confidence or he's right in the middle of the moment even say she can't quite make it right about now without the passions of the feelings you totally screwing up your impression things but he does talk about how we're the move was because all this was happening so fast in talking about the british public as butter he lived and howl but there was almost this disconnect between the fact that the entire world has changed but it's happening so fast we haven't changed when they get any writes quote all europe still remembers the strange atmosphere or those of enforce on the august days the end of the armed peace for nearly half a century the western world and in tranquil and it seemed safe only if you middle aged an aging people in frantic had any practical experience of warfare the newspaper spoke of world catastrophe but that conveyed very little meaning to those from the world always seemed secure or indeed almost incapable of thinking of it is anything otherwise than secure in britain particularly for some weeks the peace tyler team continued in a slightly dazed fashion what a man is still walking about the world on aware that his contract a fatal disease which will alter every routine inhabitants life all went on with the summer holidays shops reassured her customers with the announcement businesses usual there was much talk in excitement in the newspapers to him but the talk in excitement of spectators who have no beaded sensor participation in the catastrophe that was presently to involve the mall and co it's easy to understand too why the british public really we're ready for this in fact none of the british were really ready for this they hadn't been mentally prepped for the idea that this was coming for all sorts of political reasons the british government couldn't declare itself out or i turn to withdraw line in the sand and tell the germans was nephew invade belgium it's all on the way cinder blocks the british prime minister didn't have that power for all he knew the peace faction in his government would topple is government of a statement like that were made in all the french and the germans for very long time before this conflict breaks out especially in the fevered it'll last month are trying to get some sort of word from great britain what the policies we could do it the last minute the french are sure the british are gonna abandon them the french foreign minister will sit down and discuss the one can say they're gonna desert us when someone in the british media asked what you doing sentinel we deceive berta still has any owner the british are waiting for something to happen in belgium and sore the belgians they all would do anything until they are actually trial in his violin until they wait until the germans arrived when the advanced cavalry patrols and actually some guys on by schools collegian on paddling to belgium and give notices to the locals that we're sorry that we have to do this and i really find just don't cause any trouble bob albany bridges don't die sabotaging railways down to the story meet hobbles anything we might need to get from here they are leave all by new place rebels will be considered hostile acts as soon as it becomes apparent that germans are on belgian soil the king of belgium basically ordered that all those things be dawn many contacts the other geringer is a belgian neutrality and says the germans are here are we need your help that when the british draw up the official sort of ultimatum which people who criticize them for many say it need only given an ultimatum before the germans had gone into belgium the might've had more options once they are in belgium for them to get out of belgium to the british told them to was really like it tail between your legs can situation this is happening history many times on the other situations were people have said if you had just said which we're going to do before the enemy did what they did my been a different outcome in this case was the germans are in belgium the british and ambassador to germany a guy named sir edward goshen delivers the british ultimatum to germany in he delivers it into the hands of the german minister guy named gottlieb vanya go and the german chancellor gaines the u. balled up on bettman whole wide and goshen knew that this was a historic meeting any role delmore happening he said the germans when they received this ultimatum from him for each out you wrote that the meeting was for a lot when men at school i found the chancellor very agitated is excellent see it once again uh-huh wang which lasted for about twenty minutes he said that the step taken by the british government was terrible to a degree just for a word neutrality on board which in wartime it so often been disregarded just for scrap of paper great britain was going to make war on a kindred nation the desire to nothing better than to be friends with her all is ever to not to reckon had been rendered useless by this last terrible step in the policy to which as i knew he devoted himself since his assertion office had tumbled down like a house of cards what we had done was unthinkable in the minds of the germans it was like striking a man from behind what was fighting for his life against two assailants he'll great britain responsible for all the terrible bands that might happen i protested strongly against that statement they said that in the same way that he in airborne they go wished me to understand that for strategical reasons it was a matter of life and death to germany to advance through belgium and violate the latter's neutrality so why would we should understand that it was so to speak a matter of life and death for the honour or great britain that she should keep first all engagements to do our utmost to defend belgium's neutrality if attacked that's all i'm compact simply had to be kept or more confidence could anyone have engagements given by great britain in the future the chancellor said but at what price will that compact have been kept at the british government thought of that in court and this is an interesting keyboard because i've often wondered if you could take principles were the decision makers in this in a conflict into the future and show them some history books and show them what happened even the winners you think they were thrown away to avert what ended up happening because it was more horrible than any of them envisioned the german field marshal in charge of the military affairs to stomp on mortgage famously said that this was the struggle that would decide the course of history for the next hundred years i mean is absolutely right maybe more but he known that this would mean that germany would be on the losing end of troon world wars in the twentieth century we think he would've done i mean look at situation now imagine germany without having lost those two world wars or how different they might be today there were german historians who considered this role of the iron dykes is going to war here is often referred to as one of the great you're responsible gambles or german history and maybe the key element in the whole affair it was britain's decision to unfold itself in the conflict because one can make a very good case today britain's stan's aside germany wins this war that's about to start instead they have perhaps the greatest overall superpower in the early twentieth century world lining up on the other side and to be truthful the germans were really afraid of the brady shortly nina to small colonial force led by german standards is relatively insignificant or so they think i'm in bismarck and famously said one an advisory board game but if you go to war with britain they could use that wonderful naval power blundering tire army are coastline and bismarck famously said if they do that i shall have them arrested meaning he just send the police force out to corral the british army that top worried they were about this tiny little force that they're worried dwarfed but they were keenly aware that britain had the greatest maybe by far in the world they were the greatest financial power in the world they controlled a huge chunk of the world britain and france together or owned about seventy percent of the world at this time period when you talk about all their colonies and everything else and that's all stuff that they can fly on to fight the war what's more that wonderful may be a great britain's can shut down german shipping no in a moment to the stroke of a pen that is born secretary sir edward gray on disparate nineteen forty nine tensions have reached the knife edge fever pitch moment will look out the window and see the lamp lighters of london lighting the lamps for the evening as was customary to time return to someone else of the window and famously said the lamps are going out all over europe we shall moxie live again in our lifetime the germans are given the famous ultimatum and is set to expire at midnight on august fourth germany time which is eleven p. m. additional lloyd george one of the ministers says that they were sitting around the table just before the stroke of eleven watching the clock tick away and he said that his big bands china start shining the eleven o'clock hour signifying that the deadline is about to expire he says every wing of the bell sounded like enjoying doing to aim and then when expires britain declares war on germany that was asking it does point what the people who would just kill entered upon this course of action thought was going to happen when lloyd george here is the chimes of big ben is sounding in things they summoned to a mall was lloyd george meaning what he says don't know we need this is a conflict of the sort that new york had not had four hundred years or what changed in a hundred years this is like a jump off of the cliff in the dark for europe and no one knows how long the drop is going to be and they've been exposed to a lot of thinking out there but as an omen angle we mentioned earlier that were saying no one's going to john jumping would be suicidal everybody died the golden goose to be killed globalization be destroyed normal do with it and now they had just gone when people think that it meant well as we said earlier the firfer for him so much written about it you can share retake from discerned outsourcing create any sort of impression you want what it really looks like though if you some of it to everybody just off on this and antony what it looks like is that there was a small view among some people that understood the reality and they turn out to be the cassandra son story dubbed the blonde to actually prophesies accurately what scorned happen motion teach people to never clue high think lloyd george we hear of big ben sounding to manhood is born about britain's financial sector and yet every recent be by the way because a few days before one austria hungary declares war on serbia the markets are rommel world will go crazy and in london the financial capital the world will