Episode: Show 49 - The American Peril


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Show 49 - The American Peril
Imperial temptations and humanitarian nightmares force the United States of the late 19th Century to confront the contradictions between its revolutionary self-image and its expanding national interests.

Dan Carlin's Hardcore History
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they show is bronchial by laudable li's visit horrible dot com slash great courses for your free educational course download the hermit crab my being boring wind a day with who wear get in a meets his true love and we're well come on gone i'm bernard her have you been soaked had what i had bought by a combat unit have had about how but how'd one but with more than that level and the owner of the total city lost i'm playing hide and loses the meantime the hud and at hidden and and how to act when he'd want why you a wasn't a year low hit those people of know what will the that home did you listen to him was we did beat the martyrdom of gardening and remember who you're not used them to come before where and that it's hard coal rich history when he was the chief of staff in the obama administration rahm emanuel was now the near chicago made his statement that once i heard it i knew he was going to be crucified by the conservative media for making it because the statement shows kind of know what autobahn bismarck the german chancellor kohl the sausage making a government and he suggested that people who had weak stomachs should not watch sausage is being made or government policy being made but sometimes oftentimes there are sides to government policy making that seemed to be ooh people outside of government rather self serving or cold hearted or almost conspiratorial rama manual famously said it never let a good prices go to waste we should buy that i mean you can often do things that you couldn't otherwise do in a time of crisis any predictably was crucified for saying that and i always want to tell the conservative folks who were crucified him for making him out to be his bid to truly evil dark lord policy for making such a statement how dare you in a news self serving me some terrible crisis involving you know people being harmed in and then and bad things happening for your own inner nefarious agenda which would've gone out of those people that were on an annual stole that quo and it probably been said of the zillion times in the past by world leaders in people trying to push their own agendas i was most famously honored by a conservative winston churchill british prime minister amongst other idols that he held up and churchill said never wasted two crisis now the part about the good prices that i won again today will is twofold one in the way it plays in the conspiracy theories is always fascinated me because if you look at how conspiracy theories develop they develop based on the old cicero idea that he so finished with the roman or torso famously hundred him what his legal cases were he said we bono who benefits for two which benefit and of course we trying to get you to do was to look at a crime were you really can divine who's behind it and say well maybe you window and understanding who's behind it is to steal benefited from it and so conspiracy theories often function on that basis to which you could say something like look at the nine alive and attacks who benefited from that and if you do your research you can see that there were lots of conversations amongst bombed bushy ministrations facials about it what would it take to be able to go and topple saddam hussein for example or documents by groups are i'm associated with bush advisers like the party for new american century we could say it will look they were talking about how i'm good might be have award bring the country together unified is true that in an alley and there were sold him maybe they need you know started this whole thing maybe they prompted this whole thing maybe they're behind an eleven 'cause look at how would work to their benefit when in reality they were following the age old government would become of you're not letting a good prices go to waste look at how old but the situation in nineteen forty one and at the same sort of effect on franklin roosevelt and people forget now because it's overshadowed by nine eleven how much you a conspiracy idea develop the round pearl harbor what was struck on december seventh nineteen forty one obviously franklin roosevelt had now the war that he wanted for at least a year before that ye country today would've been very difficult not to get to declare war without some real good reason to do so and when the japanese car pearl harbor in that famous surprise attack he now heads reason he wasn't going to lead a good prices go to waste in fact would've been no way to have it go to waste it was gonna be worn out and are people ever since that time with insisted i there are at roosevelt knew of that attack before happened and didn't do anything about it because he wanted to be able to make use of a good prices or that he actually true this or that policy encourage the attack because he wanted a good crisis that he couldn't exploited what talk about a story today that is every bit as much of a turning point in us history as the nine eleven attacks were and as pearl harbor was in it's interesting to point out that in a little more than a century you had the least three occasions where a violent on expected incident changed the entire course of u. s. policy in a way that would've been difficult to imagine without it mean play little one f game for second trial managed the twenty first century without the nine eleven attacks happened happened to me it changed the course that we were on the entire trajectory was altered and it was one of those rare occasions also like pearl harbor and also like this either into the mouth of talk about today then it was not just to transform into a moment in world history because there are plenty of those one of those we're short to transform in a moment with the people who were living through what are able to as sexually realize that the living three transformative moment that trail normally you have to have historians and people looking back from the features a while those people were living through you weep you're getting tense change normally it's hard to divine on a day to day basis the true one of those people living for one of those periods if you were watching the nine eleven attacks on fall within twenty four hour she knew that the entire world to check it but the world that existed before those attacks was dupree national level world anew when the postman level world now and things were to be very different pearl harbor same kind of an effect the situation i'll walk talk about is a perfect example of a never let a good prices go away situation one that also is prone to conspiracy theories although after pearl harbor now after my love and it's receded into the background people don't talk about that as much but this incident was probably more responsible for the u. west emerging mama world stage when he'd be a bit than anything else because it was taken an event like this to shock the american people and to provide any rationale for the american government to do what perhaps it wanted to do anyway this event was like the lighting of a power k. unlike the wedding of her take to get involved in the church lotion and in the same way that the explosions from the non eleven attacks and be seen as a historical marker taking off the twenty first century in terms of tone and style and atmosphere even someone talk about today providing equal leave good historical marker for kicking off the twentieth century the century historians have donned the american century and yet that's an outcome that few people the late eighteen hundred's saw coming the course there were people like de tocqueville who in the early eighteen hundreds predicted the united states would be a major power around the world stage the actual major powers on the world stage in the late eighteen hundreds did not consider the united states to be amongst them well mr reagan has said it that to the likes of the great britain's anna france's and the russians and all these countries that were in the great power called the united states in the late eighteen hundreds wink tucking importance diplomatically militarily and politically with the likes of belgium in sweden and many great powers did not even have full consulates with ambassadors for the united states because it wasn't considered an important of country are regional player to be sure but in nation that was war fully on able to project power all week navy was small army and the country that while he was obviously able to feel the major military formations one who had a mind to have added to the biggest wore a generation before against itself the u. s. civil war that lasted for making sixty one eating sixty five still pass this huge shadow over the united states is domestic policies it's hard to understand now just imagine one half of the united states after war was over involved in the military occupation of the other half the way the united states occupied germany and japan theme of the second world war and even though that period that ended they were still strong divisions between the blue in the grey is they were sometimes called the northern part of a country and the part that had lost the civil war that had been under occupation all this made century hangover stop was an issue in a country he was quickly moving into the twentieth century telegraph to completely change the size of the globe more used to take forever in terms of messaging across the planet was no not quite instantaneous but almost in addition to telegraphed the media had evolved into something that is if you look back on and off thoroughly modern tabloid press political brassy knoll the u. print equivalent of today's fox news in m. s. n. b. c. all the things you can look back on the media of the late eighteen hundreds and you can easily see the direct line of development from all we have today to what they had done in addition the united states was transforming itself from an agricultural nation we didn't enduring so war to warm the bromides people of today in industrialized world in society and a multiplied ethnic war and in addition to the more more in all african american minority didn't exist in the united states in every beginning you were seen as we mentioned earlier for courage to broadcast an influx of people that were for it to the american experience by and large people died in a certain sense made the people already in the united states somewhat uneasy about the mix of ethnicity is an religion is that were swamping as they sought the u. s. demographic in a population the u. s. had always had a large number of immigrants from great britain and the scandinavian countries and germany now they were getting immigrants from eastern europe the mediterranean jews catholics people all the religions that we're minority religion is an a. were all congregate in communities in certain places and so if you lived in a place like new york for example all the sudden appeared like you were swamped with italians jews are irishman austin was the same white irish just taking over the city practically in your mind all the sign you saw your traditional country threatened but that was the only thing that threaded changing times deed to it is hard to overstate now the importance of the ferrante are in the mentality of the american psyche this idea that somehow living next to hostile indians and i'm tamed wilderness was a part of what made americans americans the census of eighteen ninety the united states officially declared the ferrante or call there was no more why old constable bland in the north american continent control by the u. west this was up in a sense to some people psychological blow they couldn't quite figure route how to incorporate their view of what america was with this combination of people that didn't look like americans to them to practice religion is that maybe seemed american to them and they didn't allow for expansion into on tamed wilderness to take population pressure off and ashore whole nice new people like the age of a fine blade to weigh razor sharp ears to the challenges posed by wilderness and natives in all my captor go ahead to that one other factor that i find fascinating for this period of time it's almost a wonderful example of how old science especially when it's an undeveloped state can sort of pervert the highest fingers in modern society because of its incorrect and it's maybe you could say it's something from this period no ms social darwinism now everybody knows the idea darwin and natural selection in the ideas connected with that what people in this pure read did was take was considered to be cutting-edge science at this time period and start applying it to all kinds of things that darwin didn't necessarily apply it to you once you start talking about natural selection with kevin obviously for people that time jury to start looking in human beings i'm wondering if hey came to see how white people are the ones who have the most developed societies and can't you see how dark people don't and doesn't that tell us something about you know who'll is naturally superior to other people in all the sudden you had the most intelligent educated people of this age adopting what we understand now to be thoroughly any pseudoscience called on the level off for knowledge he e-mail measuring the bald son design the people skills to the side of the criminal tendencies one at that by the way was cutting edge science and late eighteenth century to in this case tell this perverted we're interpretation signs was both considered to be fact an indisputable educational no scientific fact and it impacted the entire destinies of nations because people in the cutting edge most powerful nations in the world which also happen to be these white anglo saxon type nations began to was soon that there are dominance joe to their genes in their racial superiority conferred upon them responsibilities something good kipling called up the white man's burden uh course this idea the cuban call the white man's burden was not bring him he just had been given an extra lease on life bodily eighteen hundreds by seemingly having scientific confirmation now we know that the idea of this up your your your the anglo saxon races is not just an opinion scientists confirmed it and the eighteen hundreds when the two hundred is the pure renewed we're it's the high water mark of european colonization of the world and now you had more than just a shell serving reason to do that africa was a perfect example of an entire continent being split up and partial out to european powers it wasn't just for land and resources and now you had a legitimate reason why that you made sense in it makes sense for the people who live there those darker skinned people were born to be civilized now the reader be taught religion they were gonna be instructed him to the arts of sophisticated anglo saxon self representative government that someday you know with the proper series of events and training it would be ready for it's the same sort of rationalization americans for so long they used to justify the taking of native american war you ward simply doing it for rapacious reasons you were symbolizing the snake if you were taking them to school you were teaching about god any work uplifting them from that no barbaric nasty brutish and short life that nature dictated and bringing them into a kind of life are beginning to will all the benefits that in all anglo saxon government and enlightenment could convey income for this is to heat up understanding this time period though because they were all whole lot of good well intentioned folks with you know good moral values who want to do the right thing to ball into this idea that help explain why sometimes things that look horrible to warm our eyes now could be done by people who were legitimately trying to do the right thing the idea of what the right thing here is changes no over the historical arabs one of the things that seemed good to anybody concerned with national destinies in the late eighteen hundreds of great power status seem to be emulating with the already successful great powers were doing if you were somewhat concerned with the status of the united states on the world stage knew what to emulate what the already powerful three countries were doing you needed to get into the colonies business this was something you had needed to do before the official closing of the frontier nineteen ninety but now that you run out of territory you could simply take from the arab regionals were living on that you're confronted with new sorts of challenges the united states had taken bly and for people like mexico in the nation's past they bought land from places like france for example will we see a purchase in the past all of a sudden though it looked as though the united states if they want to keep pace with what the great powers but we're we're doing we're going to have to get into the business of colonies but considering the unique house to the united states is was easier said than done until a crisis provided an opportunity that might have just been too good to waste to use while rahm emanuel winston churchill when the words of a lot of other political leaders to history the crisis that was too good to waste occurring in february eighteen ninety five on the caribbean island of cuba and if you want to call this place is the rebellion or the revolution henri civil war you could probably be considered after reading any of those cases you see cuba was one of the last new war possessions still retained by spain he was one of the regional why was discovered in fourteen ninety two discovered in your court by christopher columbus it wants was a minor part of a new world empire the consisted of most of north central and south america at one time by this time spain was left with cuba and puerto rico and a few other of tiny little places napoleon having been the main reason when he went into spain and topple the government of sparking independence movement throughout central and south america so that by this time spain is sort of living on the fumes of what had been a four hundred your old empire in the only things left to justify it were you bought an owner's the perot with the jewel of the caribbean and has in porto rico and these territories were so important to spanish pride and self image that on several occasions when the u. s. offer to buy them now the u. s. offered a hundred million dollars at one point which was a time of marnie the time to spain to sell cuba in spain said they'd rather have to the sink into the sea the deceive owned by anyone else the problem that spain had during this time period is that there was a large percentage of the cuban population that differ with spain about this and they were ready to take the island over and this created a huge problem for the united states now the u. wes had been intimately involved in several of the earlier rebellions by the population of cuba were some of the population cuba against the spanish overlords americans had been running beyond was illegally and helping revolutionary movements by fondling you know important figures from the coast of the united states you're now it's all cocaine and drugs in that area speedboats back then it was like whoa still speedboats nina by the standards of the time but they would be a abbey's moonlight ron's to the island of people willow guns and sabers and revolutionary figures untried overthrow the government none of these people by the way are operating in an official capacity putting on a state government in fact most of these people are in violation of several neutrality laws the u. s. was trying to force their free builders dear adventure reach their high your hands sometimes one of these guys were confederate blockade runners in the civil war war now operating in a leader paid or for emotional reasons for the cuban policy legally the cuban american emigres in places like florida in the late eighteen hundred's seemed to the standard i'd be almost identical to the cuban emigres in community it's in south florida now just as concerned with their cousins on the island and just as involving u. s. politics to try to get their concerns dealt with by u. s. politicians in fact are all kinds of interesting things to cuban americans did to try to get the united states more interested in the cuban freedom movement was it was it during the lady seen hundreds getting involved in the union movement of those things that was a by product of industrialization the u. s. was no more of an agitation torch workers' rights in in general the cuban americans who were involved heavily in things like cigar making didn't have much in our interest in the unions but the unions have lawmaking trust in them they finally struck a deal with one of the major unions to join the union if the union would take up the causes of cuban freedom they greeted the deal on all the sudden you have unions are they are sending representatives of all we today would call lobbyist to washington to push this idea of cuban independence because the cigar makers in south florida in admitting that concern of theirs so several times earlier rebellions and bold americans calm in them and sometimes when the spanish copies americans on gun running ships they would execute them you're creating little international incidents between wanting to spain by and large the u. wes was troubled by the idea on the cuban revolution and reason why had he was something called an old transfer clause between spain and the united states involving the island the united states had decided to sometime before this period that they could live with the spanish going to break even though cuba was so important to the national security of the whole part of the inner region to the u. s. because spain was weak the war were read about spain but they were worried about spain turning over that ireland is somebody that was a week or spain sold it to great britain or germany for example to the united states may be clear both to spain into the european powers that if spain ever get ready cuba they had to give it to the united states they could keep it was okay to but they decided to get rid of it the united states had the habit or the gore war but some of those we are circumstances in the nineteenth century with the west told everybody elect aligned in the sand you by cuba from spain world war no big deal right pre understandably these cases spain's hands or goshen united states know whether powers allowed to acquire cuba there's a little bit of a loophole on that deal though that nobody quite foresaw what if the cubans themselves in a revolution for cuban independence overthrow the spanish government as the island and transferred that wasn't the only thing that became an issue for the u. s. government were worried about the future with cuba the other thing had to do with how the revolution was happening itself don't agree to ninety five it begins and begins on the eastern side of the island and keep the keenest to move westward and as it moves westward it begins to encompass and take over the sugar plantations in the tobacco plantations in all these places were on a u. s. business interests were allowed investors in the united states had money in these places in the way that the cubans made shoe or that spain couldn't you know he come on me out of these territories in the news i'm against the revolutionaries was to burn them the leaders of the pollution or the civil war the insurrection what everyone color were guys like maxine logo matt's jose marti and go man is issued a list alf stipulations he said quote the changes of cuba had been forged by her wrong richness and it is precisely this which i propose to do away with soon end quote and you shoot series of articles that were quarters article one said all plantation shall be totally destroyed their pain and how buildings burned and railroad connections destroyed article two said all laborers who shall pay the sugar factories the sources of supply is that we must deprive the enemy of chubby considered as traitors to their country article three said all for caught in the act or whose violation of article too shall be proven shall be shocked when all chiefs of operation of the liberating army comply with disorder determined to one pearl triumphant week even on a whirlwind and ashes the flag of the republican cuba in other words the revolution was going to destroy all the things of value one tube with it's being used to patty to put down the revolution the problem was as many of those things that were valuable in cuba or either owned by americans or had american investors this is a standard attempt by the way the revolutionaries in many countries expression the twentieth century abused to help borscht the population to choose sides you're either with us or against us and if we see here helping the regime we're gonna kill ye you can see that throb revolutionary movement an insurgent movement all over the place in the twentieth nineteen the when the twenty first century the spanish military expert quoted in mom the historian gigi anal tools book on the spanish american war describe the tactics of these cuban revolutionaries when he said quote their ride incessantly here in their eleanor horses are tired of bases any they come across they frequently rest arena day and march at night in this light or as possible caring only a hammock a piece of oil cloth cartridges machete and rifle they live by marauding the country people feed them and help them so pours they can and were these as surgeons don't find sympathy the machete the torch in the rope are good arguments in the woods define good shelter or places for storage and for hospitals they placed themselves in ambush selecting narrow passages in the woods boards and lagoons they always run after firing and if bursts outta they leave the small body charged with firing amir pursuers all the main body advances rapidly and it stops and then by circling around get to the rear rub our troops in harass them when they go long distance they divide into small parties make the journey at night in the woods and in several groups assemble until necessity compels them to park again and eat and knew what a pre concerned spot during country is always in loose order are fighting amongst the bushes and always protected by the cavalry at times agreed separate from the main body the mission being to attract the attention of the government troops on the main body charges al machete such are the insurgents of cuba and the ways of fighting pinnacle general mike single gomez was famous for his phrase blessing be the torch and this situation created any huge dilemma for the american government and this is what the main reasons are want to talk about the subject today the united states because it was founded as a revolutionary state based on the idea of self determination are just for itself for other people's often finds its values in its national mythology at odds with its national interests the united states had been after cuba since that time of the revolution guys by john adams and thomas jefferson and thou was another statesman since then and talk about the inevitability of acquiring cuba at some point because all of how he played into the national interests just look at 'em out he was a very long large island he guards the eastern approaches to the gulf of mexico whoever owns cuba controlled the caribbean the cuban and ireland is a perfect natural defense for the entire southeastern coast to the united states acquiring cuba is something that the leaders of the united states didn't just consider it a priority most of them assumed that when john adams were absolutely convinced it was going to happen eventually no matter what one of the cubans don't want that this becomes a problem just like the idea that the best thing for the united states during this period in terms of its national interest is probably to support spain in clashing nice cuban insurgents honey do that when your entire national mythology is built upon the idea that people have right to self determination and freedom and many of the things that the cubans in cuba were complaining about didn't just sounds similar to the complaints of the american colonists against the british monarchy they were deeds that same things things like taxation without representation and in the united states what the trouble in diapers ten they didn't notice you had these cuban americans in places like florida lobbying the government through the union intermediaries making sure that the government had to confront the hypocrisy of the situation this hypocrisy that the cuban americans are trying to exploit has been a feature of the u. s. political wife says the very beginning it's the reason i want to do this program today because it makes you wes politics in the modern sense in us history the past sins so interesting fascinating and the effort because the united states on unlike most countries that have no problem deciding to do something if they decided to the national interest is hamstrung by ideological concerns i am mythology that requires the country to somehow reconcile what it's doing with its mythology that says this is who we are we look in the mirror the united states or the skits of franchise and folks i'm a problem with schizophrenia is it needs to get the two halves of its psyche to agree with each other that this or that causes correct before it can move but the two halves of the split personality of the country are motivated by almost completely different priorities one half is almost on you realistically good idealistic to the point of being utopian and with the self image that is so exalted when outsider's view woodie king come off the small but or holier than thou and yet there's no denying how much we americans buy into that and how many people have board died in sacrificed on behalf of those on realistically good perhaps ideals the other half though the national psyche is much more base motivated by the same no national concerns the most countries are boring under an motivated more by human desires and motivations that are your present in mankind since the very beginning you can point to greet wharf the year or afterwards xenophobia racism have no centers and violence you know you name it the varied motivating human emotions and factors and in prices at the beginning of time the u. s. is certainly not about that either the problem is is that in order to do one side of the national psyche what has to convince the other side that this is the correct moved at hast use arguments that resonate with the others i think of gobble from or the rings the siegel character and how they use schizophrenia can how when it wants to do something the two sides have to agree and sometimes it's the evil side wants to take the ring from ferraro 'cause it wants to wayne budd hast argue with the good side not that we should take a drink as we want it has to say if we took the ring would be lifting a burden for perot it would be good for him to take the ring she have to use an argument that the good side can understand that appeals to it's ideal spot for the other scholars mikal character will move in any direction on concrete if you're an american is of little like that even something that seems as motivated by base concerns as manifest destiny you know that is ready to keep order the story but a key part of early u. s. history that said that there was a god given you reason why he can almost be take the united states should expand across the north american continent and spread from the atlantic to the pacific ocean how do you reconcile such and obviously national concern that the roar of him by greed and settlements and in capability of thinking what that and you didn't mean to people with our national self image that says with this the human rights oriented idealistic people in austin realistically good as i said well if you look at manifest estonian the way it's argued to the no good sign of our national smee gold gaul like a split personality character manifest asked me was portrayed as expanding the fraud in two years of liberty but the entire world is full of despotism kings and dictators and if you could enlarge the area where people were for you need that was in keeping with the national ideals you simply wayne is that we compromise with ourselves in order to be made do with perhaps is in the national interest during this time period the united states is forced to look in the meer any indeed least romantic way we've ever had to do so confronted the difference between what we think we're gonna look like in the mirror and what we actually do look like it's what makes this story interesting and you concede the conflict the internal conflict in the united states faces when matters gold from bad to worse in cuba because in cuba the spanish we're starting to wake up to the fact this latest rebellion under maximum gomez was warship and moser really we're going to lose going to probably called for the sort of measures that the spanish should not have to employ in quelling those earlier rebellions in order to assess the situation they sent one of their military heroes at this point in time an old man but general would be involved in putting down some of those early rebellions to get his views on the situation his name was general arsenio martinez compounds and they sent him to cuba to assess exactly how bad the situation was the general looks around and realizes that the situation is dire and that the methods they will need to be employed to crush the rebellion are the sorts of that is another great powers are using in other parts of the world you might even call it the standard text book for counterinsurgency warfare in the late nineteenth century take a look at what the british were doing for example in what's now south africa to the boar population down there and the boer war they were putting them in concentration camps trying to starve the insurgents by disconnecting them from the population was an awful yes it was awful that we're all kinds of humanitarian problems and everything else but that seemed to be in a standard operating procedure for how you deal with each revolutions to the general in cuba says this is what we have to do with the take the population we have to take them out of the countryside with all other animals in their belongings and leave the move them into these fortified can't they were called a week concentration camps of the problem buddy says it's gonna be so brutal can't do it he says i can't do things like that means literally he took the high road you expect the most generous is a this is gonna be such herb rule policy we see how the how to play on other countries i can't do what is only one guy in the spanish military that's capable of doing that guy by the way whose nickname was the butcher this person and the nicknamed the butcher which by the way was not used to whose faces you can imagine it really was lieutenant general villareal whaler a spaniard descending from german emigres who was yarnall energetic starring me to be sure but actually known as a big liberal in spending he arrives in cuba to quell this rebellion or insurrection versatile war revolution would everyone call it instead you're reaching any six he's hardly there five minutes before the u. west press is all over him few things are worth understand here though first and this is the eroded famously known as the yellow journalism error of american medium she had to take that into account the second thing you'd understand is that spain is like the big bad guy for the american media they during this period were almost entirely in the camp of the revolutionaries in cuba or on their side and spain is seen as representative of the old world of the inquisition of you know old catholicism which had sort of a a a devilish to go over tone to protestant america and you know your journal about five minutes after waiver lions in cuba says that he's quote the fiendish guess but he broke the dam is skater of hacienda is pitiless called an exterminator remain in there is nothing of the journal right to prevent his carnal animal brain that perot running right with itself in inventing tortures and in studies of bloody debauchery end quote well here's the thing about whether the scanner range but he had a hero that he modeled hughes military style on that hero was the exact kind of person that the new york journal would considered almost the military got it u. s. general would he becomes a sherman of course you civil war buffs ought to know sherman was the right hand man for ulysses s. grant in the union army you know as the civil war wound down or wound up he famously conducted the campaign into the southern us that to this day as seven years to think of sherman that the way the new york juror or just describe away learned that alright used and yet the north revered sure minute but he's the one who famously said he was going to go into the southern us a burn things in macon georgia howl and sherman's military ideas which are made up pretty much standard i'm on each one a contingent of military thinkers out there is that it's best to have the war that's terrible but short and sometimes the terrible miss helps to make it short and that the war is to comparable to fight if you go on longer than it should end at that ends up being worse in the long run it's the idea but would come off the band aid and taken the big pain now rather than take it off limits are i'm an end up you know increase in yuma our overall pain you experience in a row for the whole thing hands whaler was it the vote day of german in his attitude and she was the same thing yes it would be horrible but if we make this war short the wheel lot was suffering overall he goes into cuba the reinstitute schweppes will call patrol cars which is an interesting precursor to the first world war basically if you think about cuba hits this long narrow ireland and the trow 'cause we're dead psalms two hundred yards wide think about the like roads that are caught across the narrow parts of the island in you cut the jungle down you stack all the trees up that you cut down to giant walls you put guard tower shu pork bum barbed wire artillery searchlights land mines and you basically by set the island a couple times taking away the mobility all the rebels to move from one side of the other are willing to isolate each rebel group into these aliens the reinstitute snack in any start this policy of weak concentration mentioned earlier now whaler believe it or not is a famous liberal and spain and some historians believe that he sincerely intended for the re concentration policy to involve food and facilities and everything so that the people that were taken out of the countryside could live half we decently but the idea behind it does sound of mean what the great we're lost by your sit on the twentieth century guy with a leading rate china for a long time out to darn famously said that the revolutionaries in the field are the fish and the people the population that supports them is the ocean the way you get those revolutionaries educated your hands on us by draining the ocean the re concentration policy is an attempt to bring the ocean so what wonder does is he gives the people in the rural areas of kubrick eight days to get their act together to come on into the fortified towns with their animals and then the army's can go on run their homes burned their farms destroyed everything with the rebels might use in an attempt to sort of bring the ocean and keep this the shelter now flopping around without support this historian gigi the eight old white called the advantages of the re concentration program or obvious to where you are herded into fortified towns the peasants could no longer furnished the rebels with food and other material support the rebels also be deprived of a very effective intelligence system for keeping track of spanish military movements the peasants would no longer be exposed to revolutionary propaganda and young men would be prevented from joining the rebels and finely since the rebels would have relatives and loved ones among the reconnaissance shroud owes the program would work has so rough hostage system demoralizing the rebels an encouraging them to end hostilities and co any person who failed to obey need these commands to come into the fortified cities and give up in their homes and their forms a moment of would be shocked so think about the port cubans caught in the middle of this whole affair or get the rebels fighting doing anything that they decided to support the government including not supporting the rebels bill kelley on the other hand if you're seeing is even being out living your life in the way the rebels might be able to profit from such as having the form with pool with the could steal food from yet you'll be shocked it was in no win situation for your average cuban and it was going to get worse wants to re concentration policy started because whalers planned have food and decent facilities to how's all these people fell flat his underlings were not as concerned about his you'll liberal ideals us and he was anna support from the government wasn't there these people were sent to facilities they were no more than like abandoned warehouses with no toilets no sanitation and no food the starvation started almost immediately whalers idea was cutting edge in all counterinsurgency philosophy for the pure even more aid of work and he had a farm foundation to build these military policies onto he didn't yeah the government that was increases back home in terms of its political situation with rightists and left us fighting it out in government rising and falling continually piano government that fiscal issues monetary problems spain was basically broken him while all this is going out on another revolution in an insurgency breaks out in other woman springs possessions on the other side of the world in the philippines so the situations gone from bad to worse leaving when did you try to manage as best he came in cuba and the people they're paying the price are the hundreds and thousands of people that have been taken out of there were ruled in houses and farms put into the cities will begin to die of disease and starve in front of the world in your ninety three miles off the west coast now had the story happened a century earlier it's very possible that the american public would been virtually on aware of was happening but in the eighteen nineties you western media was coming of age of course it wasn't c. n. n. the wasn't t. v. cameras reading or a bad but anyone who can remember how for example the television coverage all the famines in the late nineteen eighties early nineteen nineties in places like ethiopia and somalia sore forced all the people watching the t. v. newscast into almost a personal moral quandary over you know who's gonna solve this problem or really do and you know eventually the u. s. went in and tried to your help the situation on you get a feeling for power was in the middle eighty nine he says well because the news market while they didn't have television cameras had a ferociously competitive newspaper industry especially in some of the major cities in places like new york coming or pad of paper owned by william randolph hearst to zombies religion and in american journalism and is major competitor that he in a competed with him the most hyped rope fashion imaginable for repairs was joseph pulitzer the guy the pulitzer prize is named after and these people understood it would mean the exact he is in journalism to better understand that is the war cells races cells suffering cells and you know old stories they can be made dramatic are the kind of thing that worries readership if your newspaper the story's coming out of cuba continually provided fodder for these newspapers and the american public devoured each day is the acumen update whether it was more information on the suffering of the poor people there that was very dramatic or the war situation in which perhaps the war clouds on the horizon in a coming closer stories i'm gonna morning in tom ferocious piracy in the spaniards tracking down perhaps american nationals and boehringer ships stories of people being executed shot by the evil spanish government including perhaps people with american citizenship stories sometimes plan to bring courage by the inner cuban emigres who were so powerful in places like south florida concerning depredations you know that the spaniards were involved in or attacks against american targets or the assault against american officials there were even know attempts to use artists they didn't have photographs newspapers to your appeal to the perryman to be torn in attitudes of the time of the most famous incited him all the books on yellow journalism and what not include the spanish apparently some of this is falls actually arm boarding a u. s. ship and forcing a pretty young girl to strip naked wall three spanish inspectors inspector for contraband and there was a drawing i think that was frederic remington that actually druid showing us naked victorian woman with east really earrings spanish you inspectors looking at her naked body in this is the kind of thing that just took the victorian male added to the just fired in opera mean this is the kind of thing that the american you were playing up and it was for roche's we anti spanish the spanish were making the most perfect snide we would lash stereotypical you know villain in the story the cubans even though on asylum they were doing a pointer for restricting stu the rebels were quite cutthroat also were receiving most of the sympathy and immediately created the good guy bad guy narrative and it was selling newspapers it was also putting pressure on politicians because once the people decided that you had this somalian ethiopian crisis or this situation that resemble the former yugoslavia breaking up on all the stories of war crimes and atrocities is offering people put pressure on the legislators and as with reflected in the halls of congress but eighteen on the stakes you had whaler general we're de board juror took over in cuba was an election your presidential election year and a congressional election year in a state which of course called heard everything first of all the president was a democrat who was leaving office grover cleveland and cleveland spent the last year or two pushing your side you wasn't born to deal with this issue one way to get america locked up into the cuban situation for no other reason than the u. s. and the entire world was in the depths of what the greatest depressions in us history there was a very big feeling that you know they were just about to turn the economic war and good times right on the horizon in the last thing you need it was the answer key to ne kem a conflict war would bring to this terrible depression for molly beatty nineties middle eighty nine east collar how this whole affair was dealt with grover cleveland did not want the cubans to push independence because to him that seemed like a situation with all sorts of uncertainties are mean what would happen if somehow spanish rule and feeding tube and then walked right then that you protect american interest then what if things go from bad to worse in the island then how does it for sure and the time of the depression to cleveland push for something that was kind of a fig leaf he pushed for the cubans to get a limited autonomy from the spanish government as was the way he tried to deflect the crisis he asked spain to treat cuba the way that other colonies had been treated by some other countries in similar situations the cubans don't give full independence but they can have some autonomy to make their own decisions locally spain wasn't on perhaps to them giving me into the insurgents and giving them this in session would be like we're rewarding them for insurrection and even more opposed to the ideal autonomy for the cubans were the cuban revolution at least to them at this look not just like you don't attempt to buying them are of their games but it was a sign of spanish weakness in the spaniards were actually even considering autonomy admit that the revolution was working the revolutionary sort of had a backup plan then stop short of our ride victory they could overthrow the spanish government the backup plan to the insurgents was to create such an unsettling situation that the americans were forced to intervene they can overthrow spanish government controlled cuba and so the insurgents had no reason to placate her do anything that would make the cleveland administration feel better what the cleveland administration feel better they want to feel worse they wanted it to feel like they were pressured by its images of starving children on cnn and you know the grizzly war crimes in concentration camps all those that all played in the hands of the cuban insurgents because anything that heightened american involvement situation tended to be anti spanish which of course work in the favor of the cuban insurgents cleveland pushed the sovereignty idea and limited autonomy ideas long as he coded as the election of a nineteen ninety six rolls around down here is a fascinating part of the election eighty ninety six that you would think with all the media hype and everything else that this cuban issue of the bronco center need had this huge debate on the american people get satisfaction to keep it in a move that kind of reminds one of modern times your how were the united states government and the officials of the governor will debate in a way gee she's a tiny little things that seem less important than the big issues of the day same thing happen in eighteen ninety six instead of talking about cuba which many of the democrats republicans in congress were the presidential candidates who were william mckinley for the republicans and we've jennings bryan for the democrats talk monetary policy i know that's an issue many americans wish that major political candidates were addressed today the back in the eighteenth nineteen is the issue all the gold standard proved to be really big wants to depression took hold and people started to really hurt the killing was backed by a lot of big business people who want the gold standard maintained in or not messed with because they had major rangers in that new wessels what many countries go back to their currency with gold brian we're jennings bryan is a poet was a populist a democratic personal appeal to farmers in poor people and people who were caring about a dead who presumably would then helped if you could ease the gold standard allow another precious metal in this case over to also back the dollar so busy she wove gold or silver took over that what shouldn't and things like cuba became one of those issues that occasionally reared its ugly head both candidates would make some quick in off the cuff state about how they support the cubans an enormous pain needs to mellow out all the trappings but really knew nothing of consequence all the time this is going on the congress start shutting up about it because neither the democrats or the republicans in the congress want to hamstring their political in a candidate and grover cleveland the president is pushing this autonomy idea pretty much is away most historians believe to give the spanish time to crush the cuban rebellion because if they can do that everything can refer back to the status quo all the cuban situation is off the u. s. to do list for awhile and everybody's happy again you know the u. s. can focus on other things in the election week in a six to republican we mckinley whips that cleveland's very concerned and so was mckinley that award not break out of the end of the cleveland ministry shutter to war war starring brings one presumes leaving office and others taking office and then everybody's concern the mckinley not be saddled with war five minutes into his presidency he takes office in early eighty ninety seven begins to focus on his main pet issue he's an expert on their ropes as we start getting into that situation and events in cuba dropped the situation right back in his life mckinley so hard data figure out first of all in because you can't figure mount it's difficult to understand what his motives or he's a bit of a blank slate he probably has less direct information about him than any president in modern u. s. history he didn't write diaries in keep notes the guy never wrote any memoirs i mean the people that he spoke to about things sometimes gave contradictory accounts of what he said the killings but come the ultimate blank slate for later historians to sort of projected the urban news about this error we're talking about on the story we're right after the story happens and up until almost the second world war the attitude out there was that mckinley was a screw-up the mess this whole thing happening gave in to media wouldn't call the media pressure and were called the jingoistic tendencies of the american your segment of the american population at the time moron she goes in a minute the nineteen sixties the entire neri changes is that at mckinley being sore this into office he becomes discounting mackey of alien like you know republican business leader who's out there to a business interesting taking over for markets through force of arms over a pro in ann arbor public arm you know enthusiastic goes and all these countries with a force of arms take small risk all governments you want to begin to explore the economy and now with