we george's hearing from all the bankers moulding investors in all these people that this is a clay sex that cornbread and this gully which sounds like the worst thing in the world and to you fast-forward the time machine for years as c. which really can happen when you would've paid good money only have the financial system collapse here's the thing now there were people who turned out to be worried about how momentous this leap off this cliff not long in the drop was going to be to try to be right and you're kind of hope and for it we take for example the guy who along with karl marx helped create more cardenas and friedrich engels to an eighteen eighty seven wrote about this coming conflict and how terrible it was going to be of course in all in his mind up hoping for an overthrow of all the existing regimes to be replaced by communism house or the silver lining in this coming armageddon jingles wrote quote i see all the world war but never before seen extension an intensity at the system of mutual outbidding in armament carried to teach dreamer by lee bears it's natural fruits eight to ten million soldiers will slaughter reach other as strip your bearer is no swarm of locusts has ever done before the devastation is about thirty years' war condensed into three or four years and spread all over the continent famine epidemics general barbara's asian of armies in masses provoked by sheer desperation otter chaos in our trade and industry and commerce and in general bankruptcy collapse of the old states in their traditional wisdom is such a way that the clowns were all in the gutter by the dozens and there'll be nobody to pick them up absolute impossibility to percy all this wall and it and who will be the victors in that struggle only one result absolutely certain general exhaustion and a creation of circumstances for the final victory of the working class and what other sher silver lining if you happen to be economy is revolutionary new policy to overthrow the government and in one sense a little bit what he wants at least one country but he's not the only person that for seizes some of the best military minds of the time see it to we told you about the field marshal in charge of germany's war referred the man known as bomb old cup but he is a pale shadow of his uncle the man known as the elder of on mold got to come into portion forces in the franco prussian war nineteen seventy eight and one by this time to read he's retired annie's on the speaking circuit in nineteen oh six he speaks to the german legislature and he warns them were more wars cannot be like quote the agent cabinet war is behind us all we have now is peoples war gentlemen if the war that has been hanging over our heads now for more than ten years like the sword of damocles if this war breaks out in iteration minutes and will be on forseeable the greatest powers of europe aren't as never before will be going into battle with each other now a lot of them can be crushed so completely in water to campaigns baby will admit defeat it will be compelled to conclude peace under hard terms and they will not come back even if it is a year later to renew the struggle gentleman it may be wharf seven years or thirty years to ration awarded him who sets you're polite who first put the themes to the powder keg and co this long draw up in the dark is going to set up the first if you wanna use the boxing analogy again the first heavyweight championship fight the world has seen since napoleon stale hundred years before in the interim you how lot of in over one sided conflicts you know a champion like muhammad ali your mike tyson fighting a person you've never heard of or you'll have something like the wars between the united states and spain over cuba and the philippines which is arising soon to be first class power against a declining soon to be third class power or these great colonial conflicts were the nation like britain mogul winning crush the door dishes were the zulus with the occasional setback of course annie we use pro roaming sheen guns against these natives all armed with spears one of these purple machine guns really gatling guns called max i'm gonna was a famous colonial iraq palm that said whatever happens we have got the maxim gone and they have not in this upcoming war all sides will have the maximum don't eat that much more deadly modern versions of the maxim gonna we call machine guns today no one ever seen war we're both sides have machine guns the franco prussian war so the french trying to use these gatling guns leisurely machine guns as best they could but no one really had any clue what to do with them that'll change by nineteen fourteen we were seen in the most professional army is perhaps of the world had ever seen and certainly the largest that the world had ever seen getting ready to clash in a conflict that was going to be like jumping off a cliff in the dark nobody could for c. the end of this one thing's for sure the army for germany it is about to enter belgium is probably the greatest army the world had seen that up until that time and i say that with everyone only big fan imam of the mongol our military science and history in their armies and they're wonderful but they get respect people understand how incredibly dominant among goals for the army of germany during this time treaty kaiser right this is like the rodney dangerfield of army still get any respect and yet there are maybe ye mean you creator top ten list of the greatest army straw all history i put the kaiser right for me on their amateur replicator men are refund certainly were on there yet for the reason we don't know more about that first for war german armies because the second world war germany like so many things in that second conflict overshadow what in many ways the verma locked in the second world war splashy her in the first world war german army now once again to get the boxing director richard their mocked is a baby heavier knockout artist and they go around it's just bullets over one round sometimes and you stand up and it's really an incredible but what someone hits them back and we're beat them up a little bit different game what schuster wearing them down we can continue to wear them down because they're not strongly fundamentally at the core they have agreed conch the rest so on and on even foundation that was really were the strength of the first world war army was a man and a splashy with those giant knockout telepathy and a better chain and make more are ill they rested on a firm foundation tubs of fantastic army and no one remembers it today what's funny is once again it just becomes another thing about golf hitler was wrong about when he wrote quote thousands of years may pass but never will it be possible to speak of your wasn't without mentioning the german army in world war then from the veil of the past the iron front of the great steel helmet will emerge on wavering and unflinching an immoral monument as long as they were germans alive they will remember that these men were sons of the nation and cool it's a fantastic army and part of what makes it so great is this natural efficiency that goes on stereo typically german is applied to military science during a time three were military science really does become science it's become the age of the bean counters and efficiency experts when it comes to putting an army in the field that's what the napoleonic era create we you get this first part of the war machine the ability to crete these mass armies are magic guy like alexander the great or love to mention all the time big dimension julius caesar to guys who probably never committed more than eighty thousand people ever and was stashing know we're capable will make a deal with it then they were very efficient logistically in every other time to read it but they were dealing with eighty thousand men in this era you're dealing with twelve to fifteen times that amount would alexander the great downtrend it in a controlled one half million men it's an exercise in higher math to try to do that and when you hear about how the germans had prepared my new leaf to this day that for so long had been called the danger todd on this attack into belgium and to overwhelm friends in the u. get an idea of how much actual bean counting in planning is involved now in order to maintain his armies it would be impossible hundred fifty years before because this capability dean existed it's a function of modern civilization and the europe of the twentieth century again ideas some idea to think about the division which is the basic unit that these militaries can operate with goes back to napoleonic times divisions are still use of course a military today and if you wanna think about fifteen thousand men in a division is a kind of recited action fluctuating different lotteries one of the testing fifteen thousand men the fifteen thousand men division is probably more troops than either the norman's or the saxons half the battle of hastings the pivotal ten sixty six battle to decide the fate of impertinent time england at the time sold each division is is equivalent to a rather nice size early medieval army the german army and being in the war has more than eighty beats imagine trying to control eighty norman armies and it's not just by giving each division were nice big old it's about sinking what they do together when you started organizing divisions in the course record and armies that his armies have to support each other they have to travel on different roads and unconverted certain point and you have to think of the incredible math it's involved in these march columns and her teacher mind around but you do so large in the road so narrow that when the head of the column start walking dead gone like twenty nine miles before the end of the column can start walking trying to play and have food ready for these guys when they start marching intermediates the logistics of this is incredible and it's the main reason why you couldn't do this you know ages and ages ago you just couldn't support it in addition all these are major fabulously trained the germans are incredibly trained in terms of having even their reservists on the practice field in germany doing live fire exercises preparing for this day this is what former top gun rights about to start with mobilization you get an idea how planned every step he is in the german army corps once the mobilization bottom was pushed the whole last machinery for calling up equipping and transporting two million men began turning automatically reservists went to the designated depots were issued uniforms equipment an art form kinda company and companies and battalions were joined by cavalry cyclists artillery medical units cook wagons blacksmith wagons even postal wagons moved according to prepare railway timetables to concentration camps near the frontier were they would be formed into divisions divisions in the corps the course in armies ready to dance