the whole post nine eleven neo conservative approach to things that are the budget new conservative histories like max boot it is both the savage war to peace the right about people like mckinley like beer the perot ago george dubuque bush administrator sold this guy sort of because of his lack of in a defining himself has allowed future historians to define mckinley enough for their purposes the truth of the matter with the guy is he seems to have been someone really wanted peace in this study is the bundle mama can we talk about him as a devoutly religious man who saw horrible carnage in his service in the civil war which affected him deeply for the rest of his wife which he said many times i saw the dead stacked up an anti feminine or was he in a war and he was worst days of fighting in terms of american getting u. s. history and the killing was there he made a statement on in this time period about the importance of avoiding war and he said quote we want no wars of conquest we must avoid the temptation of territory of aggression is a war should never be entered upon a until every agency pieces failed pieces per for bo warren almost any contingency pinnacle the story short expert jamaican leg was cool to seem to suggest that this was probably the way mckinley actually felt here's the problem mckinley and he was beginning to include people in his administration that felt a hundred and eighty degrees differently about warning he did and two of these people are famous people in us history was pretty famous guy named and recapitalized another was so famous he's got his face carved in stone on mount rushmore eventual president of the united states theodore roosevelt both roosevelt and larger to where the leading a gene goes in the american political scene at the time gina was not a word used very often with me is is well in a nice since it means someone who's telephone defense jim colbert patriot with things that their country should expanded bombed someone chauvinist taken bellicose and nationalistic sense today we would call again go someone who wasn't that an extreme nationalist and certainly roosevelt and large both fit that description mckinley didn't and as a matter of fact when mckinley takes office he has a famous will worry says gentleman you can be sure it'll be no dingo nonsense in this administration of an ego was ahead and brings in law just sort of the leading advisories roosevelt as the undersecretary of the navy sounds like mckinley had to be convinced about this but eventually lodge asked him for personal favorite for small favors the point roosevelt of this position now but only as we said during this time period has the cuban situation for his lap again at balls in his lap because there's more reports he has to send people once he takes office to cuba to decide for himself how bad the situation is and when they returned they returned with these reports which follow on the heels of new media reports about how bad things are i mean in january after the election of before mckinley actually takes office bombay reporter writing for firsts newspaper says stories talking about the devastation cuban how we can see paul's of smoke rising above the palm trees all the time on this idyllic island the workforce name was richard harding davis in january eighteen ninety seven he wrote quote i always imagined that houses were destroyed during the war because they got in the way a cannon balls or they were burned because they might offer shelter to the enemy but here they are destroyed with the purpose of making the war horrible and hurrying up the and the insurgency began at first by destroying the sugar mill is some of which were worth millions of dollars in machinery and now the spaniards are burning the homes of the people and harding many around the town's to start out the insurgents and believe that without shelter or places to go for food or not hide the wounded soul they along wherever you look you see great heavy columns of smoke rising into this beautiful sky above the magnificent call us and equal newspaper counts like that one had the effect on getting kahng were seen fall just like they had during the cleveland an illustration during the early mckinley administration congress tries to recognize officially the legitimate standing of the belligerent c. of the insurgents what this would do was all but the u. s. up to officially sort taking soft forget what the newspaper the american people want and if congress got their way the u. s. was sent to be throwing their lot officially in with the rebels this is something the former president grover cleveland had avoided and now we're mckinley tried to avoid to the problem was is mckinley didn't really know what was going on in cuba he couldn't trust the sensationalistic newspaper accounts so we sent an old friend of his ajaj and former congressman named william calhoun to cuba to have a look around three weeks later calhoun returns and addresses congress and president mckinley he tells them that he went out into the countryside and founded the populated he said quote every how's it been burned banana trees cut down cane field swept with byron everything in the shape of food destroyed by nazi outhouse a man a woman or child horse mueller cow or not even a dog he said the people of been forced into protected zones where destitution and suffering a maid is hardly he said he noted that they saw a quote children was swollen limbs an extended abdomen and that added tropical appearance this i was told was caused by want of sufficient food and equal what how wounded by making the statement was put mckinley on the horns of a dilemma here was the guy who want to avoid war because of the destruction and suffering he'd seen on the battlefield in the civil war places like the anti them but now he was basically being told that not going to war was going to create or allow the perpetuation of the some more amount of suffering what you do if your goal you know nicki nice case histories like lois gould actually believe mckinley was this devoutly religious figure was trying to do the right things in terms of his ideas of all loving god in his piece for religion what you do if that's how you feel and i'm going to war is going to create suffering i'm not going to war is going to allow suffering to perpetuate while mckinley tried to figure rob reiner answer jeanne goes like theodore roosevelt for sure they are ready at the does she make you indeed now the luxury simply weighing the pros and cons of the cuban situation in a vacuum these new people on the scene he's team goes or any new dynamic in american history the fact that the united states had always had a frontier to expand to court was always dealing with north american concerns kind of kept this whole idea that would burr firfer to today's impure realism off the main parmer of american history the closing of the frontier all the sudden a whole bunch of americans looking at the other great powers of the world and noticing that the great powers of the world as henry cabot lodge won the century it was a senator from massachusetts and always of the great powers of the world were grabbing up all the little he called them waste aliens with that really meant for a jury is that didn't already have agreed power controlling i'm grabbing up all the little waste areas of the world and absorbing danny into their steel roof national existence and to henry cabot lodge this is one great nations did he would not be unfair to talk about the united states as having an inferiority complex during this time purely it and desiring that the rest of the world recognized what americans already recognize that america was a great nation guys like teddy roosevelt were obsessed with this now teddy roosevelt is now the most interesting american figures in all u. s. history he is also just about every little american boys favored president he was certain mom and it took me a lotta years to try and figure worldwide adding most american boys grow are that fascination with roosevelt because the reason we're so fascinated as little boys with teddy roosevelt is because the things that motivated teddy roosevelt the things that were important to teddy roosevelt on the very same things the more of a little ball is he was an adventure junkie as one of associate pointed out about teddy roosevelt after he became president they said quote you must always remember that the president is about six and the court which wasn't that aren't true the guy sort of reminds me sometimes on the heavily armed imperialistic racist version of peter pan you always leading a troop of kids on an adventure now up the whole racist thing requires a little explanation to because racism is something you really have agreed on occur or if you took teddy roosevelt on this time period and brought him of being too today and sat him down he would make archie bunker look like a liberal he would be a screaming racist but you greet him on occur or if i considered the average americans level of racism in the late nineteenth century is the benchmark than teddy roosevelt is a progressive on the issue of race but when he talks about race he's not talking about in the kkk vehicle coats crimes were way race in the late nineteenth century referred to not just ethnicity years would use it to date but also culture in a number of other factors that play into their idea social darwinism that we mentioned earlier why is this race hiram lauren bacall shore scale of survival of the fittest and all my cam stuff that they thought about the time to those people the idea of national greatness was connected to warfare fighting in and of itself was valuable simply because of the side benefit to convey it they conveyed benefits to a concrete and a conveyed benefit to the individuals who fall in conflicts the eighty nine human history to britain was a period sort of psychological crisis for many of the leading nations of the world who believe that their populations were becoming soft and flabby that civilization was weakening the marshal fortunes of western man for guy like theodore roosevelt war was the equivalent of going to the gym he considered himself to be an anglo saxon any considered one of the major virtues of the anglo saxon race to be military superiority there was a whole military history connected to their reaganism in the indo european strum million years ago practically were they taken over the world dear great marshall virtue and there were these historian to witchcraft how the indo european said settled in certain countries and lo and behold now those countries lead the world and yours is hold it out if the social darwinism was a pseudo science this whole indo european warriors you know leading the world been withdrawn history was a pseudo history and rows of all bought into it lock stock and barrel the romanticized war in no way that is almost how mccall to modernize comical and dangerous he wrote a book with his intellectual compatriot henry cabot lodge alum called hero tales which is almost silly you by modern standards by the international listed heroes in the condition of the soul did a good shot between the eyes is still refuses to let the flag touch the muddy ground and in it's just it's it's so over dramatic and and and vain glorious and yet it's the kind of thing that the people laptop in this time period this is perhaps the most patriotic period in american history and sometimes it just boggles the more cynical more mind see it and yet you have to understand that that's what public opinion is like these in the kind of pressures that are presumably mckinley have to deal with we're in it general we in tecumseh sherman we mentioned earlier the civil war general he had a famous quote about the romanticism of war and how was all moonshine he said when he ordered those lines he was talking about people like theodore roosevelt whose ideas about the glory of romance of warfare goes back to your history before homer's deal yet he belonged by the way to things like a baboon and crockett club roosevelt to the blooming crockett club was a group of eastern rich hall we need to we guys who wanted to play daniel boone and davy crockett roosevelt was a new york born rich kid who wore spectacles i'm was asthmatic and waiting got himself a job or western dude ranch city to play cowboy he wanted nothing more himself than to fight in the war what they kill somebody in combat c. this is funny because in a sense he's a little like winston churchill during this time three to churchill want to get into combat measure is benevolent bravery in all the scanner staff which was not an unusual thing for this time purely for the air but if you're a child admitted said that when they grow up the regional mitchell few people just to see what it feels like in the test themselves you'd send him to a psychiatrist when you this time period that was a pretty average thing for american boarded the nose playing soldiers and cowboys and indians and everything in the backyard to a lot today most american boys your honor that theodore roosevelt in croat that he became portable leading edge of politicians and intellectual movement in america that helped chart the course for the country in the late nineteenth early twentieth century with ideas just like that generally in tecumseh sherman's famous quote about war was this quarter i am sick and tired of war it's glory is all moonshine is only those who neither fired a shot your heard the shrieks and groans of the wounded to cry aloud for blind for vengeance for desolation war is hell and co the your roosevelt could not think that statement or all to him war was rejuvenation if he was with great powers to he was what kept the human race to sharpen home to an able to do their sacred duty in the world is a guy who when he was running for vice president later runnin' in his history would speak to a bug the national organization mothers and to this national organization mothers he would tell these mothers did their job as patriots for the country we're to breed and have male children who would then diet for the cause of the country in other words dear reading material for people whose job it is to grow up by the military and die for you the greatness and on earth and the nation of renowned of the country and he's willing to show that the tenor of the time stood up in the furnace standing ovation roosevelt has hardly been on the job very long at all when he speaks to the naval war college and talked to the sailors about his views on race and national greatness in the job of the navy in the speech he mentions war sixty two times to give you a little feeling for roosevelt's no conversation topics years will smith the fun of speech he told the cadets and sailors of the naval war college quote all the great and master for worry says have been fighting races and then it better race loses the hard fighting virtues than it is lost it's prow right to stand as the equal of the best no triumph of peace is quite so great is the supreme triumphs of war it may be that it sometime in the dim future rather race the need for war will vanish but that time is yet ages distant diplomacy he said it is utterly useless when there's no force behind it the diplomat is the servant not the masterwork the soldier there are higher things in this life the most often easy enjoyment of material comfort in history strife or the readiness for strike the nation must we need greatness we ask for a great navy partly because we feel that no national life is worth having in the nation is not willing when they need shelter rise to stake everything on the supreme arbiter mud of war and the poor rockets blood it's treasure and it's tiers like water or rather than submit to the loss of honor and we're now in court famously said that he thought the country needed war because so many of the east peace nick said his old paul maurer of harvard were teaching people about the flat inducing benefits of peace roosevelt henry cabot lodge and people like alber be bridge are considered to be part of any interesting crowd american history of impure realists now roosevelt hated that term he preferred expansionism or another word he used americanism what this really is is a very short lived here read in american history oryx twain nationalism held sway and it was so open is what makes it unusual there are people in history to argue that this has always been america's policy or that it's been america's policy since this time period but americans if that's true had never been carter would be very open about it during this period for a very short period of time there was a very large group of americans who openly advocated that taking of other countries and regions and they did sell howled shtick in the idea that this was good for everyone if america is like a skit suffering giant the way you fuse the two halves of the character of the one that wants things no one of the considers itself the almost on realistically good is to combine those two things you can have conquests and that by having those conquest you'll be doing something that is almost upon realistically good even for the people you conqueror listen to the way historian and politician hauber the bridge describes the mission of the anglo saxon wasted god given mission of the anglo saxon waste to bolster conqueror ruled and help the rest of the world and understand it would be rich says this he's really mimicking the water with the rest of europe is saying about the validation reasons for conquering places like africa and colonize in the east is couching it in the american mythology and while it sounds very odd american in terms of america's past were founding fathers like john quincy adams famously said that the united states does not go over all and in search of foreign monsters to slay when confronted with that kind of evidence by another group of americans gnomes the anti imperialists which included such famous luminaries as mark twain at the report for people like theodore roosevelt was it that sort of philosophy might have been fine in the age of sale but that they now lived in the age of steam and the reality is we're different and call for an op dating and upgrading of america's symbolizing mission beaver reach told congress that america had an obligation to the world and that the question of this obligation was deeper than any question of party politics or any question of your foreign policy he said to the senate quote it is elemental it is racial god has not been preparing the english speaking into tonic peoples for a thousand years for nothing but the main an idle self contemplation and self admiration and by no means he said quote he is made as the master organizers of the world to establish system where chaos reigns he's given us the spirit of progress to overwhelm of forces of reaction to rob the earth he's made as added the government that we made minister government among savages senile peoples americans must recognize he said how fully the human race depended on them on providence acting through them quote were it not for for such as this the world we lapse into barbarism and ninety said this is a divine mission of america and holds for ross all the prophet all the glory call the happiness possible to man we're trustees of the world's progress guardians of its righteous peace an equal that's a man right there who was managed to fuse the two skits afraid happened the american character as regards for example to a place like you about this is a guy who could argue that we need to take over cuba and we need to do it for the good abbas the cubans the spanish the world the race and god if you william mckinley that sort of raises the stakes over the issue of whether or not the u. s. schulder shortened plenary mean the place like cuba doesn't and it's not just cuba by the way this a little slice of american history to this particular part guess deals with in balls of time during u. s. history where there's a massive amount of change in a very short period of time to give you an idea the slice we're talking about here started if you will in eighteen ninety the year the front your clothes according to the u. s. census bureau in eighteen ninety there were no overseas us colony is the u. s. is principally in north american your entity in eighty nine you that same year we fight one of the last armed encounters with native americans in our history please call wounded knee not really a battle more of a massacre but to show you how moderate is there are hotchkiss guns used in back with machine guns but modern can in the modern sensible were on newbie the natives are absolutely massacred is a horrible situation would show issue in a sort of the time to read we're still talking about here eighteen ninety were fighting native americans and the united states has no overseas colonies a mere ten years later the united states has a bunch of overseas colonies and cuba may not be the number one in a place on the list the other place that get no lot of discussion during this new pure retreating nine to nineteen hundred is hawaii which has gets royal government overthrown in echo with tempted eighty ninety three he led by mostly american is involved in business interest sugar rangers pineapple interest and some missionaries they overthrew the queen in hawaii they try to get the u. s. to an extent the congress of all for it but calm president cleveland doesn't go for this and guys like lodging roosevelt considered is borderline twinkies and that he will open next hawaii they're all sort of national security argument by the way at the time the idea that some hawaii is like the pacific gibraltar and a japanese get their hands on hawaii think about what that would mean for u. s. security but there's other straw ranges of american history that are fabulously interesting if you want to examine them and part of it is the racist aspect is four races aspect works you know when somebody double edged capacity in one aside the war even people like these hawaiians are these cubans really these people they can't govern themselves they're hardly capable you know will not killing each other if there's no wild side when lightning european government there so we have the world over dinosaur been likened despotism wally grow wings as south government right that anglo saxon you know wonderfully organizing ability god given in all back and staff opinion is of the problem where are all my gosh if you make why u. s. territory then eventually u. s. state you can have all these dark skinned people that are american the same problem tube all of a sudden the go gosh we can take 'em over in and roll over them 'cause they're the slower rate all my gosh we all have the floor race introduced into the united states so this whole racism things can ever come here to make your ear go away go away go waitress at the club an aspect and so cleveland denies the idea of hawaii be annexed in eighteen ninety three but quickly us attention goes right back to hawaii right during the same period okay in eighteen ninety eight which is the crucial your hawaii will figure justice prominently in us history as cuba well along some other territories there's a famous incident or henry cabot lodge to show you moved the time and brings a amen into the senate chambers he's got all these little red maltese cross is with him and the map shows the world and coop and lodge sits there and start putting classes in all the spots he thinks the u. where should take over bid to prosecute but across in puerto rico cross in panama or they would build a canal across in hawaii and the senate start applauding large city with the bulls are bigger speech here for me the senate each show lesions dismal in america which is really on like the move before or after this brief little period in history where it looked like great nations conquer people the united states was really sort of feeling like a were great nation no one notices honey didn't notice yeah but yet agreed nation for they killed they get out the little red maltese cross isn't the start taking place is over now this is the part of the story it's worth pointing out we're all the different history start to diverge if they haven't already him the birinyi you're like detail here where people see what they wanna see no one can quite explain why you what happens happens without being kind of you in your own historical bomb bias about it i like what bliss programs junior the historian and uses a lot of sources from the cuban archives in spanish or counsel he has to say basically in his mind what happens is the u. s. kindness calculates on this whole idea of autonomy you're autonomy as the cleveland illustrations song was wonderful way to sort i'm not allow all the cuban insurgents to take over cuba to give cuba time to leave your crush the rebellion or to come to some sort charms where the atrocities that we're making such news go away but the u. s. would dare longstanding no transfer policy that's now to worry about any other countries coming in and taking cuba you're right off the u. s. coast him by the way the danger was seen as being either from the british who was it when every we're tied with american relationship it was almost a controversy over venezuela during history with the british bomb but also the germans who were on a recent nation you know they they officially declared nationhood in eighteen seventy eight to seventy one f de franco prussian war and now they were building a navy in that navy was looking for bases overseas there was an evil all think your name alfred thing you're may handle became hugely important arenas pilloried in large measure because of roosevelt a lot to love the guy who wrote this book about how all the great powers of the world will enable powers and if you would be a great power he had ever great may be right well to have a great maybe in this time period you had to be able to go round world with your navy we're needed to project power we would say to the eighth at all these ships ran on call to the only way you could do is what have these polling stations intermediate replaced all over the world so you know what you were start run on a cold it was a u. s. base or german base for british gangs were or were british bases so where were you could we feel so lot of these territories they were on the workmen are red maltese cross list of people like lodge were places they can create polling stations of the u. s. naval power could continue to project power like all great nations do wherever it was needed this is partly why roosevelt being the undersecretary of the navy is huge we're reading naval strategist like alfred they your man ocala more great nations have to have a great navies now the situation in spain becomes dangerous for mckinley during eighteen ninety seven this according to programs like i said the different story to different three's bumper reyes is attitude is that in eighteen ninety