and fight one army corps alone she writes are the total of forty in the german forces were acquired a hundred and seventy railway cars for officers nine hundred and sixty five for infantry two thousand nine hundred and sixty for cavalry nineteen hundred and fifteen for teller resupply wagons six thousand intentional group in a hundred and forty trains and an equal number again for their supplies from the moment the order was given she writes everything was to move at fixed times according to schedule precise down to the number of twain axles that would pass over given bridge with any given time and co when you were ill as how minute li planned and how old you know pat shoulders whole thing must be in order function you can see why delay isn't even a few hours will former whole timetable off you're right before this whole conflict for examine mentioned it earlier the kaiser will turn the bottom old kid he's panicking at the last minute agreed to bring more leaders not so telephoned it all looks like it's coming down for julie for him or fortunately for him and the staff that works under him or top as nails again and other things german army industry brought to table which to be honest the second one did most of the time to this fantastic leadership the kaiser one point thinks the war with britain's offices great we can turn the army's around you know just under russia instead of worrying about france and england and all of 'em all he has to stop and say you do not supervised the deployment of millions i think exact line was the deployment of millions cannot be improvised but you get the point this was a beneficent planet to deploy the largest number of people that ever been sent in a single area for single purpose probably in all human history you think about napoleon's greatest cotton ranges gamble right to invade russia utilizing a normie composed of many many many different european people's money a discreet germany in every place else to get enough people to send in your russia was something that was called the grand army in knowing the early eighteen hundreds this is crazy endeavour sent maybe seven hundred and fifty thousand men into russia the german jurgen invade belgium with more than twice that even out flanking maneuver that's not even the army that hole in the current budget debate wide swinging gay kids can smash on top of the head of flats had you control that many people how do you even get number one place to another week has seemed to think in our hated again just march across you know mountainsides in country lanes and through fields and pastures and sometimes they do most of the time they get to places the same way most of us to the utilize the road system think about what the road system in belgium tiny little mostly world belgium is gonna be like with this massive greatest sized army probably ever put together trying to march through it all in a short period time they were witnesses of course to this actually happening or the phone wants to read for me is richard harding davis because davis is one of those guys he's an american he also they basically the war correspondent out what the main want of his era and he wrote about the deployment of american forces into baidoa determine the sentry or was catastrophic he's he's really your rah rah americano connor guy you know americans the best of everything in an odd sort of feeling but he was there in belgium at the german army comes through and you can keep coming and the reintroducing stenciled lead because you've been hearing his writing his jaw is on the floor and hear someone who doesn't think anybody does anything better than america and he's getting a lesson in what the best army in the world looks like remember this kind of force at this kind of level and potency hasn't been on display in anyone's living memory you're getting a view of the nation at war like you would napoleonic times but marched and equipped and organized and supported by a modern twentieth century status was we were beginning to see a tiny little glimmer of what the leap in the dark was going to entailed is going to untangle fighting armies like this one richard harding davis wright called the entrance of the german army inter brussels has lost the human quality it was lost as soon as the three soldiers who led the army bicycled into the boulevard to regenerate and ask the way to the get an award when they passed the human no past with them what came after them and twenty four hours later is still coming up is not men marching by the force of nature like a tidal wave an avalanche were river flooding into banks at this minute in his ruling for brussels of the swollen waters of the comet now we swept through johnstown the side of the first few regiments of the enemy he writes we were thrilled with interest after three hours they had passed in one on broken steel gray column we were bored but when an hour after hour passed and it was no halt no breathing time no open spaces in the ranks the thing became uncanny inhuman he returned to watch it fascinated it held the mystery in menace of fog rolling toward jewel crossed the sea and co he then goes on to describe the uniforms which you're pretty much the same color the second world war german uniforms were felt grab audiences the proper way to pronounce it but basically it's just the gray but during this time to read most nations had only relatively recently gone away from gaudy colorful clothing no bright red scarlet for british troops only recently given away the khaki and the french rory steel or stop the blood to belong in napoleon's army right underwear raid pants and blue jackets and the mccarry sabres undercount reagan have brass plates and horse hair helmet to mean it's kooky staff most militaries are moving away from that the germans use of grain harding thinks is the most fantastic use a camouflage ease ever see the british packing is often compared to auctioneer read it's gotten dusty davis goes on on upon how the minute the east german soldiers get a hundred your intermediate see him anymore he said he was washington kurt german counter we were right by him he could see the horses but he couldn't see the guys on them because they just sort blend with the fog and mist in the twilight and your early morning hours and a collar he goes on on about how great that isn't how scientific it is he goes on court yesterday major general voyager rocked the german military governor brussels assured burger master max that the german army would occupy the city but would pass twirl it is still pass and i have followed in campaigns six armies but excepting not even are on the japanese or the british i've not seen on so thoroughly equipped i'm not speaking of the fighting qualities of any army only of the equipment an organization the german army moved into the city is smooth bleed and as compact lead as in the empire state express there were no halts no open places no stragglers this army he writes has been on active service for three weeks and so far there is not apparently chin strap or a portion missing he came in with the smoke pouring from cook stoves on wheels and in an hour and set up post office wagons for which mounted messengers galloped along the line of columns distributing letters at which soldiers posted picture postcards the infantry he writes came in files of five two hundred men each company the lancers in columns of four with not a pen and missing the quick firing guns and field pieces for one hour and a time in passing each beyond that to mean issue wagon taking twenty seconds in which to pass the men of the infantry say fatherland my fatherland between each line of song and they took three steps at times two thousand men were singing together ring absolute rhythm and beat when the melody a way the silence was broken only by the stamp of iron shot boots and they get in the song rose when the singing ceased the bands played marches they were followed by the rumble of siege guns the creaking of wheels and chains clanking against the cobblestones of the sharp bell like voices of the bugles for seven hours the army passed in such solid columns that not wants my taxi cab or trolley car passed through the city like a river of steel would blow would bring in ghost like then as dust came in as thousands of horse's hooves and thousands of iron boots continue to tramp forward they struck a tiny spark from the cobblestones but the horses and men who beat out the sparks were invisible and ignite pack wagons is siege guns were still passing at seven this morning i was awakened by the twin but many bands playing jauntily whether they marched all minor not i do not know but now for twenty six hours to great army has rumble by with the mystery of fog in the perch in our city the steamroller and co telephone call but that's that's the german army because right on campaign the german army in the second world war is that country's best attempt to recreate that not always believed the very for world paucity of the scary now so this kaiser right german army worked against it at the beginning of the war in the way they heard it drop the entire beyond history of the war i think long after which helped establish this german reputation as sort of the bad guys because this morning was so intimidating so scary you're reading from the persuasion drilled to the equipment to how well organized they were to the logistics to the leadership to the intimidating elements built into it and had a wonderful i unit called the death's head postcards which goes back to you know the napoleonic wars earlier actually and they wear the old-fashioned house arsehole elma doesn't ninety fourteen folks isn't cannot be contained the buffer hellman of the house or is an omelet for helmet is a scrawl for my usual little bit of the s. s. forces in the second world war but show she did all of this predated you know what the nazis did the nazis were just being a la casa german traditions in an ally cases perverting the moon staining on what blackness and everything but to death's head has a larger famous an intimidating as they're meant to be but then you take that really nasty ferocious intimidating army that looks like they could take on any one the world of the first time you see him in action and taking on god bless 'em the belgians but tiny little neutral nation that less than a hundred years old and is never far war in fact is so small as surrounded by great powers that they knew rationally figured out a long time ago it doesn't matter how much effort they put into defense taking away in in the belgians totally unprepared for war for lose only little bit faster than the belgians obsessively prepared for warfare they put their trust in these international green as they had the people were coming guarantee the security which is how little things happening in a wet rag but he did elsie defenses maybe as a sign that we know we can kill able we get hurt you and defenses are really cool because it's really right in that period and in human history where fortifications forks were each sort of their high water mark and we still bill for today but nothing like it was a pre much mud beginning of in human history until what about the time we're talking about here because then you could basin entire defense strategy and forty nowadays we have these special positions we'll guard with four but if anybody besides the canister launching missiles and bombs mommy doesn't matter for to hold up but something we learn very soon in the story barney eighteen eighty twenties belgian for to build this is the purity where it looks like modern attack is gonna make these things like space tickets and again a star wars cannibals planetary defense is they build these wonderful subterranean forts barbara cochran said like hassles sunk underground what killed the lizzy normal minute of the old guard godzilla films of the monster zero films we pass 'em planet antidote to have a garden of good just rise up from the planet's surface shoot me go back down underground and that's what happened in these boards after my myself how cool that is this is like stevie comic stuff because we're building the sport for belgium it's the same time that the united states and mexico are trying to corral july on 'em on a bunch of apaches in the american southwest will not going on the belgians are building underground forts we can see some of the stuff and you if you could imagine one which comes a generation after this obviously but the same kind thing which if you look at for above ground you can barely tell this afford pair when in fact underground in a massive concrete and in a little railroads underneath moving guns and ammunition around and it's cool stuff in the way the belgian designer who was one of us to the world built the system he took advantage of the natural river and slight rise in the hill everything in the rebuild six big board's with six small fortune between you and all cover each other's fields of fire with their guns so you would for a can reach with their guns forty to reach with airs tuesday overlap so there's never a place in the distance anyway with the guys can't reach the enemy and in between the sports the belgians have it so that the gonna put guys in trenches to between every fort our people to their support by the guns it's this wonderful system in utero more troops out in all five hundred yards a thousand yards ahead to keep the enemy artillery awaiting at this system work maybe you can't win the war against someone like the germans but you can give 'em a bloody nose maybe say see you you really don't want to nussbaum the germans are sure about that when they come into belgium kenneth bacon the belgian are meeting to discuss tan sri lanka said earlier or maybe in a few shots up in the air we protected are on our understand aside in the first sign that the germans wrong about this is that the bridges are blown up when they get to them the towels are blown up the railroads are blown up i do that and the germans 'cause they're on this tight schedule right so now they have to deal with at least transportation nightmares on this road system that was already can be called terribly mean they're sure first night manager mr across some these rivers on the frontier in pontoons and villages starr should madam so all the germans put into action a group that they have designed specifically to take these fortune is the parts for yet as to where we are war is declared you have a seventy two hour forever be traded their heads around this idea and the same time they flipped all these switches for mobilization the doomsday device i call the work your column up all these forces and everybody are gonna stop you're never beach scrambling what they assume loser waste to the front lines which they don't wanna lose remember what they get worn only one side came meanwhile though while everybody is concentrating its call their forces the germans have like thirty thousand guy is that we're set up in advance to go out basically in the pre game of the first world war i get she could set a and take out the supportive they have to because the sports are blocking the roads you cannot get to that belgian road system that you need to get from germany to france if you don't take the porter a place like liane chuang anymore and so thirty thousand men have been training for years for just this job like that said earlier that day was called your togs that day this is been planned for four long time and the germans have essentially a special unit thirty thousand guys whose job it is to take out the score to the belgians don't stay inside the surrender them the belgians don't stand aside the surrender of all and in fact the belgians are going to teach first great lesson of the war about what's changed since the last time great powers faced off how much the killing power that machines afforded mankind on the battlefield how much that had changed the age old equation of war machine to be taken over for a long time becoming more more important this is the war where they take over completely and man supremacy on the battlefield even though the ones who were on the machines always be now secondary compared to the killing power and mechanization they can be brought to bear in a bomb our society is the technology was devastating we used against tribal peoples and nations they couldn't compete militarily the belgians are gonna show what tiny little army of chocolate soldiers with the germans both urban affairs with tiny little army a chocolate soldiers can do to the greatest army in the world because of the deadliness of the weapons at the one interesting so something into this whole upcoming conflict is how long it takes some people to absorb the lessons and are being taught in this conflict and that lesson number one is how deadly the weapons or how you have to look alfred are some of the general's an illiterate acres understood this going into the war because they pay close attention to the nineteen oh five four told about the russo japanese war which by the way american president teddy roosevelt one nobel prize for helping to broker the peace that but that taught lessons about what happens when two sides on a machine guns and two sides are armed with modern art jewelry all that face off but the lessons were not the kind of lesser some people more the learning if you were a cavalry coming under for example you're part of the military is already not looked upon as very survivable wars all sense napoleon of crime show madison county regis dies on the battlefield the only thing the cavalry commanders to have going in their favorite gerard really automobiles yet there will be built on this war's over but they were novelty will be used in strange innovative situations with military's of the world and at tom's of automobiles you're wanting it's not mechanized like the second world war everybody's using horses even if they die on the battlefield you white sheets of the week being cited down yet nothing to replace them ability with these cavalry commanders don't want him it's even worse than it used to beat why wait till the modern art jewelry machine guns get ahold of your cavalry one here that's a good talk about the result is being on representative commanders were very um involved the idea of the pollard the bayonets and charging offensive for example entire french outlook on war right now is connected to this idea to attack in the u. tack with the band at this really mean you're gonna they began and can come up about aggressive style workers which want if you've been preaching that natcher countries doctoring your entire military role in a drama culture of the offensive and clan which is the french were my guest for why got son it's all about got nobody wants to get a machine guns just rip got out that the only thing they care about that just need work to have a bayonet charges and ridiculous offenses well the french would say yes what doesn't work for the russians are the japanese work for the french and that's why we have a great military i mean is all kinds waste rationalize but you don't wanna learn many of the military's of the world are organized like napoleonic times they don't wanna hear that is a completely with all the way to be organized the french how are we heading off to war as i said earlier but you have to imagine as if you wanna see what napoleon's soldiers looked like go look at pictures of the french cavalry in nineteen fourteen going off to war with metal brass plates and horse hair helmets and you would have to be an expert to look at a picture them in nineteen fourteen and a picture napoleon's cavalry in eighteen fourteen and find the differences the officers are gonna go toward white gloves didn't have swords they're gonna stand up and trickster gum arching to combat in like a beleaguered ball formations or bowling pin formations drill formations from the battlefield none of the people who consider this to be in a drug reported military culture wanna learn that the rules have changed in nineteen oh five they got one lesson in nineteen fourteen your body get another and the germans get theirs who may try to take the sports on august fifth nineteen fourteen the germans attack for buddy's building forts now between the force the belgian to quickly put an infantry and our couple machine guns around one on the germans killed during a bit of a rush you don't have time disappearance start things out this thirty thousand man force with artillery has to go when they're in power the springs of the army's behind him can continue their if you'll just fall through belgium on france and the charge these and trench and so and the bell to slaughter them slaughter them moans of bodies and the belgians can't figure route the best way to deal with it because the mounds of bodies become a problem because the mounds of bodies become places german troops can hide behind him shoot from behind and large attacked from behind and belgians eternity you're ok do we shoot through these bodies in creepy creepy create a whole for bodies if you shoot through the fiend along of what we send our people to risk their lives to create holes nobody is that we can shoot through barber tuchman has a passage in her book or she quotes the commander of the belgian forces that were resisting this term assault by general von n. n. n.'s special brigades have been right squawking on august fifth and it's brigades opened the attack on the board eastern most board doubly etched with a cannon made my field artillery followed by an infantry assault alike shells made no impression on the forts and the belgian guns poured a halo fire on the german troops slaughtering their front ranks company after company came on making for the spaces in between the forks were the belgian entrenchment had not been completed at some point when they broke through the german stormed up the slopes with a guy who's could not