seven the cubans begin to win the war spain is tapped out financially they're busy perished there crushing were going in in the philippines but it's a bit and dina treasury and the spanish with scent almost hua han grid how was it ended this little island of cuba have but one of those people dying from disease and this is a part the story we're vin de whimpering much yet but you know we talked about the eastern front in the second world war we talked about the russian longstanding russian idea what they called general winter or that the elements especially by harsh winters in the soviet union or russia in your earlier period help to aid the defense against outside aggressors are you had the weather working in the favor of a place like russia militarily in places like cuba and other tropical areas you have like general disease instead original rolf beaver or instead of general winter where the tropical climate created all sorts of diseases that affect everybody certainly been affected people who were not used to that climate even more in cuba you had uptight this malaria was another big one but the real nasty spear read disease that they hadn't cuba was something called yellow fever yellow fever is wannabe are hemorrhagic fever is like the ball up in africa bomb right you're evan thomas has a description of what was like to suffer from yellow fever and listen to this description understand why you for no other reason the u. west would be worried about the situation in cuba if outbreaks of yellow fever became an issue especially when you realize how many people are going back and forth between cuba and places like florida thomas said of yellow fever corp disease accounted for most banished casualties death from yellow fever also called the black vomit also called yellow jacket the most common of these devastating ailments was particularly horrible the mosquito borne infections essentially melted soft tissues so that sufferers bled from the nose and alms reckons and genitals and mama didn't something that looked abruptly like coffee grounds was actually stomach lining in intestine howling in ranting as they bled from every corpus patients had to be tied down in bed so they would not splattered the infection rom awards and equal to any disease that makes him only real look good by comparison is pretty darn nasty and this general disease comparing it to russia's general winter was at least as effective as russia's whether bailey or because the spanish it this time period after years of trying to put down the cuban insurrection have suffered a couple thousand casualties duties cuban insurgents and psalm fifty thousand casualties plots the disease the u. s. had to consider both you know how one disease outbreak in cuba might affect the southeastern in a portion of the united states which was also subject to times to yellow fever but also had a factor that into a cost of any intervention whether or not she feared spain was one thing but when you put troops in cuba what happens if they start coming down with yellow fever that's a big concern but you have to wait those disease concerns next to the other concerns that were coming out of cuba right around this time during the eighty ninety seven another report is made to mckinley that perhaps as many as four hundred hours and cubans would be moved to re concentration camps had died and that the numbers might be leveling off but the only reason they might be leveling off is because their word as many people to die anymore in addition to that there was another angle once again it depends which history you read you know concerning what gets emphasized but the angle here and it's also potentially very interesting and also potentially were minds what modern times has to do with politics all the democrats republicans during this time period we're we're really i'm not being patriotic enough not being anti spanish enough not being pro cuban enough and not being paroled humanitarian enough in addition countries move was blubber patriotic jingoistic if you will and it brings up an interesting question worth asking your representative country like the united states user were supposed to be what should you do in order to respond to the will of the people if the will of the people during the specific time period is expansionist it or impure realistic in a democracy what the people wanna go abroad conquering other people's views the proper move to do what they wanna say the willem de people is to take over cuba and our other neighbors and two gramm colonies about short in do you someday will do upon cast on the peloponnesian war and the population in athens who had closer to what true democracy and natty she will come up again but it's an interesting question to ask because politics plays a big role in this to end it puts mckinley square in a very strange position he seems to be trying to walk the middle of the road between the peace advocates and the jane gottesman he's got both in his administration and both of you merrick and population we can lead us the system of what cleveland as he tries to push this autonomy idea because the autonomy idea seems to be waiting to be cubans more for america has represented country you will have as much stuff like taxation without representation but the same time you will have to risk spain turning over cuba to some third party when this is especially important now because islam was present suggested the cubans it started when the war what happens if the cuban insurgents we now and take the island from spain doesn't that violate the notorious for kong's how're you going to perch for yourself this defenders of cuban liberty to really brought if the cubans take the island over when you feel forced to go take the island from them or to take the island from the cubans to prevent someone like the germans from coming in and having in new qualities station ninety three miles off the u. s. coast the situation for mckinley was fraught with danger when you can see him trying to maneuver earth ruled these treacherous waters of this delicate cuban question and then things happen that just sort of take it out of his hands and they happen up one right on top of the other the first thing that happens is a spanish diplomat rights be very frank letter back to spain criticizing mckinley basically saying he's a week a politician trying to you know we're both sides of the fans i'm paraphrasing here but that's basically what it said sends the message be a telegraph and someone from the cuban american on tie you know who's been pushing for american involvement release recognition of cuban boldly jersey get ahold of the telegram and gives it to like the newspapers in which are already so perot cuban it's crazy and makes public the obese nasty comments by the spanish diplomat about the u. s. president in this blubber patriotic mood you can imagine the reaction americans had you about that the french oui the diplomat resigns but the situation remains tense edition is the entire situation me almost spain's political class has changed and it's changed because an anarchist the bullet changed it in eighty nine seven in august an anarchist assassinate the head of spain's government the guy who'd been talking about cuban autonomy but talking about it like a reward for good behavior you put down your weapons and you could maybe have autonomy we're gonna try in puerto rico will be no lookout gone over there with july to have that will give up the rebellion in maybe you can win the leader of spain is killed by that assassin a more liberal government takes hold in spain they decide to try the autonomy idea out first you have to put down your weapons will do autonomy and all the way to defuse the revolution right we're so what was thought the problem is that it had almost the exact opposite effect same way that when president cleveland brought the idea of the cuban insurgents looked upon this is good news maximal gomez and all these new surgeons in cuba up thought that this signaled you know spanish weakness gomez came out so that never before predicted an end to this war time limit but it's gonna be over within a year you can see how we get spain is if they're proposing autonomy now when it were swearing against doing something like a while back now reaction of the cuban insurgents minute unpredictable the reaction the conover will go by surprise was the reaction of the spanish loyalists in cuba we saw autonomy as a complete betrayal and later history shows us walked right in me just look at the reaction of the salt the enemy's when the u. s. you negotiated a treaty with north mean you haven't houses of cases like this later on we're the people who've been loyal to the cause and watch the insurgency every step of the way feel completely under current win concessions are given to the insurgents in this case many of those spanish loyalists in cuba had been left their farms in their homes in the country run into these four by cities to avoid having their throats slit by the rebels for being pro spanish and now the spanish we're talking about turning the local government over those very people that they had left their farms because they were scared of the entire situation explodes right it's happening cuban they're breaking into your newspapers on the island of favor autonomy and the government in the united states begins to worry about the safety of americans on the island american newspapers especially on to new york them always been just beyond his illegal just waiting for the war double layer headlines of lore is imminent it's coming in old war with cuba next and evan thomas tells a wonderful story about the roosevelt once again going back to this idea that he just can't wait for reward happened in all had grandfather mama was this kind of a guy real adventure junkie and biamby he was the wrong age of little too young to the first world war little too old to the second world war annie was crushed by the us what the line to get in the first world war really what the law i began in the second reward which is dying for the adventure and so i didn't have it i can see how roosevelt was that evan thomas tells the story got one when it looked like war was imminent roosevelt goes to his boss's office the secretary of the navy to basically tell him if the war calms i'm not going to be here in washington working for you and this tale shows how different roosevelt if he really was like a pro going you'll conservative how different he was from a modern version because most of the modern neoconservatives avoided going to war when they were off fighting a gentle often in on that the critics of the modern yukon to often called and chicken hawks because though send others to go to war when they themselves didn't go teddy roosevelt is the opposite of the chicken hawk he's a hawk hawk and here is the way evan thomas describes this conversation he has with his boss the secretary of the needy concerning this apparently imminent breakout of hostilities in spain thomas writes quote on the morning in january thirteenth roosevelt walked into the office of secretary of the navy long and shut the door that night long wrote in his diary quote he told me that in the case of the war with spain he intends to abandon everything and go to the front and quo tom is right in words later excised from his published journal long you wrote quote the impetuous city and your shoes with which roosevelt insists upon this or rather amusing he's gone so far daft in the matter that he evidently regarded as a sacred duty which she always to his own character or to improve every opportunity of dying with malaria or being played out with a hospital fever in this bush whacking fighting cuba i tried to persuade him that if it was his country which was at stake or is home should be defended such a course would be worth while i called him a crank and ridiculed him to the best of my ability but all in vain the funny part of it is that he actually takes this thing seriously and quo he's got the only one that took the whole thing seriously the diplomat in charge of american affairs in cuba a sense of secret message to wee u. s. warship in key west florida telling it it needs to call up and had to havana harbor right away just in case this violence breaks out with friends american lives there's a ship in key west that history calls a battleship to be more specific it was a second class battleship and even more specific it was really an armored cruiser were called the u. s. s. may jane jane you worried so later january sets course and schemes to havana harbor and arrives there are at the end of january eighteen ninety eight thomas tells another story on any an argument and a whole ito you party that roosevelt is that we're he's arguing with mckinley is most powerful financial one would call me today like a pack a member or corporate back or dining more cannot they're having an argument about the situation that seems to be brewing in cuba apparently roosevelt start yelling and says the hannah court i hope to see the spanish flag the english flag gone from a map of north america before i'm sixty and co hannah replies back to roosevelt you're crazy roosevelt and then says later read the party how thankful he is that the ministry should he backed financially dig you've roosevelt the secretary of state job or quote we be fighting have the world and annie said that sending the main to havana was called waving a match in an oil well for fawn in the court at first didn't seem like that in late january the main arrives in havana and has the opposite effect it came up addicted everything seemed to calm down the spaniards are enjoying the u. wes crew it's so calming and that spain and the u. s. diplomats say when the main goes back home send another warship is having a good effect ended it's sort of keeping the germans out who've been sending more more warships to havana scaring the u. s. government about their intentions everything's going swimming leahy until the night of the reef fifteenth teen ninety eight and your six days since he was newspapers had printed that diplomatic cabled evidence seized secretly from the spanish diplomat it was perceived as a terrible insult the president mckinley that the newspapers especially in new york or still harping upon by the next morning the newspapers in new york will have a completely different story taking up their entire front pages and more and even if they're george shifting into sometime between nine and ten in the evening from massive explosion rocked the city of havana author david trosch was put together several different eyewitness accounts they start off with a couple soldiers under sitting watch on the deck of the main goal talk about work we're nice evening news they can hear those sounds of revelry in havana from in off the shore line and no nothing particularly going on and on all the sudden ephraim to the main start shoveling and very quickly after that a massive explosion you watch the ship with basically everything from about the center of the ship all the way to the front of it blowing up in here and then raining down on the people who were running for cover as the ship very quickly begins to settle to the bottom of the havana harbor american sigman rothschild he is on a ship an american ship also lima harbor we can see the main and he the world that he had cold hearted shot like a cannon shot it made me look toward the main i saw the bow rise little after a few seconds there came a terrible mass of firing explosion of black max that we heard a noise of fall when it's your real it didn't take him in it until the bow went down there was a cry help lord god save us help help the krajina outlasted manager too and with the big truck tobin says a huge column of flaming gray smoke shot upwards to hide of a hundred and fifty feet then spread out into a rolling canopy which rothschild's said quote which overhanging the main and from which descended raina fragments of ship and embodies some pieces falling half amado from the morning and cool the famous american nurse clearer barton had some time ago gone to havana to provide medical aid to a city that apparently desperately needed she was working still that late hour in havana and report called the great glass jaw or opening on that of the land of facing the sea blow up and everything in the room was in motion robert place she says quote the deafening roar was such a burst of banderas perhaps one had never heard before and off to the right out over the bay the air was filled with a blaze of light and this injury filled with black specks like huge specter's flying in all directions in faded away the bells rang the whistles blue when the voices in the street were heard for moment in the mall was quiet again and truck so porch walter scott mary whether who would just get through the door of the cafe he said when the blast to the report called the city shook to which we think explosion of yiddish our recalling plaster every light in the place went out as did every other electric light in the city people kept calling what is it what is it a man in the dark days she'll that the arsenal across the bay had blown up but as a squadron of cavalry went by the gallup meriwether practices been told by a tall englishman that must've been the main two american reporters station in the city to cover the conflict lied their way onto a boat being rolled out to the main members this is a dark harbor or were all the sudden searchlights have been turned on her sweeping the bank but there is some light being provided because the main is burning ferociously it's not just burning but every few minutes they shall be is set off by the heat so you have whistling rocketing in a cracking sounds of it's a dangerous hall but there are people on their screaming for help to this boat is rolling out there in these reporters to biz the ball gets nearer and nearer to the ship will be artillery shooting off the they'd start rolling last and last and try didn't even go there any officer has to hit that sailors with a cane to get them to rollout of about the reporter on that little ball rolling out and they reported as they get nearer they can begin to see what's going on by the light of the burning ship and they said quote seeing as it unfolded itself to warm vision was terrible it's significance great masses of twisted and bent iron plates and beams were thrown up in confusion amidships the bala disappeared before mass to smokestacks and fall in and add to the horror endangered the mass of wreckage amidships was on fire at frequent intervals allow report followed by whistling sound of fragments flying through the air mark the explosion the six pounds shell trachsel says the scene was lit only by the red glare earthlings dancing on the black water ridge above beam of the searchlight swept across their portable farber revealing that they were surrounded by dismembered bodies quote great god they're all gone this is the work of a torpedo one marked the beginning of the hand said one of the reporters wood been sent to cuba to report on the end if and when it came they sure look like the event that was going to touch off the war that some people had theory was coming for a long time and others had been hoping to encounter a crisis would be too good to waste so that they could have the wars of the so eagerly wanted that included people like henry cabot lodge and theodore roosevelt it did not include apparently as in mckinley poor gear as i said before they histories at this point had begun to diverge wildly and they change over the errors may killings been portrayed many different ways but it seems pretty likely that he was a she spoke on a guy because if he actually want war with spain explosion of the main provided him all of the necessary justification for just that instead it told a friend a quote i don't propose to be swept off my feet by the catastrophe my duty as plain we must learn the truth and every possible to fix the responsibility the country can afford withholds judgment on strike in avenging bold and tell the truth is now on the administration will go on preparing for war but still hoping to avert it and co now the reason that mckinley keeps talking about learning the truth of the explosion is because no one knows what the truth of the explosion it's yeah to think about this like a nine eleven attack or pearl harbor in terms of how much the nation was shocked by the revelation that almost two hundred and seventy u. s. senators had been killed the explosion had occurred right under the crew's quarters and they were all sweet total loss of life was heavy and people you do know what to make it isn't imagine pearl harbor happening but the united states being punisher or now whether the perpetrator was japan or some other country were the nine eleven attacks happening but there being a decent chance that maybe they were accidental that butcher sort of where each situation is with the explosion of the main the secretary of the navy your roosevelt boss world that your opinion all of what cause beats pollution of the main twenty be based on your biases quote there's an intense difference of opinion as to the cause of the blowing up of the main invest as in everything else the opinion of the individual determined by his original bias if he is a conservative be sure that it was an accident if he's a jingle bell is equally sure was by design and co within forty eight hours though the new york papers of already made their decision they make it sound like it's not a question that's in doubt we randolph hearst new york journal and the headline forty eight hours after the main exploded called destruction of the warship main was the work of an enemy and quote if an egg giant picture on the front of the drawing showing the battleship with the submerged mine underneath the hall bishop and the words called the spaniards it is believed range they have the main anger over one of the harbor mines wires connected to the mine without power magazine and stop the explosion was caused by sending an electric current through the wire end quote first had no evidence at all to back that up but this was an error we do need evidence to back back and stuff up and hearst and pulitzer is rival paper competed to see who could what do the other or in terms of wild stories about what the truth was without any relationship to the truth all because no one knew what the main explode the roosevelt told friends are you sure that the dastardly spanish and down at which just confirms his bosses opinion it depends upon your own biases what she thought actually happened is actually an interesting under current in the whole why roosevelt might've had the pain he had thinking among historians of has to do with the well-known problem that these battleships have now roosevelt was a huge fan of these battleships he loved them he wrote about the only one hour on them he was in large harbor sponsor both for the u. s. building them but they were new technology they've never been involved in a major war and there was a feeling among some people in congress that they were floating death traps at the amount of firepower on board made them as much a dangerous to their own cruises they were to the enemy one guy called 'em off loading volcano there had been at least thirteen your recent incidents just in the u. s. fleet along that with a cold inside the coal bunkers spontaneously come boston car on fire while the coal bunkers were right next to the ammunition magazines and there was a good amount of speculation by experts to what happened on the main in the vault a spontaneous combustion of the ship's cold setting off the power magazine which no one disputed that exploded the question was had exploded due to be cole setting it off or because a minor underneath the ship had created you know when initial explosion followed by secondary explosion the fact that we're making lee seemed to search for ways to avoid war in my mind seems to vindicate him in on this question of whether or not mckinley was after war with spain because he appoint a commission of investigators to try to determine what caused the explosion al while the commission was undergoing its investigative work began talking to spain about ways that they could defuse the entire crisis if you wanna war with spain more diffuse the crisis probably came we had was that what you would have taken in terms of spanish concessions to mollify the americans was more than the spanish government could possibly hope to get they were in a very brittle situation in spain the government was holding on by things strand they were broke they were fighting rebellions in spain still putting down what in the philippines the army was very upset with the government of israel chance of revolution and the amount of concessions the americans needed to make the american people back off their war fever was a lot there was a large gap between what spain could hope to provide what the americans needed to make the entire thing work now i can't tell you with any certainty what the mood of the country was during this five week investigated period and that's because the histories disagree under all sorts of interesting result proposed why they do the early history shrieking right after these events suggest that the american public was absolutely over calm with war fever but the demand for vengeance against spain was so strong that american politicians completely lost the ability to have any your world on the decision making in all which is true means that mckinley was like a force of nature or holding back the other countries demand for vengeance against buying this was the narrative for very long time as a matter of fact still continues amongst a lot of history says idea that the american public now wanted war with spain and felt that spain and insult to the president and blow up an american warship probably we asked the question little earlier about what is the role of the government was supposed to be representing the people in representative system if the people want to attack spain now because they feel like spain deserves it an attack them for what should the government officials do easterly histories make it sound like is simply had no choice historians who've written about the fish story on with the of the sailor people like red eyes were quoted at length but torres pope's all these other historians over the air is to show you how the narrative is changed and he suggests that this becomes a way to alleviate any responsibility on the part of these politicians mania fool probably felt little ashamed after the fact of the way the entire affair turned out and alleviates damn of any responsibility if they saved or something we could do we were carried along by public opinion public opinion what why didn't we could stand away maybe that's true but another narrative crops up in later histories which suggested the american people