be depressed reach them and were mowed down by the forge machine guns the dead piled up in regions a yard hi at fort marshall and belgians seeing the german lines waiver charged with the bayonet and threw them back again and again the germans return to the assault spending lives like bullets in the knowledge implantable reserved to make up for the losses she imported belgian officer who was there court they made no attempt at deploying a belgian officer discarded later it came on line after line no more shoulder to shoulder until we shot them down the fallen were heaped on top of each other in an awful barricade of dead and wounded that threatened to mask our guns and cause us trouble so high to the barricade become that we didn't know whether fired for wit or to go on a clear openings with our hands would you believe it is a veritable wall of dead and dying enabled those wonderful germans to creep closer than actually charge up him back what they got no farther than half way though because our machine guns and rifles swept them back of course we have our losses but they were slight compared to the carnage we inflicted on our enemies in the core it's interesting to note is not a belgian officers respect for those wonderful germans as he called them exhibiting the military virtues of valor that were so celebrated during this period where are the romance of war for which always been strong human culture was probably at its height the nineteenth century to romance was incredible this is the error when that romance runs and reality away the key to skipper tend to guys like you wouldn't tecumseh sherman the civil war general for the u. s. famously said the war is hell it's glorious all moonshine but that didn't really see pinned a mass of the population is one historian and out they want publishing a whole lot combat photos and really nasty terrible stuff for the folks back home and anytime during these periods so there was a lot of stuff to really counteract the romantic ideas war this is the conflict where you can hide it anymore and even though this belgian officer looks at this german assault on this board is something akin to the charge of the light brigade the famous doomed charge of that brief cavalry during the crimean war but here's the thing that this war's gonna teach if you watch the charge of the labor day you think it's magnificent and and brave and doomed to attack on the part of incredibly courageous man what happens if after the charge males they send another one in the same results appear in the sun another woman same results occur and they do it again and again at what point does this wonderful doomed romantic no celebration of the courage of the military hard but calm something obscene this war's gonna take us there it's going to pound appoint a home to get sick of it after the failure of the german attack on the belgian defense is the germans regroup to attack the d. in that same night august fifth they're waiting for the sunday go down and witnesses who were with the troops described them as nervous and anxious and gloomy about the prospects of assaulting the defense is again what's more doing it at night for most of human history night assaults if you were lucky had a torch light illumination it was always a huge gamble very disorienting you couldn't see anything dow's gonna change with this war and was going to be a facet of twentieth century war for that we may never see repeated digging and now that night vision has become a battlefield stapled there's no reason to light up the battlefield in fact it was i guess negation of the other just get along that led up in this period these germans are we going to conflict with the nighttime darkness could be banished by technology you had searchlights in the sports knew it searchlights and german side sometimes you had to shelve the good chewed up into the year it would illuminated night sky you have imagined bunches of those shells going off in the dead separating of with a overlap us of the getting brighter and dark room it'll look a bit remind you of like a flash ball but fleiss that so strobe light fluorescent nomination and it just passed a ghostly paul but the whole battlefields of that every time you get that burst of light you see thousands of people like ants moving on the battlefield and you ever tell every going off and i'm just think about how weird and disorienting being in the middle of a modern battlefield would be in the daytime and i take away the light freaky and that's what these german soldier but the phrase and there are understandably nervous they expected some sort of romantic kind of war even if it was dangerous you have a chance for heroism and a chance to die for your country mean this is a generation that is absolutely confused with the ideas of nationalism and that time for your country is a huge glorious thing we should look forward to another scene wait a minute that how glorious it to be one of many people mowed down by machine guns it just sort of randomly don't go on the assault began and this attack start the ball down after it starts then there's an officer whose roaming around the battlefield who normally use in berlin with the high general staff of the german military the germans increase their staff members to get out you feel sometimes see what's going on in this guy had a pity to retreat and this battle because he was will the people who planned it for years he'd been planning this by look he took his vacations from germany to belgium just look around worried about was gonna be fought and our city a vested interest in hoping his plans were carried out correctly he's wandering around this battlefield the night looking for what the holdup is and find out that the general commanding a certain part of the attack is dead killed by machine gun fire to the sky the staff officer ooh historians are described as absolutely devoid of the year the big man in grabs the unit of the dead general the or six thousand men in the dark and starts leaning toward the objective the all these boards more than four hundred god is from afford to them the gondola german scientists can beat is unbelievable chaotic mess in the dark and this one general has grabbed this unit is and is heading toward said the only act which is protected by the circle forthright with him in between all the fort he finds the spot that some defended leads this unit past affords him to the city on this and gamble but maybe the city will be defended her maybe if i walk in there was six thousand guys bushes lay down their weapons now the germans don't have a lot to celebrate in the military history the second world war because the cause was so nasty doesn't matter in how many good things their troops did in terms of military history the military side and the causes so corrupted taints everything the germans can take some justifiable pride in that adventure show real disguise because first he walks in the city and everybody disorder surrenders to him there and then he goes up to the citadel the main defects in the center of the city with his sword help keep how is on the board demanding the surrender and they open up the door and they surrender yeah thanks talk about bolden let's talk about gambling this is a basically on known german officer who beat has all the name he is making for himself will be the position that some historians will call the military dictator of germany within four years name is eric looted or look endorse actions that night were mine does want to get even those arrested several times the machines are gonna taken over the dominant role in war fighting artillery guns all those things are machines you can't discount the human factor in fact the human factor is probably the dominant factor amongst adversaries differ somewhat evenly matched me no modern military genius is going to save belgium from germany v. the differences between the potential of the two sides is just too great between the relatively equal or only moderately on equal powers leadership to be the determining factor in the bowl the show my little dwarf that night as a precursor to weekend expect from him later rotted and what the russians can expect from him very very soon their wooden doors very audacious capture the city of the archdiocese all the problems of the germans have because all those quarters to like to be skeet take in the city hasn't taken the forts they're still there ready to shoot a german march columns of those bitter not taken before the big march starts so little dorf calls for his inhalation the whole i said the germans in the planning for this attack for very long time they knew that the belgians might resist and they knew what they did they had to have a weapon that was greater than anything the people who built the sports ever invasion in the eighteen he's although some of these forty to dc nineties in that era for two more basically guaranteed to the belgian government to be invulnerable to any cannon they know in the world but the cameras that were there no in the world are no longer the maximum size cannons available on the world those belonging to the germans and no one even knew wait until they for showed up on the scene and gave the common even better demonstration than the machine gun fire maureen down those for germans charging the belgian defenses that the weaponry was simply doomsday device like if you imagine it magnified thousands of times the weapons around the way from germany to belgium to reduce these forts of the best example i can think of to show how much has changed since the last time the great powers fought each other in yorba hundred years before you know where it is that more on display in evident than in artillery which a hundred years ago during napoleon's time was already what napoleon thought decided battles and he was a guy who made his bones in your to re he rose through the ranks is artillery officer he's known for its use on the battlefield here's a guy that that could shock people with the killing power will you churchill or read and his big gotten us were firing twelve pound campbell's twelve pound cannibals the gun itself way about twelve hundred pounds same gun essentially in one case that both sides in the u. s. civil war used by that but twelve hundred pound can the gunman thomas way in the guns up there on the way from berlin to belgium way the largest weighs almost three hundred thousand pounds twelve hundred pounds to three hundred thousand pounds the shell all the napoleon's twelve pounders fired or between nine and twelve pounds the shell that this monster that four hundred and twenty millimeter version of its own away that shell was two thousand pounds and the napoleonic era came in the bus or deadly at the time it we were shocking the range of an effective range about two thousand yards this weapon on the way to belgium which is indeed been designed for wayne each and all it's a siege came in so does even have to fire very far as seven times the range of that french cannon that was designed to shoot for this is an entirely new kind of warfare and the people who actually see this gum wants its assembled or slack jawed then assembled it must be because think about trying to transport this thing now we're talking about a gun that is just over sixteen inch down which is the largest naval gonna with the exception of the japanese germano classy teenage battleships ever know put into the field of the great american novel ships that americans love to look at from the middle of the end of the second world war those are sixteen inch guns these guns on the way to reduce these boards are those guns basically a tiny bit larger power to transport them we get some giant tractor with caterpillar like wheeled her some good one yet and then i knew that they have horses to the disassembled us almost three hundred thousand pound piece of equipment and a. m. a. transported would like thirty five horses taking each piece you know many sanders a dip in the road again give people the propping zapata it takes forever in there when they get to belgium in the role jerome messed up and it's eighty two which takes forever to get these guns to when they need to be in there when they get there the crew was like a couple hundred guys haskell plays samantha cement house to deride the gun has to be assembled to put together and them when they wanna hire this thing this issue ninety of the monsters were talking about the gun crew had to go three football fields away three hundred yards away and fire the thing electronically and they were still so close that they had to put cotton lauding over there i used to know was anarchy wrist and they had a fire this thing all their mouth was open for the bowater your drums and potentially worse than that imagine what this weapon dies the shell aspire in a four thousand four or cut it takes a full minute to get from the doughnut the targets in fire rudman is the sixty second wait until the explosion happens on like napoleon's time we have a cool shells that can be delayed action fused an armor piercing so when you fire met these boards they hit the top of the board that at our panel firefly at something the fire we up in the year ended drops right on top the sport sheldon pierce's or were concrete an unwanted reaches its maximum depth and then it explodes the wonderful world of science and engineering is going to take over the battlefields of this upcoming conflict in the way that is never happened before and this weapon in the most symbolizes in this early part of the war you know you're example of future wake up call here sure darth vader here's what twentieth century war for skinny the gun arrives along with some cousins were slightly smaller firmly also great um armaments workshops go that in austro hungarian territory than andy weapons created by crop n.'s go to start shelling nice fortune ishtar going down minister point out fast now those are you listening my shows no not a huge john keegan fan but as a historian i think he's best on his world war want world war two histories and he wrote about the sky on its arrival outside forces uncorked after it was replaced the bombardment began the cruel wearing had banning lay prone three hundred yards away while the gun was fired electronically quoting somebody to see now called sixty seconds ticked by the time needed to the shelter perverse it's four thousand meter trajectory and everyone listened in to the telephone report or battery commander who had his observation post fifteen hundred meters from the bombardment fort could watch a close range the column of smoke earth and fire the climbed into the habit he can continue school the first of the shells delay fused to explode only after penetration of the forge protected skin it fell short six minutes later the next was fired then five more each of them walked off towards the target as the allegation was corrected the relentless approaching football the dead nations spoke to the paralyze defenders of the devastation to calm the eighth straw calm pentagon fell silent for the night but the next morning joined by the other which accompanied the journey from s. and the bombardment reopened the rain to be found and soon the two thousand pound shells were quote stripping away armor plate and blocks of concrete cracking arches and poisoning the air with heavy brown fumes and we quote end the indian goes on to say i'm at the murder the poor freshmen used these forced the twelve thirty one ford is iraqi says in his physically incapacitated and surrenders been a shift fire to another ford which renders five hours later a third explodes with magazine is hit by one of the shells completely destroying the whole thing that will happen to a couple of these forth by the way them when they find those good germans were first on the scene said that they look like quote a miniature alpine landscape with debris strewn about like pebbles in a mountain stream heavy artillery in any nation had been thrown everywhere the tupelo had been blown from its place and had fallen on its dahlman it now look like a monstrous tortoise lying on the gel as the sport began to fall the artillery and closed in on the fourth that had the general commanding this whole affair then he himself rory was like to be under fire by weapons and no one had ever seen like kevin human history corp a shell went to the arcade under which the general staff for sheltering all light was extinguished by the force of the explosion and the officers ran the risk of essex evasion by the horrible gases emitted from the shell i'm a firing ceased i ventured out onto gorham inspection on the external slopes which i founded been reduced to rubble heap a few minutes later he writes the bombardment was resumed his seemed as though all the german batteries were firing salvos nobody will ever be able to form an adequate idea of what the reality was like i'm only learn sense that when the big siege mortars entered into the action they hurled against the shells wearing a thousand kilos explosive force of which surpassed anything known hitherto their approach was to be heard in that cute buzzing and they burst with a thunderous roar raising clouds of missiles stones and dost after some time past amid these horrors i wished to return to my observation tower but i hardly advanced a few feet into the gallery with a great blast passed by members thrown violently to the ground i managed to get up and continued on my way only be stopped by a choking cloud a poisonous gas was a mixture of the gas from explosion in the smoke about honoring the troops corps we were driven back half suffocated looking out of a peep hole i saw my horror that the fortune fall on slopes encounter slopes being a chaos of rubbish or huge tom was aflame were shooting forth from the throat of the fortress my first to last only right was to try to save the remnant of the garrison rushed out to give orders as also soldiers whom i mistook for belgium gendarme and i'd call them and halligan poisonous gases seem to grip my throat is in a vise and co he woke up to one of his aides and a german officer giving him water those soldiers she thought were belgian were german they were the first enter the fort after shelled that needed no the magazine in the entire for one hour to janet explosion these are enormous metal and steel and concrete the forts these guns warp hole for rising forts that were built to withstand the guns and just a generation before and doing so with the ease that's a demonstration of how much things had changed just as the eighteen eighties and think of how much things have changed or napoleon's time to the eighteen east this was a nineteenth century world discovering the horrors of twentieth century warfare and you're going to have to learn how to deal with this new reality won huh we take a bloody lesson at a time the lesson of liane age is it the arrows of the basinger defenses on forts is over this is a lesson that will not be learned toby talk again in france in may nineteen forty also my opinion that the germans are being taught a lesson even as the stories gone down in the gutter polarizing the fortune belgium the germans should be taken upon what your current events are trying to teach them they will never take that lesson the hard and they will repeat these mistakes they're making in belgium again in the second world war it's safe to say i think that the damage done to the german reputation globally as what's going on in belgium hello goal weight to lead least the nineteen fifties i think you could make a very decent case i'm never gonna why and did that involves the german treatment of neutral countries the noncombatants wherever they find them and now if you watch this story unfold it's cleaner abed in some respects the german just don't get it when you would think they would this is a country did enough for me now they've lost his reputation duty to world war two nearly vulnerable for book but they used to be considered an absolute hotbed of human culture to the cutting edge of art and science and literature and fought and philosophy yummy all these things that the germans really prided themselves and music coming in incredible people that guys like h. g. wells were intimidated by could help admire them but was intimidated by how big how ahead of things they seem to be how advanced reason to be always areas howl strangely ironic though that people that are so advanced in those areas could have so many blind spots in areas that one would think are related to the higher culture aspect to the people who are producing such cutting edge higher culture how do they mean us something that's likely to be is damaging to your international reputation as what history now calls the rate of belgium the rape of belgium i should point out little bit he is a propagandists fantasy immediately needed to practically movie to break up of belgium go see the rape of danny caine in your history books and then you'll see something the propagandists did not need to magnify all to create a world class historical atrocity killing field belgium wasn't that but it was something and that something would come back to haunt the germans in ways that they all seemed in your window begin knew we quoted earlier about propaganda killer season after the war that the germans were just blindsided by twentieth century global communications and the ability to manipulate world opinion by taking things that were real facts and blowing them up to levels that just incensed whole societies including nitro countries the germans don't understand that the way they're conducting themselves in belgium is affecting public opinion in places like united states which have large german american population by the way which are cheering believe the feats of arms and how the german military shown himself to be so dominant american papers are not one other person gets the germans displayed in some places