were heck of a lot more level headed the nadir reach we begin given credit for many more recent history suggest that the american people were willing to wait the five weeks or so until the investigative committee looking into what block the main up until they got some decent results from them that they want carrying away their politicians with blood lost that they were patient if they were patient certainly makes the politicians in some parties in some circles seem like they were the ones carried away with blood loss or perhaps they were people hoping to not waste a good crisis theodore roosevelt does something that historians of disagreed about ever since without orders from his superior according to historian richard gere murmuring he sends a message to the fleet in the far east telling them that if war breaks out there to go attack the spanish fleet in the philippines right away the united states congress got any act passing a fifty million dollar war procreation had ago undercounted there ought to calculate how much fifteen million dollars and eighteen ninety eight money is today but it's about one point five billion and it was past basically unanimously and that send a message to spain that the american ambassador to spain claimed shocked the spanish because remember the spanish are essentially a broker government is with huge financial problems all kinds of political situations in hamstring your ability to do much efficiently during this time target that is that the high water mark of spanish government and the americans able to pass this fifty million dollar bill without raising taxes without breaking the budget or anything was a sign of how we're to sign this whole thing was in terms of which side had the money which is i didn't use that as war fever begins to heat up both sides realized that what they really wanna do is augment their fleets spain has an old fleet with one or two new ships that they've recently working on the united states has had four koppel abuser program to build a modern battleships only a couple of them have been built under isn't really a fleet to support them so both sides began scouring the world for any nation into building ships for any other nation and tries to swoop in and buy them the spanish we're looking at two ships being built by the british for brazil both for the king to scrape up the money or the loans to purchase of the americans coming with their fifty million dollar bill and swoop upon by the ship's themselves they go round to which people united states and begin to buy at the yachts and extraordinary markets by the way it's not exactly patriotism on the part of some of these american rich folks who knew the governor what their yacht so that they can put a gun or two on them and use them in the military so they were getting a massive amounts of profit on the job says the american government or even just private shipping to try to augment the fleet for what appeared to be a potential war right on the horizon war that many americans team coming for several years now and everyone was waiting out the report of this naval commission in on pins and needles on march twenty eight eighteen ninety eight the results of the investigation are now stuck on course and the tension it as someone been undercut him about what the findings are by the fact that the results had leaked to the media at a time in the published it in their newspapers and presently can we had already had an advance copy of the reports we knew the results and people in congress listening to the announcement of the results of no doubt read the media reports so everyone knew by march twenty eighth that the commission had found that some outside explosion that destroyed the money this obviously implicated sprang up because nobody at the time really considered any other the possibility he was an accident or the spanish did that was the way you look at that spain had conducted the right investigation which found that this was the result of a tragic accident a spontaneous goldwire remains bonkers but neither the american people nor the american government was paying much attention of that because the lobby sleep you thought spain didn't their investigations going to whitewash that fact there had been at least for the investigation since eighty ninety eight including one very recently trying to use the latest modern technology to see if the real cause of the means explosion to be determined in these various investigation to come to different conclusions basically we have to say that the jury is still out on why the main block but perhaps there's a little bit of carmaker ironing the fact that as tensions are rising in eighteen ninety eight you wes government or is it gets most powerful battleship u. s. s. organ brand-new by the way to make a beach torino you long trip for months more ring in washington state that requires it to go all the way down the coast of north america central america and south america realm the tip of south america and koppel longing lining which is the way you had to do with before there was a panama canal to cut that bore each time in half while on the way the organs crew is put on frantic couple are after re spontaneously come busted coal fire breaks out in the organs called bunker and requires the group to dig for four hours into these giant mom's a call to find the part that started burning of course it's still right next to the ship's magazines to be war again on the way to deal with tensions are rising in the eastern part of the west in part because of the explosion of another u. s. battleship almost comes to the kind of ended that the spanish accident investigation says that the main suffered in any case since the main explosion other theories have been put forward as to what might've caused or who might've been behind the means explosion if indeed it was sabotage with some people suggesting that the spanish government is the wrong order people to look at as being the perpetrators because let the main blows up and up the u. s. goes to war with spain he isn't that the outcome spain motion wants to avoid but the hundred eighty degrees different about the spanish want some more of what did the west to go to war with spain well spanish nationalists of sometimes been implicated as perhaps going to give us a bloody nose for thinking that they could descend on mode to the cuba's harbor to intimidate the proud spanish although that doesn't get as much client does the idea that perhaps the cuban insurrection is themselves and blow up the main in the hopes of involving the u. s. even more in the conflict in providing a powerful adversary for spain each the cuban insurrection is of course we're fighting but a story like list raza pointed out that in his mind the spanish we're ready being defeated by the cuban insurrection as to the cuban insurrection is really gonna give the u. s. government an opportunity to land troops in cuba the territory of the u. s. had been looking at longingly first century is a place that naturally blogs you know as part of the republic although mississippian party interesting our reviewer lois paradis was perhaps one of the most renowned american historians on the subject says that the cuban is red shoes were beating the spanish yet albert rafi another historian also who knows the subject very well says that the opposite was true the spanish and almost crushed the insurrection so when o. suitably one thing's for sure there's an interesting about three weeks pure read between the announcement all the accident investigations findings and the actual outbreak of war because you get this time three were all was subdued the people are jockeying for position the president doesn't want warning you can see this he still trying to figure out a way out in this dilemma he's trying to buy the island from cuba he's trying to get these concessions from cuba any goes so far that is all about measures have to tell him that he is in danger of losing the initiative on foreign policy that an angry congress might use their constitutional power to declare war and declare war over his head now this is hard for modern americans to get their minds around because in the modern us the chief executive is almost always the one pushing for war and if there he is any push back at all on their often isn't it comes from congress now there was some push back in congress but for all the weird reasons there were anti interventionists bomb from the northeastern part of the united states it didn't want to involve themselves in foreign wars all in the same sorts of senators and congressmen the rubber city ideas of people like mark twain the anti intervention is part of the united states in a population but there were also southern politician is cool look at cuba as another place where there were a lot of black people and you were just going to be bringing more black people into the united states if you somehow ended up next in cuba missis and we haven't gotten into but the racial mix of cuba often he is a factor in the story cuba was one of the first places were african slaves were brought to to you work the land mean it's before christopher columbus you and exits the story that they're bringing in all african slaves to cuba i am by the style about thirty five percent the cuban population is black about seventy percent of the insurrection mr black including some of their leaders and this is actually a proud part of the store were you have these these black rebellion leaders were quite sure robert and yet to the southern politicians the idea of annexing this territory which has so many black people which will have representatives in the halls of congress in washington dc if it actually becomes a stayed at some point were presented all these black people without jim crow when all this other stuff that beginning to take hold the south is becomes an issue to so was away at compromising all these different ideas something called the teller amendment is packed in the tower amendment says that the u. s. supports tube in independents which as we told you before something the president mckinley had the support of foreclosure not supposed to transfer the sovereignty of cuba to anybody from spain except the united states government so what happens if the transfer goes to the cuban people themselves will this isn't answered but the teller mehmet also says that the u. s. has no interest in annexing the island which is something that calmed the fears of some of the southern politicians and also those anti injury list legislator from the american or do you see people like more corniel was a never be feels better that the u. s. motives you are pure and for those people by the way it a huge group of them in the nineteen sixties in nineteen seventies our whole group of his spring to suggest that this is all gone for business reasons on the morning out that a lot of us for policy over the ages haven't been motivated by business reasons but the idea that this is a business or really republican ministrations it it is doing all this stuff in cuba for reasons of profit and market is somewhat discredited by the fact that guys like roosevelt and henry cabot lodge are having this new ring encounters with millionaire big business men over their position on the offering cuba has there not that enthusiastic about this real feeling among some businessmen that the whole economic upswing that has begun will be threatened with a war with yesterday able warp there's also the idea that they're all these loans out and bonds that these big business people have given to spain in that would be endangered if war breaks out there's a very interesting speech that teddy roosevelt gives at the gridiron club where he turned to live like to indifferent to bomb versions of the story one from the historian 'em g. g. a. old-school the other by writer evan thomas were roosevelt gives a speech in after dinner speech which is attended by that person we spoke about earlier that have an encounter with roosevelt marchand of the b. b. are corporate battle of mckinley who by this time now has become a senator so he were the two versions of the story and when you hear them you get an idea of how these super nationalist these jewel those like roosevelt and henry cabot lodge who were which many in their own right saw the national greatness this idea of national renown as something far above the simple question of money and property to them it was on a much higher level than that this be almost as spiritual level these people are or or or of an era where the idea of the nation state is so profoundly sure we're awake to them that she'd been renewed the glory of the nation state with simple concerns over cash in marmion prophets is something that they'd find distasteful and you can hear it come out in speeches like this after dinner speech by roosevelt the account by a historian ga ga o'toole goes like this talking about roosevelt after dinner speech o'toole says quote that evening he roosevelt gave a rousing the pro war speech after dinner at the gridiron club we will have this war for the freedom of cuba he said despite the interest of the business world and of finance years which might be paramount in the senate the gillies millionaire crawley senator mark hanna was seated nearby o'toole rights as the thunderous applause that all of his speech died away roosevelt turn to hannah now senator may we please have a war and equal red ribbon thomas describes the same and roosevelt's speech is what i call the evening special guest roosevelt was jokingly promoted to vice admiral of the gridiron navy buddy was not indicating moved teeth showing that but not a small i'll be turned up resin achilles closest ally in back or mark hanna was seated at the head table quote we will have this war for the freedom of cuba senator hanna in spite of the timidity of the commercial interests roosevelt growl it was a very dramatic moment reported the gridiron club history there was no one present at the dinner who did not thoroughly understand the war was inevitable and equal roosevelt bill famously said after this time that he could just have supreme command of the entire u. s. military and government for two days he would control the outcome in such a way is to make war inevitable called i'd give all i'm worth to be just two days is supreme command i'd be perfectly willing then to resign for i'd have things going so that nobody could stop them and call now just personally you know roosevelt comes off as such warmongering the story up until this bill bennett told out by been a fan since i was little kid and are part of this story we're you know you can disagree maybe with what roosevelt want but you can't really disagreed with the man's willingness to pay the price himself for his ideals what the big criticisms as i said of the neo conservative allocations in the united states in the last ten fifteen twenty years is that they will advocate policies like overseas intervention but that they themselves tried to avoid serving in the armed forces that have to carry out those tasks when they were of an age to do so well by the time the war with spain breaks out roosevelt is well past the age where he would be expected to do so and yet he's going to do so anyway his friends like henry cabot lodge try to talk about other telling him that this is what young men to the old man does on a policy of the young men carry out and roosevelt writes a letter to another one of his friends a guy named william sturgis bigelow explain to him why he's not going to just drop out of this attempt not to carry out the ideal she's been advocating immediate part of this has to be attributed to roosevelt being an adventure junkie in the heavily armed imperialistic racist peter pan guy who desperately wants to go try his medal in this her whirlwind conflict remember is superior in the navy called him a crank thing at the same time there is this is your belief that if you're going to advocate these kinds of belief systems and causes you need to be prepared to be out front and here's what roosevelt went to his friend paul a man's usefulness depends upon is living up to his ideals so far as he can one of the communist taunts directed at men like myself is that we're on a chair and parlor jeannie goes wish to see others do we only advocate dewayne my power for good or whatever it may be would be gone if i didn't try to live up to the doctor raines i've tried to preach it seems to me it would be a good deal more important from the standpoint of the nation as a whole that men like myself should go to war rather than we should stay comparably in offices at home and let others carry on the war that we emerged and co there's an old line about you know one of the rich older man had to go to war we have any warning more or roosevelt was rich older man and if he was in charge we'd still have four the actual conflict will break out or be authorized on april twenty fifth eighty ninety eight the congressional resolution to do so we'll be back he did to april twenty first lady's that's the official starting time of the conflict when will you make him leave asks congress for the power use military force to pacify cuba he does so by listing all wall list of reasons why this is desirable starting with the humanitarian element debris concentration policy the suffering of the people in cuba and this becomes the number one reason that the u. s. is to intervene in that area number two we mentions business stability talks about the destruction of equipment and u. s. investment the resources of the trade that's not happening any goes on to mention the neutrality laws of the cost of enforcing those pictures u. s. naval squadrons and everything have to keep patrolling to keep your revolutionaries in guns swords and power everything from coming from the mainland to cuba wanting he doesn't make a big deal about is the destruction of the main but he goes on all those other questions and i was trying to think of an analogy that this reminded me of a modern day analogy because here's the thing if you actually put together all the history books i have they disagree on what the motivation for this war is and is actually different schools of thought on this over the different errors in their names are the marks a school of thought the so called wisconsin school of thought and all these history schools of thought have their own ideas about why there was a war or you know with spain all these different entities with the motivations for everything else i was trying used it in harlem sort of summer we after reading all the salt water reminded me out any kind reminds me of the situation that we're living through right now in the middle east the so-called arab spring we have these countries that are strictly non democratic but you have their supporters within those countries and in these regimes that are important to the western united states specifically because they're stable we have long standing relationships with them and we know what we have we're in a dilemma when they get protests from their own people based on democratic in a motivation these people will vote these people want democracy these people want a job majority rule leisure all things that speak to american values and makes the united states somewhat hypocritical to support the anti democratic leaders of these country is instead of the people pushing to oust them and yet the earth really damages for ross supporting the stability that we know we have with the current government rather than sort of throw or walking in with these people who may have more off our values at least you know on paper bomb be lining up with ours but now that we don't know what we'll get if they eventually assume power it's a little like was going on in cuba in the late nineteenth century could you maybe call at the cubans spring the difference is i would think many in the arab spring question you don't have no rampant old-fashioned obvious impure realism as one of the analogy elements and part of the reason you don't is because of what it's about to happen in this war double be called the spanish american war this as i said several times is a really narrow short period in us history we see in all over to impure egoism not just on the part all the people running the country but on the part of the population that seems in large measure to support it that will not be a facet of us in a foreign relations for very long and even during this period rich people like andrew carnegie will talk to people like henry cabot lodge and say it why are you doing this whole thing the old-fashioned way why you doing this with the british and french and all these people in ascending in military force and dominating you know when the old white man's burden style that's old fashioned a new way to do is to control them with financial you organizations and for loans and stop the woman should be called dollar diplomacy and other things like that but the u. s. is listening to this time because we're still caught up in this question of national greatness at how wars rejuvenating at how all this has all kinds of good saturday thanks for the in fighting spirit of the american anglo saxon for your call the scanner staffer mean the idea doing this in a non confrontational nonmilitary way kind of goes against what law the people and baldness conflict walked which is a rejuvenation the american martial spirit and that's what motivates guys like roosevelt and the population of the country has gone and ever since the results of the main investigation been made public into hyperdrive the source patriotism goes i'm a nurse lags everywhere the words on everyone's lips or remember the main and to hell with spain it's the battle cry president is being booed and hissed in theaters around the country when his pictures put in a lot because people see him as not aggressive enough against the spanish because mckinley was like won't last hold outs of all those and finally the movie is becoming so intervention is it even big businesses jumping on board are henry cabot lodge my nieces before the conflict breaks out that in even big business is starting to see maybe some of the dollar benefits of empire the republicans were mckinley is in a natural allies in the congress are worried about the political ramifications and they don't jump on board the perot war bandwagon in the conflict the breaks out creates issues right away for the american military because the american military is small spain has two hundred thousand fighting men on the island already fighting the insurgency been a lot of them were on their backs to the tightest malaria neil fever but they're veterans they're they're a bit or to be transported able to be raised the alert to be in an integrated in the command structure that there are the u. s. military this point and this is a purely arbitrary the anchor one classification just before i got a bottle which divide us and a three or four you mean military heroes in the first military hero much this arbitrary categorization that i use is the longest lasting on going from the beginning of the republican seventeen seventies too wow what about the middle of this war which will be called the spanish american war one of the features of this old u. s. military is that they warn of this is silly but they wore blue the traditional merrick in military colors blue and u. s. military goes to war in spain wearing the blue uniforms now the traditional american military is made up of the small quarter or called regulars the regular army and that is supplemented by lots of volunteers now the regular army is made up of less than twenty nine thousand man at this point in our history which is neoconservatives terrain max blue point out is less than the number of people who work for the new york police department right now so it's a small force which is meant to be augmented by volunteers and this is usually not a problem americans flock to the colors as the saying goes on reliably and civil wars the only time we ever had trouble with that with draft riots and whatnot nor a lot of variables that are impacted that normally have more recruits and you can ever integrated employees and the recruitment office is spring up everywhere and the way this traditionally works in the american military this time period is if the u. yourself can raise a military contingent you can commanded you can be officer rigg below ten of the captain if you raise an upbeat we can be lieutenant colonel but that the qualifications it reminds me a lot of the old roman republican and we would recruit peace legions wants to war started and you could be a politician you might be just which guy and you might be somebody who just was able to put together really good you could be an officer running you could commanded what normally happens usually jim would start off very yom slapdash and not very experienced a very green and you would too but over time you become integrated and batch racism in you'd be very formidable indeed the u. s. military followed a very similar pattern i love though some of the suggestion is on that we're floor that the time over hold should be worrying used to fight in this war in spain the history g. g. a. old-school reprints from some ideas that were floated in a couple of the new york papers concerning you who might be raised it to go fight the spanish in cuba and again some of the mental images it conjures up a wonderful here's a quote from all jules history quo public enthusiasm for the coming war was sweeping the country the new york world were poured the buffalo bill cody had declared that thirty thousand indian fighters could clear the spanish out of cuba in sixty days frank james brother bao lord jesse james volunteered to leave the company of cowboys to liberate cuba it was said that six hundred sioux indians were ready to go on the warpath and collect spanish scalps and randolph hearst's journal propose a regiment of american athletes who would quote overall any spanish regiment by their me your appearance in the court i'm sorry but i can't help but think of sending the entire you know roster of the teams in the nfl cuba to over all those hundred forty pound spaniards weekend by typhus and malaria with you know defensive tackles were used to sacking quarterbacks it it's a fun mental image but the little but more truth to it than perhaps one would think on the surface and each embodied in the volunteer regiment put together by perhaps the most gonna haul person in this whole endeavour yeah such right theodore roosevelt and the jump on all the other would be volunteer regiment organizers because he's been making sure he always docks inner world with the your powers that be to set up this regiment long time before anybody else new war was coming they telegraphed all the powerful people for monsanto forget the war breaks out all a former regiment you know and go and roosevelt's regiment which will become famous in us history he is and if you want to look at this for most psychological angle it takes people who were present both sides of roosevelt's personality and combines the middle one regiment the regiment just like an embodiment of roosevelt psyche he's managing to put in the various hillsides a bit into one group and then integrate come no i'm not much of a psychiatric with funny because the first group he grabs are people who wore a white youths in terms of his upbringing in education remember this is rich kid from the east coast who went to harvard and who was no sports enthusiast awarding the wee grabs people from harvard yale and princeton especially if there are no well known athlete she likes to get those people who were all crew who play football in the wrestling team from these ivy league schools he grabs a bunch of them put in his unit but then he goes to the western formerly frontier states remember teddy roosevelt himself as part of making sure he could live this tv crockett daniel boone ideal he added the american past anywhere and work on these dude ranches in the dakotas and montana places like that so you went to the american west been grabbed by his own admission of cowboys and gonna fighters and bush wacker is an miners and mountain man any man yes the indians as c. koppel he pulled all of these people together in a unit that was nor the first u. s. volunteer cavalry or is history knows that the rough riders now roosevelt's group was one of many informed to supplement the regular army and the first thing that everyone figured out very quickly in this whole affair was that the army was not ready for war with spain because they were completely unable to handle the influx of all the spiders your army couldn't call them they couldn't barney them they couldn't feed them and they were all these concentration point in the southeast us with these people were supposed to concentrate him oster to move out to cuba and amenities people start showing up it's just it's a nightmare now contrast to the army is state of readiness with the navy's whose conduct performance and no ability to get off and start fighting instantly was nothing short of exceptional and theodore roosevelt as undersecretary of the navy probably deserves quite wanna credit for this that very same obsession that so many in american politics derided the crank rosa balfour was paying huge dividends from about the second the war started on because anybody with a map knew the war with spain is going to leave all mostly fleet action is an roosevelt had the fleet in the state of readiness that is just well really i mean maybe set the tone for this conflict from the very beginning all the ships in the fleet we're ready with coal supplies in full magazines the advance or summary been given our long time ago maybe illegally if you believe historians like him are men the moment war is declared telegrams go out to the various manners of the various fleet wanna received in hong kong by american commodore george dewey spray him as he finds out in the varied telegram that tells him wars broken out what he supposed to do and is pretty much no doubt about it the telegram says quote or has commenced between united states and spain receded wants to philippine islands commence operations but taken only a guess the spanish fleet you must capture vessels or destroy the use our utmost endeavor and crew the words on most endeavour don't begin to do justice to what do we did now to show you what expectations were like do we had been treated calm as almost a family member by the british sailors in a phone call this is the curie were bertie shing u. s. relations begin upholding gather in the early stages of what will become the special relationship in the twentieth century and a british sailors the american service got along famously so it was with quite a bit of sadness of the british told you we'd get he'd have to leave anyway whether in order not because as neutrals they were required to make the u. s. we leave the harbor hong kong but do we rode lazaro biography that these bertie sailors were sad because they were sure they'd never see these americans again that they were heading to their doom in the philippines now do we didn't feel that way at all he was pre dawn competent so were the american people the spanish people were to mainly because they've been lied to about the capabilities of their forces both sides we're pretty confident the british were worried about do we because he was going into a hornet's nest of enabled the fences philippines had mine fields the philippines having placed gonzo the shoreline and all these little choke points to do it was in half to go through and it was assumed the spanish at home would stay back keep the ship sports or near the coast of that they could take eventually to coastal batteries and mine field and do we only had like seven ships in mme battleships before mostly cruisers in some small gunboats me what was gonna happen here what happened was really a minute we said the united states was during this war like an eighteen year old debutante making her debut was will power on the global stage this was the coming out party and it shock you do we showed up on the morning of may first encountered the spanish league there we destroyed it in the morning the casualties were so one sided it makes the u. s. conflict in your walk which was you know lauded as a very warm zanuck article by the white forget struggle in a battle that lasted i'm first light to just before lunch time the u. west destroyed the spanish fleet sinking almost all the ships certainly all the major ones and inflicting at least three hundred and fifty casualty is some day be dead to water and seventy wounded at the very least for finn conflicts over casualty numbers the americans didn't lose a man at six injuries and had proven that the spanish were completely on prepared for barney warfare and that really is the key to this whole thing because when you read the account for spanish our polls they seem to love honor stood very well that they just didn't have the necessary tools were backing more support to put up a good fight to me every time you look at the spanish ships for example are differences on paper they look very formidable but then you find out more details and find out that nothing was as it should've been the ships were often falling apart when disrepair pour out of action all these wanted god is that the spanish supposedly have a law that were sitting on the beach not even in the replacement ready to go these minefield everybody worried about yeah they hadn't really been lady workable minds you're there are some deactivated was that it been destroyed by the tropical waters nothing was as the people thought there would be in the spanish apple's new does better than anyone in fact when the arab world commanding the spanish fleet in the rear romany lot was deciding how we was going to read his forces he would make sure that the water wasn't too deep because he was sure that should bring to sink any more his troops drowned when they did now for me i love this pure reading naval history because it's a transition to read and i love those it's a transition from the error of wooden ships they used if not wholesale power than a mix of steam and sailed to be here on steel hauled coal burning it the battle ships in the almost modern sense of the word and these battles in the spanish american war involved and makes a ball totaled two kinds of vessels oaths like the old u. middle eighteen hundred's vessels facing the vessels that would become known who was all on the first and second world wars the u. s. cruisers they'd go into the inner ear rear rama no one could be the bar on alert with powerful modern god it's and they go we in any faces only spanish ships are also powerful modern vessels but they're falling apart or they're breaking down order covered in barnacles an annual loss of these other ships the public able long your apollo stage card from another era the american fleet gives him a long long time in weeks till they're a couple thousand yards away from the spanish fleet do we get is that famous or you may fire when you were ready great leap and the u. s. opens up on the spanish and they proceed in a long straight line of shipped across a parallel course enough firing at the spanish ships as they do and in the soonest they get to the handle on the turn around and come back the other way continue under fire the whole time now the thing about this iraq if you actually look at the very few photographs of naval warfare from this period or you look at the drawings for paintings for people who saw the scanner combat you can see the ship's maneuvering in what appeared to be just a minute you took a giant handful gravel him awake and for when you see all the little plots of water all the ships are surrounded by these geysers of water shooting up everywhere because the amount of shells that this pure reagan naval warfare allow ships to throw into the air he is amazing but the amazing porter's health you actually hear the ships u. s. gunnery was considered very good that day less than three percent of the shots fired though hit their target do you imagine a spanish gallery was like because it completely inaccurate and if the actor reagan resume of two point seven five percent hitter something what is inaccurate fire the u. s. set the bomb to the ships on fire the one should be really suffers the most damage of the spanish wine ship we're on maybe admiral points out exactly how bad it was when the shells were hitting the actual vessel on why the reason the spanish suffer so much as along these vessels what annie's mar explosive shells just damage these old wooden ships with the king of the week the spanish on world the encounter quo the americans fired most rapidly there came upon us the number was projectiles as the three cruisers about annabelle line devoted themselves almost entirely to fight the kristina my flagship can you describe what happened christine is like she was hit quo another shell exploded on the poop deck and put out of action nine men another destroyed them isn't masthead bringing down the flag in my hands in which were replaced immediately afresh yell exploded in the officer's cabin covering the hospital with blood and destroying the wounded were being treated better than other exploded in the ammunition rumor started filling the course with smoke as it was impossible to control the fire or i had to flood the magazine the cartridges were beginning to explode says the mid ship's several shells of smaller caliber went through the smoke stack the horrible large ones penetrated the fire world putting out of action one master gunnery twelve men serving the guns another rendered useless the starboard bow gone off by restoring increased fire started forward by another shell which one through the hall and explode on the deck and core increases the five years later when they were reduced the sheep from the bottom of the day they found eighty skeletons in the hospital and been hit by a shell now when this battle was over the huge casualty disparity in us not even suffering and death the guy died from heat stroke the night before that was the one death attributed to this battle star and your europe had already been talking about tom by law does want to buy the wane in an italian publication the talk about the growing american parallel those of us who grow during your id remember the charmed the yellow peril to describe your china's rise to power this era has the american parallel and for those european u. nations were beginning to feel that like maybe she wears is more of a first-class power that we thought this destruction of the spanish fleet in a lot shock to them and they began to worry about perhaps an american offensive against europe at some point what the results of the europeans begin all the sudden they really close attention to this new conflict and broken out which the care much of it occurred in the deep dark pacific around the philippines but the instantly began to realize that the spanish had possessions in the atlantic just off the european powers cape verde islands double the rate the islands on the canaries right off the african coast with the u. west should take over those islands and have bases white off the european coaxed all the sudden europe was now cognizant of what this italian publication called the american apparel now the american population had been quite worried when war broke out about what the spanish fleet in spain actually on summer these islands were they were based on was going to do so in this period before radar and satellites and everything oneself we got under way unless she looked hail them with another ship every step of the way they were for all intents and purposes of mr reflate they could just emerged out of the bomb somewhere anywhere no idea till they arrived americans on the east coast of the u. s. hand about the impure is perhaps of the spanish fleet would then start to shell cities like boston or new york or in a lump sum of virginia city to mean the people in the coastal areas were panicked for a while i'd try to imagine your today's modern media trying to cover the story him we've seen how the c. n. n.'s in most places couple hurricanes of mosca disasters imagine avenue reporters be a satellite on some of these coastlines talking about it what would happen if the spanish we go the sudden emerged out of the mist gino visibly from where we're standing right now or you anderson on the coast the boston been reporting on people fleeing for their safety of in the areas of some gunnery range the navy had won a victory within five days of the declaration of war which don't everybody the fleet in the atlantic and caribbean area had clamped down a day blockade on cuba itself the ghostly to mistreat we did a blood stain it as soon as that was found they were going to be destroyed for the u. s. army even get the chance to get their hands dirty this war's looking for real one side indeed the one sided news of this conflict was something that the relief on in spanish commanders realized before the war even officially broke out the admiral of the so called ghostly this invisible flee before the war even starts is in spain outfitting he ships and he knows the real trouble they need work on their boilers their bottoms are fall they have mechanical problems the ammunition is faulty minimum of cold any continually tell the government isn't nothing's done about in addition he keeps asking for war disorders are you know teddy roosevelt tell the fleet of far east before the war breaks out with their do when war breaks out school surveyor of the spanish family keeps asking his government he keeps saying it will guarantee the next stop lindsay the next hour but in every game which leads surveyor up to announce once he's given another final orders to head off toward the disaster rays upon us in this conflict that in the united states is known as the splendid little war is seen completely differently and understandably so by the spanish cervera believed that the country the leadership of the country knew that they were outgunned and doomed and in order to salvage spanish pride they were simply looking for some truffle girl like a battle where the spanish to go down to a glorious defeat and salvage your honor now americans like every major people who've had any military history or quite familiar with these doomed glorious causes and when we celebrate things like last stand at the alamo here are also like most other people with a hard time seeing other people's glorious doomed alamo type incidents which was one of the wonderful things i was thought about clint eastwood movie he did to move these parallel movies about the battle of the wall jima the famous were war to us landings on the island occupied by japan and now the first movie did was just like all the ones most american audiences are used to seeing from the u. s. perspective invade his debating the silent open up the flag all back and stuff but then he did the more interesting of the two movies were in the whole father movie from the perspective of the doomed japanese on the island is that saw the americans are rival is akin to darth vader showing up and to link him to work you heroic murderers last alamo like stand in the united states be vanish emerton wars known as the splendid little war in spain is known is the disaster and americans have a hard time seeing how here we're awake the spanish walking open eyed into this disaster war cervera cool military historians believe would've been a lot better off any disorder state he'd invisible he would've been what alfred they are made and used to call a fleeting being on this threat that the u. s. can add to be careful of that you know we're the spanish we would appear next and instead he makes a lazy course towards the caribbean his fleet is eventually spotted nullifying that whole fleet in being idea 'cause now the u. s. knows we're really is they can concentrate their force to develop the worry about the whole east coast of the u. s. and patrolling up there to vera will eventually get caught and trapped in the harbor santiago and stock fairer wally mixed really superior us fleet waits outside for him to do something now they continue to wait while the land forces of the united states conley get their act together get on a budget transport to make their way to cuba knowing quick look at the major officers in this conflict the usual real idea of how all this he is a clash of the cameras were really the modern world which is wars is the beginning of use carrying with it holdovers from another time the commander of the army is a guy named general nelson miles general mills and miles is best known for fighting joy on ammonia pat cheese he fought the lakota sioux i'm applying is if on the civil war colonel leonard rule would would be the official commander of teddy roosevelt's rough riders roosevelt will be commissioned as lieutenant colonel on is all that request by the way he's offered the command of the entire regiment but he doesn't want it because he knows he's not qualified new look like a full so he pushes forward this doctor named leonard wood who also fought against the apaches and one of the things he was known for as the war gets underway president mckinley offers a top post to a guy who at the tiny offers it is an old man he's any congressman from alabama named joseph wheeler wheeler is better known as the confederate general fighting joe wheeler annie was a cavalry commander in the civil war mckinley says i need you to go put on the uniform indiana and fight for the union anne wheeler says i'm to wall and mckinley says we need you he says quote there must be a high officer from the south there must be a symbol of the old days are gone you're needed an equal wheeler except the coming and when the troops are moving down from the north to the south including teddy roosevelt's rough riders they get in you were out was each year from the southerners baby now how they would be you know treated because really the people in the south but we're joining up the fighting this war with the sun is of the confederate soldiers mean that's how recent this whole thing is added in these terrible feelings between the north and south for some time that this war not only was starting to heal but that the people who were part of getting this war going halt that would be a side benefit at that when people were listing but to a three years before the war broke out some of the possible in a positive impact this conflict might your bring on what he was feeling some of the divisions between the north and south roosevelt says they will be playing dixie when marching through the south and the people there are going crazy in the women are coming out your waving american flags and men are coming out saying they never thought they'd be out here cheering the union on any story that bike is for my favorite stories wheeler or this former confederate general who's now commanding american troops on the way to cuba will wear the blue we will form of the united states army for the rest of his life he will be buried in it and there's a famous story of one of his former company rick comrades talking about wheeler and stonewall jackson the famous confederate cavalry commanders that we were fought with any looking at wheeler in the coffin in the blue uniform ring goes jesus general what stonewall gonna think when you cross over to the other side dress like that nonetheless this symbolic to mei and putting really recharge the street for more symbolic reasons will turn out to be really good move because fighting joe wheeler is still really aggressive cavalry coming under all of these forces arrived in the southern areas the rough riders in texas money to people in our in louisiana and florida and they also to converge on temple which turned out to be a horrible place to most of the troops one railroad track me just really bad place the entire affair is seen as we said earlier nightmare when they got these transports lined up but nobody has any sort of organization i becomes one of these things were people are legitimately were worried you're not going to get into the war again you know in a twentieth century world we have a hard time thinking like the people back then or scared that they're not going to see combat we're as the opposite is true that people who know what twentieth century combat is like and there's an incident where teddy roosevelt and his rough riders c.'s wannabes transport ships right before another regiment gets to win the regiments of that starship and roosevelt says we seem to have it sir intellect off lock we made it first they crossed the yom narrow ninety three miles on in a heed the old ship were the entire situation is just one nightmare after another mean the bureaucratic on the preparedness of the army contrasts terribly with the efficiency of the navy the horses that the poor on the ships are dying all time they're throwing them overboard leaving one rider to say that she looked in the distance of these thirty or forty transport ship you could see the carcasses of course is flowing all the way back to florida whereas the u. s. navy was an integrated for some had african americans as part of the ship's compliment the army was knocked you had black or regiments including some very famous ones like the buffalo soldiers more god roosevelt brings his man as he calls him which means is man servant with him a black american whose job it is to be no deal with roosevelt's to take your needs and roosevelt is apt hired in the uniform that he designed himself an award from the fancy clothier brooks brothers he's headed extra pockets and compartments only in his clothing to hold the twelve extra pairs of spectacle that he has with them annie as a big sword that he has to be occasion and two horses and you brought with him when the u. s. troops arrive in cuba they are supposed to go to guantanamo bay you know guantanamo bay the u. s. still occupies guantanamo bay because five hundred urso marines in absolutely heroic effort there's no two ways about it had captured the area from spanish it is perhaps the most from the west and corny way to roll wait in the nail biting moment of the war they capture the syrian assuming it's gonna be used as a landing point and it turns out that the us military commanders the wild land there because they know their history and aha under sold one hundred twenty years before the birdie should try to invade the silent they landed at guantanamo because it's the perfect navy area which it still is and tried to march overland to the area that the west military eventually want to conquer they make it it's not even that are they suffered like two thousand casualties from the heat the rain disease and everything else or forced to abandon the whole thing to the u. s. military commanders be more do that instead the trial landed near really really isn't a good landing and eager and they have sixteen thousand men with them i mean this is a major amphibious operation by far the largest won in us history up to this point it is organize so badly that when they finally pull into this harbor that's not even really a harbor the best idea they have for unloading the horses he's throwing them off the boats into the surf about half of them turned the wrong way instead of heading toward the beach head out into the breakers and die the majority of horses and mules will not make it off of the ships to shore there's one little teeny here the jobs out that for you know above the actual war line and the navy role is these boats out there never birdie try zulu time we get on to that your enemies such a whole week take leave disorganized operation that teddy roosevelt says had there been just a couple hundred rifleman on the hills above the area would it to the disaster massacre because they're women no way to deal with the money does work paid off the u. s. troops as they unloaded it like nobody's business but here's an interesting little sign helmet to hold them as soon as they land roosevelt and his compatriot ronnie dunn cuban insurgents that they're there because ah and they could not be less impressed to them the cuban insurgents look like a bunch of ragtag band aids and let's not forget something that would impress these people are more than it would matter to was they were blocked the most part they were thoroughly beyond admirable to the minds of the people like roosevelt to look took one look at him and all these people are gonna be useless just watch your back there or bandits anything else or roosevelt they'll doing knowledge as he wrote off these people was that the reason that they weren't attacked by a couple hundred rifleman obama heights above this landing zone was because the cuban said both haldeman you don't have seven thousand guys up there like your intelligence services are telling you it's a much smaller force and they went to an attack them and lord them away from those heights in other words had that rag tag group of bandits as roosevelt and his compatriots all of them not helped out the americans the americans likely would be slaughter on the beaches as they tried to you in a disembark from these transport ships all sixteen thousand of them now to this point that i feel the conflict becomes difficult to describe because there's a romantic on realistic sense about it that has in a big part of the narrative ever since it happened and it's hard to know why i mean one is tempted to say that simply the romantic nature of the times the way the participants decided to couch all of these experiences in terms of the jingoistic romantic in a military tradition of the day all that seems to combine to create a situation where you know as i think we mentioned before john hey call this whole affair splendid little war when