american papers rain region's battered dominated by german americans they can't explain away what's happening in belgium and what starts the day the invasion of belgium happens the germans start killing belgian citizens only do so as part of what is now understood to be the policy of frightful masses of those polled on our show that's the perfect translation of the charm but the germans intended to us and examples of people they did things that the germans had said you shouldn't do the city should blow up bridges that they find you blowing up bridges they are going to punish you when they do not get probation they will hang you they will shoot you if they catch incredible but bridge the germans take that even farther though if your nearest village were bridge gets blown up the village might pay the price the germans bleeding collective punishment also believed in taking hostages for good behavior when people didn't stop any way they kill the hostages this is no more of the most contentious parts of you know new scholarship all the time only question of atrocities in belgium because you during the war he's dish huge deal and those of you by the way of loop on the fifteenth the same dynamic at work work we'll atrocities happen are members of first call for the stories of you know iraqi soldiers taking kuwaiti be resented incubators and from on the floor and stealing incubators and all the stories are normal because real atrocities are going on but then there magnified because the magnification works to the benefit of the enemies of the people the propagandist working against the germans when it did the budget things in belgium that make them look bad because they were bad and then the foreign media like the british were fantastic it does get ahold little stories and turn them into the worst things you could never think of the germans only began to get this you know a few people and autonomy leader on much later on the kaiser sauna gun owners to crown prince would say the belgians when the germans lost the first great battle of the war but they didn't lose it on the battlefield the crash the belgian out lost it in the realm of global public opinion because of their behavior behavior that the germans will to use all throb this war and again in the second world war this tendency to ignore neutrality as we said earlier the german diplomat double the british diplomat as you in war or piece of paper says the p. to do trial is often violated the war that's kind how they thought they also thought you treat noncombatants harshly and you know to sort of softened that little it's worth noting that the germans treat their own people this way they are a star in a rather strict some would say savir society especially in a depressurized elements of that unexpected in obedience and discipline in conformity to the rules an actual dates back to the wrong people on they going to belgium and the people by with the rules they get treated harshly germans just fail to proceed maybe the cultural blinders the people that come from much less severe tradition as would maybe you're playing that quality yup something uniquely german and nasty what does that should be pointed out the lot of different peoples in the world at this time having problems dealing with the regular fighting was was a big deal of the company redefining of course is one in a regular people take up arms to start shooting enter soldiers like roland troops for example in vietnam the u. s. fob viet cong guerrillas very difficult to do cause all kinds of prompts atrocities can happen on the breeze should just dealt with this not altogether successfully in south africa or across the issues happened at the french were dealing with it in asia and north africa the russians were dealing with central asia the japanese were dealing with china and korea at this is a problem all wanna country for having the germans were very worried about what were called free shooters today would be called the snipers because of the war eighteen seventy them are brought a sniper's to lead to belgium and if they thought snipers were there people pay the price left right center whole towns would be executed if the sniper was loose and here is the worst part snipers may not have even been lose some historians say these are bunch of gunny shy soldiers who've never faced will live fire were some were shooting at them they may hear some german soldiers gonna go off from the other side of town start to one civilians it's a very controversial issue some historians still fall with a lot about a jaunty in strikes me as somebody who's who feels is absolutely to defend this idea of german in o. r. a demolition us a couple of love he says are like the author when we come on gorham world about this but she did a very balanced job and so did neil ferguson ferguson will of our ferguson says she goes and finds like out of the regional thing that happened and how we got blown out of proportion and put on the last of all these people emphasize the same thing these atrocities happen these people died the germans practiced collective punishment all these awful things that most of the most of us you revile to the n. n. they paid an extra praise for by providing the base exceeds that would grow into enemy propaganda that would turn the germans and genghis khan basically which is exactly would win the gold compared to when she writes quote the united kingdom germany's honor haggerty been tried and found guilty germany's name was ahmad and now that she condemned herself on parole mouth no room for beastie allow rage was to the vial to be believed they emanated mainly from the refugees would fled half terrified other words from the towns and villages of belgium they were the first hand account for people who would escaped from the flames of and then we're two hundred hostages had been shot from demeans were four hundred were gunned down by an added and from the inhabitants of did not would arouse the hiram the germans by destroying a vital bridge the german for many twister wound up more than six hundred men women and children and shoot them in cold blood at the youngest age three weeks died in his mother's arms the stories were true when the germans made no attempt to keep them secret they were after all intended to warn inevitably as they traveled baseball and fictions in their wake of rape of macabre killings of mutilation of breast and hands sliced off by sabres of crucifixion is a baby's dipped into boiling water worst longing for sport against brick walls there were even whispers of cannibalism brings a truths weldon grew into a crop or for rumors of unspeakable billing is unsurpassed since the hordes of genghis khan had rampage to pillage across asia in france and in britain the newspapers were full of them public opinion hardened it was no longer merely a just war it was positively righteous and people were out for blot in court and the germans ever cover from that image even now have that you talk about a misstep what is the germans had treated neutral countries and noncombatants with more respect how different like their reputation be good at what if they'd learned from belgium in nineteen fourteen any reacted differently in nineteen thirty nine one thing's for sure this whole idea of frightful listen or dick how you know the people the two major subjected to the boot of your shoulders back in order to bad policy foundation is any underpinnings of that idea justin morgan the people in charge for guys like i'm okay who said it to his austrian counterpart yeah i you know it's brutal are advancing the belgians brutal waiting until you know we're fighting to save our lives basically is life or death it could be a little bro for a while ago as a bomb all kept he was wannabes logical insanity as somebody asked him once on what the most humane way to care reale warriors any famously said the quake belligerent on make a quick answer world boxing analogy on malta was basically saying not come out quick knockout steps that the nicest you can be even if it's horribly brutal to make the knock out as quick as it is so bond morgue in this case is basically serena yet so it's terrible by dawn in the end is gonna save lives maybe she'll hang if you're the saboteurs are you should've to these people that's my picture troops and then they stop doing it knew about the burnell villages bouncing about works neal ferguson he addresses this issue is basically sort of telling us to not be so naive and we've all lived through you were the twenty first century now we settled on time to absorb the ideas of twentieth century propaganda and how it's a legitimate aspect of warm water that they should do is perhaps page or adversary in the worst possible light chicken again something to the german toward quite getting when the twentieth century was brand new today we get much better in the second world war ferguson is book tells a story where he talks about you know the ways in which this propaganda were used me talks about how the british newspapers would take photos sometimes for stories it had nothing to do with this war in one case stories with a handful rose from russian pogroms against jews that happened before the war and in just you know captioning of total with something that says it's from this warming no one had any idea show budget dead civilians and say this is what the germans are doing ferguson rich called but prewar photographs of russian pogroms genuinely were reprinted to in quotes illustrated stories of german behavioral belgium the sunday chronicle he write to us what many british papers which alleged that the germans had caught off the hands of belgian children while the former scare monger we'll let go related with kill this guy is to relish the quote wild orgies of blood and the botch read in court in which the germans allegedly indulged including the court worthless by elation in killing of defenseless women girls and children of tender rage in court ferguson continues quote other writers had great fun imagining sixteen year old girls being called forced to drink and quote and then coke violated successively and called on the long before having their breasts quote pierced with bayonets and quote the bayonet it may be ferguson says was another favorite image j. h. morgan even through in the charge of quote sodomy of little children and court but even ferguson is forced to deal with reality of the situation that the stuff was and manufactured out of whole cloth and him being a belgium in the in line of german advanced during this time period was a very dangerous position or perhaps find yourself in and perhaps of no fault of your own ferguson right quote all boldly on tom pernice wildly exaggerated what went on in belgium there's no question that the german army deidre made atrocities there in nineteen fourteen according to evidence from the daughter researcher men soldiers another reliable sources all be advancing german armies executed civilians including women and priests altogether about fifty five hundred belgian civilians were deliberately killed by the german army most of the money eleven tape your read from the eighteenth to the twenty eighth of august nineteen fourteen at least another five hundred in france the germans also use civilians as human shields and raised maneuvers villages to the ground in one case in eighteen year old girl was bayonet it to death there were also are numerous rapes and occupied for acts and crew john keegan blobby sleep feels very strongly about this mom goes on his way to point out that these are not no sort of ramshackle fares that these involve lots of troops sometimes that the city's executions are not them by special executions causes will be the case and second world war sometimes but by regular unit of the german army he writes quote the victims including children and women as well as men and the killings were systematic at ten means the hostages were massed in the square shot down by executions wards and survivors bayonet the executions want we're not as were the action groups of hitler's holocaust specially recruit killers but ordinary german soldiers indeed those who murdered and endemic were the reservist of the most distinguished regiments of the persian army the guard bridger mentors of loss and co and the belgians would have every right to would think would new to wanderings their living through this where their protectors are they sign these agreements that said their independence is guaranteed by the greatest powers of the age where are those people right now on the belgians need them all the seer the german army marching through and burning things perhaps shouldn't he pleaded no the answer is thrown away the british are in the process right as we are in the story landing troops on the continent to heeded the french were finishing up the last bits of the necessary ingredient so they can launch an offensive the russians are shocking everybody by putting together enough units to at least attack eastern germany undermine the germans did you catch a speech or eastern border on defended control everything against france we're still here and the auster on gary ins are about to find out exactly why the serbs have such a ferocious military reputation all this is gonna happen pretty much simultaneously hip it's gonna be the first we'll consequential experiment to test the hypothesis a socialist deal with the water cosmic hypothesis concerning the question of whether or not if you don't enough you can beat the violence have a society for a culture or people were each given the globalization this time period l. josh rain maybe world and the answer is that depends on how hard to beat them i guess no one's been beaten very are yet in the story at the belgians are bought an appetizer to what modern warfare is going to be like modern warfare between the great powers on the planet the first experiment in this hypothesis and beating the violence of societies is all know why to force an addiction to the human species what about to happen is the first dose of shock therapy to see if we can be cured of it luo audible was the internet's leading provider spoken audio entertainment only time to be heard me say that but i'm watching this revolution is happening in the audibles in the forefront and it's truly quite breathtaking this change in our society that is coming because all the transmission of text based materials to an ordeal for now if you were in sight impaired person you obviously don't need me to tell you how fantastic this is for you but as a guy who's always loved the textbooks the actual paper in the print and everything i don't ever want that to go away but there were times when it's just not convenient to read for example when you're in your car driving somewhere or as people in los angeles so well no sitting around waiting to drive somewhere in traffic we do then if you wanna catch up on your reading you might as well be doing it at the same time right to take your eyes off the road though can you that's were something like on a ball comes in i hear from long haul truck drivers all the time low pollen testimony you books because they can't take your eyes off the road but it's bedtime otherwise for them why not catch up on the latest new yorker article for example which horrible can help you do not just that this is becoming something that in the way has revitalized literature because allow zhou to do weeping when you're doing something else to multitasking mean if you're modeling along you gotta watch the edging don't joke but you can enjoy a agreed old time golden age radio show were some agreed speeches in history when you do changes on a book and help you with that too more than a hundred thousand titles to choose from and growing all the time every genre you can think of all hubbell has those companies well i find them to be a fantastic reaser city got a horrible pod cast but calm corsage hardcore history right now he can get a free or your book out look i would suggest you if you like this and he couldn't talk him on this broadcast to pick up all world and on the story of the great war nineteen fourteen to nineteen eighteen by g. j. meyer he's one of the few authors because he's really a writer more than use a historian who's able to capture it some of the real drama and courting us and we're innocent tragedy of this conflict in the way that it is so darn easy to get ball gown and never quite capture they were great historian to tackle big reward and never emerged entertaining on the other side ever john keegan comes to mind is a fantastic book because the best job or equal to the best job i've ever seen and bringing the war to an understandable place giving you were not background so that it makes sense and so that the drama really hits home it's a fantastic piece of writing for conflict is extremely difficult to explain i think you'll enjoy world i'm darned if you go horrible potash dot com pork slash hardcore history he just might get it for free be sure to follow as lunch whether it be a giraffe is at hardcore history why all the blood tests we really appreciate your cell which is very simple just by your amazon dot com products through the amazon search window on damn car one dot com and damien bynoe get a percentage or to spend and it helps these guys are because they aren't nice young fellows you think they share you discern is worth a dollar to an end and we're glad to have an abacus al it's all we ask that the n. carlin dot com for information on how to donate to the shelf get their first just with the most is i think that's the phrase that made me cringe during the editing process listening to the show you just heard as i can almost hear of five ten fifteen thousand allow me added civil war buffs american civil war buffs we're listening but that's gonna be a sore point with emanated kelman listen to it during a meeting and is going on how do i really want all those e-mails i didn't attribute accord to anyone in the gist of the confederate cavalry commander but it was supposedly allegedly legendary lee said by getting nathan bedford forrest controversial figure even today but that's not unusual among confederate generals and it's not even unheard of among the union northern generals foresters maybe in a class by himself but he's not controversy when it comes to big knowledge in his military genius is one of the best american generals in this whole period in us history he's an innovative cavalry commander he knows and is already absorbed the lesson that most european cavalry commanders even the first world war when it breaks out that they haven't absorbed and forced realizes that you can use cow or read the wage traditionally been used in a true it's entire history up until that point it just two for one of the weapons to destroy the alarm would count we could do so forest stripped down the job of cavalry to the better man i'm residue that nothing else can do it moves people faster than anything else can do so we used it for that he essentially had an elite unit of mounted infantry and he would transport these people too vulnerable importance box technically important areas to smell the news of mischief in dreaming used or justice could dowdell out of there before superior force could catch you it's a very modern way use cal ripken really the only way they could survive on modern battlefield of course the battlefield that nathan bedford forrest was trying to discover we live on no we're is deadly for anyone horses especially at the battlefields would be in nineteen fourteen those battlefields runaway the appetizers over the main course is about to begin this greatest army in the world is about to run into what is probably the second graders storming in the world francis and the probably in terms of bang for their bach most elite military force most experienced military force in the world all east germans marching on france great trained troops you've never been in combat except against belgians bigger run into a british colonial forced it's tiny but that has so much experience and there's almost no room for any more in a unit honors for these unit as they fought so many parts of rural so long as so often they're not coming to this war into learn on the job they've already done his job many times today maybe the only truly really experienced troops in this conflict which will make them to give back to our boxing metaphors able to punch of both their weight class they're gonna give a lot of them in small numbers probably indicates a wallet but can anything stop this german steamroller you know i've often asked by people how large the army did defending the imperial rome waters and at its height the high number usually see a seven hundred and fifty thousand men the entire roman empire the south lawn army with the entire roman empire is it wholly lumber soldiers drop the entire no borders and interior the places maybe seven hundred fifty thousand jobs seven hundred fifty thousand guys is also the upper limit numbers we said michel that napoleon they've used in his famous and for more an invasion of russia so that some paprika number just to understand what bearing down on the small british forces landed on the continent and as french force was waiting to find out what morning or first really like the lower number is seven hundred fifty thousand germans just simply marching through belgium the high numbers one point five million and a dozen even count the troops pacing the french along the traditional fortified hundred twenty mile border that's normally the invasion route you have the equivalent of the entire warmed up power of the roman empire at its height oozing the belgian road systems to fall in northeastern france that's an amazing ball what happens when the irresistible force it runs into the immovable object will find out if either one of those titles turns out to be true imparted a blueprint for armageddon