you hear the accounts it sounds like that the week for general we tecumseh sherman earlier we see war is hell you know it's glorious all moonshine week that the bullet haven't heard the shrieks of the wounded in all this but if you read the first person accounts of this war there are no shrieks of the wounded whether it's to reporters other participants everybody you guys just cannot falls over everybody who's wounded talks as though they're sitting in the living room by a fire with the sweepers on one point roosevelt is next to a guy he gets shot maligned really bad wound and roosevelt says are you shoddy goods yes i'm shot years is a bad yes it's very bad mean is no screaming there's no complaining even the wounded when they're sitting in the on the hospitals start singing my country tis of thee in that one guy who dies dies at the last no water runs of the last line in the song the entire thing is just couched in this military romanticism but the reality of the situation kind issue is that the soldiers were infused with this whole idea a reporter on the scene while landings are still going all the describes the mood of the troops and it's just sir we'll he says that no one slap on the night of june twenty second because they were still so much going on this is from his account quote no one slept that night for until two o'clock in the morning troops were still being disembark in the surf two ships of war and their search lights turned on the landing place and made sid any white is a ballroom back of the searchlight was an ocean white with moonlight and on the shore the ready campfires at which the half ground troops were drawing their uniforms all of the camp was the beach and roaring sir from which a thousand years some naked men were assisting in impeding the prague we're short of their comrades in pontoons and shore boats which were being hurled at the beach like slides down water shoot it was one of the most weird unremarkable scenes of the war probably of any war an army was being landed on an enemy's coast in the dead of night but with somewhat more of cheers and shrieks and laughter or the rise from the bathers in the surf in coney island on the hot sunday it was a pandemonium of noises the men still to be landed from the prison all says they call their transport were singing in the corps the memory on shore were dancing naked around the camp fires on the beach or shouting with delight as they plunged into the first bath that they had offered in seven days promotional launches they were being pitched headfirst of the soil of cuba signal lies their arrival by howls of triumph on either side rose black overhanging reaches in the lowly between were white tents and burning fires and from the ocean came the blazing dazzling eyes of the searchlights shaming the quiet moonlight and co that sounds like a boy scout expedition doesn't it in fact i'm a military history standpoint if you can kind of devolve yourself from patriotism in romance and all that what's about to happen he is small time warfare in the first battle that these troops will fight why is a couple days after the simplest called los blossoms mosque was a most is a crossroad and this battle will be made into a very big deal by the press and by theodore roosevelt by the time it's over you involving fifteen hundred men on one side thousand on the other the casualties are like sixteen dead for the americans intended for the spanish as a skirmish but when you actually hear roosevelt write about in his memoirs it turns into something from a military romance novel it sounds in fact like the kind of stories roosevelt himself grew up worrying here we admired the glory of the combat in the soldiers in fact even sounds like roosevelt has put itself in the kind of story that he and henry cabot lodge talked about in their book hero tales but instead of it being in one of the greek figures in american history from the past it involves people like roosevelt himself and all these nearly perfect american officers and soldiers as roosevelt world in his autobiography we talk about these events undermines me little bit of winston churchill one church of famously said i know history will treat me fairly because i will be writing those history is roosevelt wrote stuff like this when he talked about the fighting in cuba talking about american soldiers here in battle called they would lead most gallantly as american regular officers always leader men and men follow their leaders with the splendid courage always shown by the american regular soldier there's not a single strangler among them any not one instance was an attempt made by any trooper the fallout in order was just any of the wounded or carry back the dead while so cool were they and so perfect their fire discipline that in the entire engagement the expenditure of ammunition was not over ten rounds per man and equal rose also cycles the way your randolph hearst reporters who were you making this whole affair out to be this glorious tale of military renown in fact no we'll run our first is claiming such credit for this war that is newspaper in new york where's the headline how do you like the journals war in the journal was his newspaper and the war is what we call out the spanish american war when he ran off first with basically taking credit for the war and asking for sort of a maid war were poured review if you will as though you're roger heber it you're giving your thumbs up or thumbs down on how the movie's going so far and as if roosevelt could almost hear what i'm saying from the grave here's a page that just back out in his memoirs of the battles were he talks about all those novelist to write about you know the complex emotions of maine in battle least things we always talk about and contrasting those with a very simplistic patriotism that he found so uplifting and so noble and so pure or here's a little bit the road about after the battle mosque was most and the wounded in noah's they sat in the tents in the heat with the flies and mosquitoes buzzing in all with terrible gunshot wounds he writes quote a very touching incident happened in the improvised open air hospitalized to the fight for the wounded were lying they did not grown up and made no complaint trying to help one another one of them suddenly began to hallmark micah treat his m. b. and one by one the others joined the chorus which swelled out for all the tropical woods with the victors lay encamped the side they are dead i did not see any sign among the fighting man whether wounded or an wounded but the very complicated emotions assigned to their kind by some of the realistic modern novelists who've written about battles at the front everyone behaved quite simply and took things as they came in a matter of course way and quo no screens no shrieks no war is hell it's much more like another newspaper man who brought back to the states is we quoted earlier in all it is war and it is magnificent and for roosevelt it's the high water mark of his life even more than being president my favorite story from the bottle of las blossom most is probably something that didn't really even happen but the first hundred years of history writing about the spanish american war he was included is no win the uninvolved back a former confederate general and alabama congressman joseph we were fighting joe wheeler he was put there are in commander somebody string for member by what you mckinley as part of the effort to shore bringing the blue when the great again the refueling moment supposedly we see the spanish retreating from los was some must be supposed to turn the troops has won more boys we've got the damn yankees on the run up like i like to begin having one of those flashbacks to the civil war wall is out there of course is some of the modern history is pointed to the some of the troops he's commanding the or black regiments in union uniforms are probably didn't happen one of those moments where we think about the spanish american war healing the wounds of the civil war that the p. t. yes the flashbacks of fighting joe wheeler you know thinking of stonewall jackson all that one of my favorite moments of this particular encounter nor does come in the store you would be forgiven if you thought you were listening to a program about the spanish american war but the spanish american war is simply an element in this larger in a picture of us political and diplomatic and foreign affairs history for me to ninety to nineteen oh five about minutes during this period as i said that the u. s. kind of get speaks almost to imperialism and manages to reconcile what on paper seemed like a very an american idea the idea to go and other countries and take them over or topple the government with the idea is that america has always celebrated about itself the idea freedom and liberty and self determination all these things that the founding of the united states sort of infused in the american mythology and the situation in cuba seemed to quell any misgivings that any american have about this because they will be to a more basic encounters and little things would happen to it to more basic significant encounters in the spanish american war and both of them would prove to be walk over us thereby leaving anyone who would complain about in a discourse that the u. s. was on it a little lacking in any sort of oregon armenia for you could go abroad in search of monsters to slay and help people out and have it cost to virtually nothing it will you gained on your end renown all bee stings on the world stage why on earth would you do what we are the arguments against it the kabul days after this last was a most bottle or skirmish teddy roosevelt and his rough riders in the american army would run into the warm real battle of the war two americans this is famous it's been apologize to the battle of san juan hill of the battle of kettle hill that are their names for it in this battle the u. s. to really see reserve reasons ends up having to charge entrenched spanish fortified positions on pale on not exactly something anyone want to be doing the spanish were not bad soldiers all the fun to play good actually and in this battle the arm rough riders under teddy roosevelt an american in our readers right jim the white one hand on one of the story of black regiments in american history all charged up this hill and dispersed the spanish or at the top of that roosevelt on this is his crowded hours he calls it is most proud moment he lingers on it lovingly in his autobiography of one point he says billy charges up the hill at the spanish physicians would like five guys around him 'cause he says the rest of the unit is needed here in the house on the charge most of those quiet guys are shot roosevelt fires and so by the hundred and fifty yards and in no man's land all by himself there's no question that teddy roosevelt was brave and eddie lived up to all of his expectations of you know standing fast under fire everything's war broke out but there still is when you're seaweed as autobiography this whole sense that these were regional believe him in the appendix e. prince several letters of people whose we're back up his store like you're not gonna believe that he was disbelieving of the teddy roosevelt by the way we becomes president of the wandering great things an interesting enough things on domestic front of everything else but when comes to foreign policy in his romance about war he was positively childlike and boastful and worried that you would leave his story and concerned that you think about him like a warrior and this was his one big battle we're additional question any proved he was by the end of the day there are more than two hundred u. s. dead more than a thousand wounded but it's not exactly come situation you will find yourself in charging appeal and entrenched enemy positions but nonetheless the one big battle when roosevelt gets his spanish carpio some to metaphorically hang on his wall or put a notch and miserable for his revolver bought away was taken off the wreck of the main so when two spaniards pop up during this bottle and take a shot in the direction of roosevelt and then turn around runaway teddy shoots want back which will get him some g. yours when he's on the campaign trail you're sure this period were some will not change or many people over time were chanting i teddy roosevelt you know who shot a spaniard in the back nonetheless bomb the battle san juan hill famous american alter history and what the battle of san juan hill does is make the position of the spanish fleet that bottled up in the harbor that we told about on untenable they receive orders from spain sank you can't just sit there even if you're gonna die you have to go walk there and do so with owner so the admiral puts on his best be no quotas are right away old directions to his family for mommy's dead sins or shores of the new know it can survive the battle annie sally's forth in broad daylight with his fleet in the gutter repeat of what happened with commodore do we in the law this time enter one battle however some of the ship's managed to get out we open sea star running in the u. s. pursues when it's another case very much like the last one of horrible casualties on the spanish side terrible carnage in spanish if someone americans in the office again if you're anti imperialist how you even argue against imperialism and cons of such a low cost for you the americans were extremely galloped in victory arm there are times during this battle where the spanish war fallen off the spring ships on firing to shark film awards were told will manage to struggle you know one half drowned make it to the shore only to become enough water for the tube in his direction is we're on a short begin killing them on the beach and the u. s. sends the message to get their allies these cuban revolutionaries don't stop killing the spanish sailors who fought so galilee the west will turn the fleet's gonzalez them the americans will send all i mean moments after the battle was over the spanish official burning and ammunition is is exploding understanding doctors and staff to all the ships to try to evacuated spanish been wounded in the spanish bomb the one point or are being sunk left enlightening us sailors are cheering as is not uncommon who were when you're nitpicking rerun of the other side of the admiralty leslie says the wind shear boys those poor devils or die and the money spanish general feed it disheartened dejected and ashamed is brought aboard the u. s. the flagship no hat no shirt and comes aboard the u. s. soldiers cheering at first the spanish general thinks that he there were rubbing his nose and the defeat in the new realizes there cheering his bravery and bravery this man he tries to hand over his sword to the american commander the american commander gives it back and when the arm radios on his superiors in spain he says he could not be treated better the americans are the very academy of gallantry and this is how they see themselves the americans wanna be seen as these honorable upstanding your people on the world stage with the british with the french would get the great powers of the world and the hype and got ourselves a victory if the spanish american war becomes the template of what imperialism is like there is no downside edition is very same time that these battles are happening the u. s. economy in max's hawaii bill take puerto rico within days to you go from a country that the year before has a polling station on the island of midway that they've had since eighty six east of an appalling station you know when the somalia's justice of refuel your ships but basically you're does power can find in north america and in enid dizzying to which reminds you takes you but you take puerto rico you take all why in your talk about this canal you're gonna build in panama that is a debut on the world stage and if you're gonna like mark twain remember the anti impure you was league or any of these groups who talk about the founding fathers saying we shouldn't go abroad in search of foreign monsters to slide what way do you have to stand on you just read the cuban people are the cost of like fifteen hundred or two thousand american lives and it was glorious and it won renown and held the american reputation mean who would argue against that and think about our history might have been different if the story stopped there but it didn't was another component to the spanish american war anymore that was so different from the rest of the war that it actually gets its own name it's called the philippine insurrection and for not palash time in u. s. history it would take american forces into the dark asian jungles to face you know guerrilla warfare in the way to reflect the gallant american military values that were on display in cuba and it would give them new nation to those would to ingest but the cost of him she really was um even if the motives were pure were might be a significant chunk of the american soul the u. s. warring cuba was carried out with honor and gallantry and lived up to be almost mythological standards of guys like teddy roosevelt and henry cabot lodge then again as wars go it was an easy conflict it becomes much harder look at those glorious romantic ideals if the conflict is pro wall and brutal and frustrating and that's what happened in the philippines the philippines are kind of you know most historians would serve as a whole new left history angle that aegis of the u. s. wanted everything it ended up within the spanish american war had a time by a large most historians look at the philippines us over the accidental conquest the falls into the u. s. lap at the end of the spanish american war the u. s. in focused on cuba for more than a century several different illustrations had been thinking okay what we do about to bust the whole thing goes to happen and basket and so that situation had been minute li planned for all the angles sort of worked out the philippines was something that no one really seem to expect prison make chili is supposed to look said that he couldn't get spotted the island is on the globe within two thousand miles if he asked him to do now whether or not that's true he doesn't negate the fact that wants the peace talks start in paris the philippines does look like a bad placed on especially if you're star not by trade with china on all these other things the philippines agreed guys he was in asper for rico in the peace negotiations begin a pass for cuba to be seated sort of freed but they're not gonna free at the don't ask for lawman gonna ask for well what the lead in the philippines is becomes a big issue of and it's a big yuri she because it's not won that the administration to the american people a long time to debate the talk about in the mode of the country after the spanish american conflict is not hot anymore not win the peace negotiations there are anti imperialists dotted everywhere but the general public are waving flags and are gonna holland are in this mood that we're bringing americanism to the rest of the world over an incomparable and ill with the high water mark of us patriotism and so this idea that you wouldn't take the philippines seems to be perhaps out of fashion henry cabot lodge has his famous lawyer he says where the american flag goes up it must not come down tony please the flag goes up you're pulling it down is like some sort of you saw it the problem with this whole thing is dealt with the u. s. is like a giant with a split personality they have the center of mythological beliefs in their own standards that make you a lot more difficult for them to acquire colonies and some of these european countries that never pretend that they're ruled by the consent of the governor if you're some monarch who rolls through you know some nineteenth century permutation all the divine right of kings you have to ask anybody's permission to rule over inferior people's as they are seen if you're the united states and you get these things like the declaration of independence that say you ruled by the consent of the government would you do with these places were you probably don't have the consent of the governed it becomes a big issue and the media gets involved in the editorial us good they've all been the politicians get involved the steward craig miller writes quote the major obstacle to injury list policy with the nation's political traditions of anti colonialism the declaration of independence monroe doctrine and isolationism gradually some republican editors began to attack these tradition is as outmoded bid for the ages sale not steam now call reward the senatorial us called as a people we're the most practical of races and care more about conditions than theory is the editor of the hawkeye in burlington iowa explained in his endorsement of annexation miller writes on back to the endorsement called unexpectedly and through the on scene and a divine destiny we have the philippine islands surely the fetish of tradition will not stand in the way of all the compelling moral military religious and commercial reasons for keeping them he pleaded miller continued in chicago the journal warned against being battered by the past now quoting the journal called unless the president shall take immediate steps to protect him hold the philippines generations to be will read the history of this time and cursed the pure blind folly that for wake of a world power of chinese reverence for molitor nations and dead men's opinions and core the dead man's opinions by the way the founding fathers now lest anyone think this is a republican and democratic banged their isolationists on both sides and your interventionism all sides him with elections once again looming up all the politicians are noticing you of this is pre opinion poll time but noticing that everybody's waving flags everybody's cooper patriotic and nobody seems to want to fly to come down wherever it's gone up teddy roosevelt is out there on the campaign trail for william mckinley and he's basically saying there's no such thing as a pure blood patriotic american who would give back anything we've taken he said quote do you wish to keep or throw away the fruits of what we've won in war if you wish to throw them away then vote against president mckinley vote in favor of his opponents and give heart to every spaniard in spain to every man in continental europe which is as in all vote that way if you please repeat choose to vote for america if you choose to vote for the flag which we fought for this summer then you will bow to sustain the administration of president mckinley and co now how would you look wait patriotism and being a true american up with putting people who don't want to governing them up under your control in other words what a whole declaration of independence that well americans who wanted these areas held by america began to soda redefine the whole idea of imperialism something that they had criticize europeans war for long time they began to say that the american version of impure realistic is at the same thing we were criticizing europeans or when europeans do these things they were robbed their conquer people and dominate them an exploit the french in north africa the breach and south africa and india these are places where are the europeans are just abusing these people we're going there to blame other people but for some america's won a religious figure at the time said quote imperialism is in the air but as new definitions and better inventions it is republicanism writ large it is imperialism and not for domination of personalization not for absolute chisholm but for self government american imperialism is enthusiastic optimistic and beneficial republicanism imperialism expresses itself by expansion i believe in imperialism because i believe in foreign missions are for admission board can teach congress how to deal with remote dependencies to the president wants an impure real republicanism the peel of the trumpet rings out over the pacific the church must go we're america goes so said the reverend wallace radcliffe a big part of this or the protestant churches in america during this time three which are involved in in iraq protestant revival and are really excited about christian rising all these places for example does all this talk about christian eyes in the philippines an american catholics which is a minority during this era it must be said have to keep or minding these american protestant the places like the filipinos are overwhelmingly christian already there just catholic christian which is one reason why the cap which refused often opposed to the west dominating the philippines because the feeling is it if it does you want the catholic christian very long so when people like henry cabot lodge are confronted with the anti interventionists would give you about the consent of the governor would he do but the declaration of independence he has the same problem everyone else does he believes in the midst of america to he understands this idea about your being almost on realistically good and yet he wants to keep the philippines any things that the great thing how does he reconcile it well lodge harkin back to decisions made during the jefferson administration in the very early eighteen hundreds concerning the native american cherokee tribe and the white to sober rule over them because they were incapable of ruling themselves lodges attitude was that this is the same situation that the filipinos we're in historian richard government rights call for lodge the constitution was less of an issue than a declaration of independence with reference to consent of the government he was more than her paratrooper by an answer to all those who questioned the compatibility this clause and the denial of sovereignty to the filipinos again using the history of jefferson's acquisition of louisiana as the appropriate reference oblige maintained at the same axiom applied to the philippines the indigenous people were as quote incapable of self government as children and quote the murmuring continues hands just as jefferson but by and bringing civilization to the frontier is response ability so large considered america responsible for bringing civilization to the philippines merely a four other western from cheaper large said quote the taking of the philippines does not violate the principles of the declaration of independence all spread them among the people who've never known liberty and on a few years will be is unwilling to leave the shelter of the american flag as those of any other territory we've ever brought beneath its balls and quo in other words these people are going to thank us for coming in here or in ruling to him president mckinley started referring to the filipinos as our little brown brothers they said that the goal of the united states was benevolent assimilation which of course as you might imagine struck a lot of racism united states is something wholly unnatural and not good which also lead to supreme court decisions on the question because the issue comes up if you're gonna start taking these territories in making the calming is what happens with the constitution to all these people all the sudden get all the benefits in on the first amendment the second amendment always counted things and the court in the budget cases no one is the inner solar wings ruled that yes colonies are constitutional and now the people that you rule as colonial figures do not be all the benefits of the constitution these are the ruling that affected the people in puerto rico since they were made on the treasure not quite entirely an american citizen in these places now the probably guys like lodging roosevelt and everyone haven't they talk about how these filipinos are gonna be so happy with american ruled that the filipinos start out not very happy with american ruled they'll wanna be ruled by anyone they spend a budget time trying to throw off spanish rule the last thing they want is a new colonial master so predictably violence breaks out between filipinos and americans initially it starts out like a war where you literally have filipino battle lines in american battle lines and that was about five minutes because the u. s. just klaus says the filipino soldiers if you wanna call that insurrection has their idea of fighting straight about what the americans bomb proved to be about this fruitless as any other colonial people's trying to take on what the world's great powers whether it's african tribes against the british north african tribes against the french you know the indian nato forces against the british doesn't matter the colonial people's if you would call them that the indigenous people should be a better term have a very hard time facing up to modern militarism the filipinos or no different but they have a history of not facing off and on with the army is a major powers but fighting them integral of fashion after the head on defeated by the americans that's what the filipinos go back to and now the united states finds itself in exactly the kind of conflict he wasn't involved in cuba they find themselves involved in the kind of conflict that spain was involved in for although jeers and all of a sudden all those really harsh terrible methods that the spanish used to put down rebellion that the american government and the inner firebrand political figure she screamed about spain's medieval you know ways of handling things in there are inquisition like techniques all the sudden some of the wisdom of applying those kind of harsh measures in order quayle rebellion start making sense to a bunch of people who work in the same situation that the spanish were in the one the spanish we're trying to put down rebellion in what would become a template for counterinsurgency warfare and won by the way that the u. s. and used against the role native peoples in north america the u. s. uses a characteristic sort of approach to the filipino problem they go in and they build schools an improved sanitation and they build roads in the bringing teachers and missionaries in all these things to improve the lives of the natives but the same time these may be of some of whom are taking advantage of these us gifts to the indigenous people the philippines or night grabbing a rifle or a ball which is the traditional short sword of the philippines and attacking american troops president mckinley points out that would just trying to help and yet we're getting attacked in how're we supposed to be a think about things like the declaration of independence when these people were trying to bring all these wonderful benefits to keep shooting at us he said quote to our concern is not for territory court trade war empire but for the people whose interest in destiny without are willing it has been put into our hands do we need their consent to perform a great act for humanity we added in every aspiration of their minds in every hope of their hearts was it necessary to ask their consent to capture manila the capital of their pylons do we asked the consent to liberate them from spanish sovereignty we did not ask these things we were obeying a higher moral obligation which rested upon us which did not require any bodies can set when we're doing our duty by them as god gave us like to see our duty with the consent of their own consciences and with the approval of civilization the war that destroyed spanish sovereignty was in progress we could not ask their views yorkshire we now asked their consent it is not a good time for the liberator to submit important questions concerning liberty and government to the liberated while they're engaged in shooting down there rescuers and quo mckinley is high minded sentiments about war for our consciences in helping the liberated was harder reconcile with what news was coming out of the philippines because that news portrayed award that was almost the exact opposite of the romantic glorious in a kind that teddy roosevelt's on cuba begin to look more like the kind of way you tecumseh sherman talked about in his speech about how did the glories of war are all moonshine the philippine insurrection and if you read about it sounds a heck of a lot like the u. s. experience in the vietnam war the nineteen sixties early nineteen seventies the insurrection list would appear to be normal filipinos indistinguishable from the population by day they were known as the amigos the friend is would help the american south listen into a trap the company whitehall at nighttime and go on american school by day would she old father filipinos see if they seem to be cooperating with the u. s. sometimes in the most horrible ways again just like the vietcong and indeed traps that would allow american soldiers on patrol to fall in on a bunch of spikes or trigger booby trap that we should this be your spring loaded three americans chest or ambush them along trail during patrols and mutilate no american game as any the way to shock and put the figure into other american soldiers and the american soldiers fighting in the philippines fell into we're on types us radio burgers and people who today we would call the national guard they call them the national guard than two bottles of them up state militias and the quality of these vary wildly in fact many of the peoples in the philippines fighting and the u. s. flag were not very different than the kind you were fighting at the latter part of the indian wars and you wish it to remember the battle of wounded knee it was less than a decade before this period that is a horrible massacre or on the worst timing you just basically see native american men women and children tossed in the pits i'm not a very different situation out in terms of the men fighting that war than the ones who in some of these cases were in the philippines they call the filipinos in his award i never used them toward you and say that they call them niggers and goo goos and to them they were even worse than the black people in the united states the racist ones anyway and their attitude was bent on one point for example the u. s. callers and tom over treating filipinos ana river that stops the money to stay there on the hills an issue more than one soldier right to his death and the letters by the white from the american soldiers to their folks back home are on me leave bubble in just one was a turkey shoot at its most haunting the world are in the boondocks as they call these places and the military had this horrible problem because these letters were coming back to the states in these reports were filtering back to the u. s. and the generals in the philippines we're trying to shut down this information because it made the situation in the philippines look anything but glorious romantic an american ear corpse it was affecting the wars in each there are many especially the new law to springs to portray the philippine insurrection is almost an exact copy of the stages of the vietnam war through we start off is extremely patriotic in the new become disillusioned when you become upset with the conduct of our troops and then you become upset with the law is our government and he'll be comments about the lighting of the inevitable but it's never the end of the time all it's a similar situation in the philippines and there are many different accounts a whole sort to defer marga miss all the rich history book for new left histories you or are revisionist history sure neoconservatives israel's on the war in that region but nobody denies that he was sick strongly namely you know violent and nasty you saw urgent guerrilla warfare can you see this over over again and when you see this people not americans people in combat after certain way when you see your log befriended killed and his genitals stopped in his mouth and his head and buried up to his neck in anthills smeared with jelly i mean people we packed in predictable ways the problem is people like teddy roosevelt on henry cabot lodge at a whole generation of americans had come to believe that they were kind of above that the american soldiers didn't happen that way when in reality american soldiers are human like anyone else and one that information even as the military tried to prevent it streaming back to the united states to itself the mood of the american public started to change and this lumber patriotic feeling this idea of war being gloria some wonderful rejuvenating to the american soul like the nation going to the g. m. to keep its finely honed edge again to suffer in the cold hard line of reality and the people who will paul was this kind of violence came on the woodwork and you saw the debate between the two halves of the giants site he the united states is schizophrenia sides begin to have an open debate bob burpee for each one of the pro imperialist legislators goes to the philippines and he comes back he gives this speech to congress about you know how we can never retrieved from the philippines how would our destiny and there's all this amazing stop there that makes it worth keeping we're great jones to scribes be for jews speech quo he began with a declaration of america's impure real destiny so rational uncompromising that shocked many of his colleagues the verge said quote the philippines are ours for ever territory belonging to the united states as the constitution calls them and just be on the philippines or china's alumina bull market we will not retreat from either we will not repudiate our destiny of the archipelago will not abandon our opportunity in the orient we will not renounce our part in the nation of our race trustees under god the civilization of the world and co jones continue to call it with the divine nature of america's mission established the bridge explained the practical reasons that demanded annexation of the philippines the archipelago as he had personally witnessed was quote a revelation of vegetable and mineral riches fertile fields of rice coffee sugar cane tobacco one amp wash groves and coconut and banana and a fine wood to supply the furniture run the world for a century become mountains of all great deposits of copper and gold screwing the banks of streams unquote that was one half of the american psyche behalf of the spiegel gallen character talking about the ring in saying we want to act the other half of the american character that was the almost on realistically good side were presented by anti imperialist republican senator george war jones rights cold war was appalled by the glittering lower the material prosperity to be bridge offered as justification for the nation's bloody colonial venture to a descendant of new england puritans it sounded like sake this temptation of jesus the young friend or said had offered quote an eloquent description of wealth and glory and commerce and trade it's that much to excite the imagination of youth seeking well or the u. charmed by the dream of empire but the senator from indiana meaning beaver retreat just made that speech or solemnly pointed out and not even paid lip service to the cherished ideals of america's birth quote those words which the american people a bit want to take upon their lips in every salam graces of their history the ideals of liberty freedom and self government and co here you have to the two sides of the schizophrenia giant being forced to confront each other and a mounting a guerrilla war that mean the entire things seem hypocritical and despite enormous efforts to control the press information from the philippines more more information trickles back to the states and what does it often is played out in the same media that deed such an propaganda state job of playing up spanish mistreatment of people in their colonies now they're playing up the mistreatment american soldiers to the natives in these places where were supposedly bringing democracy and liberty and the enlightened elements of civilization on may eighth eighty nine on the parents of the soldier in the philippines gave a letter to a center for cisco newspaper and the boy had sent to his parents about how they conducted operations in the philippines the people of surfaces go walter reed court the talented taddeo was surrender was a few days ago and two companies occupy the same last night one of our boys was found shot in his stomach and open immediately orders were received from genoa we can to burn the towering kill every native inside which was done to a finish about a thousand men women and children were pouring fuel on probably growing hard hearted blaming my glory what i can cite my god on some dark skin and pulled the trigger paper not that far from surfaces killed got ahold of another letter from a soldier to his parents so there's hope we make everyone get us house by seven pm don't really tell 'em am wants if he refuses we shoot him killed over three hundred natives the first night they tried to set the town on fire did they fire shot from my house would run the house down and every house near it issued the natives so they're pretty quiet in town and co even military personnel and kept the lid is best week long letters like that were forged in public sometimes into embarrassing admissions general should after what the generals and boldly campaigns in california around the same time period anywhere and the people the more stringent method to run out to be used in the philippines saying it might be necessary to kill half the native population in order to bring perfect justice to the surviving half now before we get to critical of the soldiers it's important to remember the time period we're talking about here a lot of the soldiers are not professionals a lot of them are coming from an error where it this is how we treated the native americans and the difference is this was a cold in the romanticism of the west now these were modern media accounts impacting a modern people who were not used to having tea even the realities of taming the old west brought to them as we are accustomed to now the whole cowboy in the indian narrative didn't change to this or we have now until late nineteen fifties early the middle nineteen sixties the romance of conquering the west to clear it from red savages who massacred and scalp settlers and that's all that happened that was still what most people in america believed to be seen have any reference point to understand what u. s. troops were doing in the philippines it was not that different them was gonna wounded knee and a bunch of other situations involving native americans this was pre standard stuff in it wasn't just any store for americans it was standard stuff and all the cool new wars neoconservatives story max boot who thinks that these kinds of things are okay and part of what a great power does point out that c. was bad it was as bad as what the belgians were doing in the congo was news bad as what was going on other parts of the world but let's not be naive about this he said quote already the army had displayed considerable cruelty in fighting the filipinos even during the initial campaigns of eighteen nineteen are in there were credible reports of soldiers shooting prisoners quote unquote while trying to escape almost fifty one incident but why'd he continues burning towns and torturing suspects to elicit information what interrogation technique he writes passed down from the spaniards was called the water que or a victim would be held out his mouth dropped open the water forced down his throat until the guts felt close to bursting the soldier would push on his stomach to clear up the water american soldiers became more hard hearted the longer the guerrilla war dragged on it was common for example after guerrillas cut telegraph wires are attacked us supply wagons for the army to burn in nearby town abuse of american prisoners of war for the reclaimed the soldiers almost yoda buse were courteous we treated some had limbs hacked off eyes gouged out or were slow roasted over a fire no more prisoners were warm washington volunteer in the wars early days they take nine and they tortured our man so we killed or wounded in all of them boots is called senior officers did not usually or such illegal conduct but they often turned a blind eye in an early version of the don't ask don't tell policy the prevailing view was summed up by major general lloyd week when he says in nineteen hundred called you can put down a rebellion by throwing confetti and sprinkling perfume marie and co of course no this city isn't a wheel rebellion because this isn't the united states that our troops are fighting in and this is again with the hypocrisy comes in we she won or right around this time period saying that anyone not in uniform fighting as witches everyone is considered to be no better than the bush wacker were banded will operate can be hard on the spot and anyone who helps them can be too again we're acting as though these people are rebelling against the sovereign government when in fact we are the sovereign government the abuses begin to make the newspapers mourn more teddy roosevelt calls all these anti war in tighter pensioners people who are criticizing the war effort on a hollow tree jurors and you hear this from a lot of other people too one general says that all these anti interventionist americans or be strong up like a bunch of it is wrecked doe's which are the insurrection us but more twain and many other famous americans say that this is so against the american national character that we should be ashamed duane says that we are replaced the white stripes of the american flag with black stripes and stars with skills and crossbones you begin to see american public opinion slowly but surely turning against this whole idea been purina was i'm that just a year or two before the end increased so emotionally and enthusiastically when the united states begins using recounts in tracing camps to isolate the guerrillas from the civilians the civilians began to die in those camps are very much like to read concentration camps that the spanish used some of the media lashes out even republican newspapers but generally support the administration the baltimore american wrote quote will actually come to do the same thing we went to war to banish author bryn jones rights quo democratic our range had been sharpened by recent speech given by general frederick forest and were mocking we suggested that american critics of the war already strong up like the ins wrecked ellis he in his men had executed in a scathing response that stretched over today's democratic senator edward car market tennessee excoriated phone's been as a cold licensed swagger and brenner and called who needed schooling in the principles of american democracy but car max ages most of your remarks for roosevelt and his conquest of the philippines the ministrations military campaign ads trudy archipelago which called the ashes of its homes and drenched with blood of its people and quote carmen charged it crushed dissent by denying the very liberties that roosevelt a promise to bestow quote spain has had her revenge karma to cleared for we have become the imitators of our most famous inequities in court the tasted broker camel's back no involve the general named jacob h. smith otherwise known as hell ring jake smith were involved the country in the most high profile atrocities trial perhaps it's entire history up until that point while trying to quell the rebellion more of these islands he told his subordinate to make the island a howling wilderness and in a trial that happened later his subordinates said then the general had said in court i want no prisoners i wish it killed and burn them or you killed and more you burn at the better we will please me along all persons killed were capable of bearing arms his subordinates said i would like to know the limit of the age smith told him ten years in the court this led to newspaper cartoon showing american soldiers executing ten year old filipino boy is at the trial for smith that happen later american soldiers were paraded defer to the trial explain that even youngsters as young as eight years old were taking shots at american soldiers necessitating the killing of children this sort it all over we hour with tea which it must be pointed out probably was the reality in some cases forced americans in the behavior that the american people were just not prepared to deal with what the american people were seen and reading and hearing about this conflict in the philippines completely ran against the grain of what they thought they were there to do in the killing run for reelection in nineteen oh one all the poster for stirring things up with for war for christianity in humanity and the stuff comes out it ron is contrary to the narrative that was used to get us into the conflict in the first place their main been strategic and commercial and national interest reasons for going to warp in eighteen ninety eight but the way the war was sold was for humanitarian reasons and they were humanitarian reasons the problem is is that what you do when it's obvious that the very people were trying to save are becoming the victims of our efforts to save them as historian was perot's junior wrote quote the way the war in eighteen ninety eight have far reaching implications political leaders had obtained a public support for the defense of national interest to row appeals to a higher moral purpose it's not all clear that war launched explicitly in defense of strategic interests an economic spheres of influence could've easily summoned or long retained popular support such objectives seems somehow to resume this too cynical to european too old world war in behalf of a moral purpose however in the name of principle and out of the sense of right precisely the terms by which americans professed their secular faith the war more as an expression of self-respect then the expansion of self interest was an undertaking perfectly consistent with the creature which the nation had been consecrated and equal in other words the two halves of the national psyche could agree to do something like this if it was for the good of humanity the problem was as all this information coming out of the philippines maid really hard to justify that idea am i this time period if you look at public opinion most americans simply seem to want this whole bad dream to just dead no more worried about the latest bad news out of the philippines leaves a much more bitter taste in their mouth than the flag waving mission accomplished rains down in a mainstream your town celebrating the wonderful victories over spain the freeing of the cuban people of all that this philippine stock is disheartening it's disquieting and it forces in lumber patriotic people that consider thoughts and feelings that they would rather not have a call but the war in the philippines has this nasty habit of simply going on and on and on no prison the killing will be assassinated in nineteen one the job linda champa teddy roosevelt's and his cold nemesis senator mark hanna the rich guy who support mckinley all those years will turn around and say that people are on duty at home again we never should've appointed that guy now we have that cowboy in the white house that cowboy she looked kind of been chastened as well he tries to end the war in the philippines i simply signing off on it on july fourth a very symbolic eight nineteen oh two p. declares the insurrection in the conflict in the philippines indeed the problem is what is signed can't do that unilaterally the filipinos didn't think you work it was an didn't they continued to fight in fact the conflict there would expand in one form or another until almost the beginning of the first world war nineteen thirteen years to combat going on some of these islands the first world war breaks out in nineteen forty and the worst of the atrocities hasn't yet even happened by the time roosevelt try to end the war by the act in nineteen oh two there will be an incident in nineteen oh six one of these filipino pylons with a population was muslims rehab respect to this thoroughly modern specter of american troops trying to root out terrorists on an islamic ireland who or essentially it attacking americans not what i eat ease but with booby traps of other kinds more old-fashioned nineteenth century booby traps and one point the commander on this islamic ireland who happens to be named leonard wood with the general by now but was an army doctor who was promoted to carl so he could command the rough riders with his second in command and teddy roosevelt now general would it manages to corner of body should these moral insurrection nests remember all these people are considered to be rebelling against the sovereign authority of the united states now so it's like people in tennessee or ohio had decided to ramallah ginsberg government these tribesmen try to take refuge jump on minimizing had dangers these people were but they're on their island the place they always been they try to take refuge for u. s. efforts to quell violence in an extinct volcano nice try and bring their women and their children with them there's about turns out we thought six hundred trinity like nine hundred of them on warriors is extinct volcano and would decide to go get them because he doesn't wanna continue to have problems with this tribe it's a difficult place to reach which is why it's such a good defensive waste the americans to figure out how to use pulleys and we choose to haul artillery obsolete they can be above the crater where these people are taking refuge and in the horrible twenty four thirty six hours the u. s. attacks this defensive position they will lose twenty one man was doing it but they will kill nine hundred filipinos many of them women and children and there is an absolutely horrifying photo that somebody took of american troops posing with a little really mountains of dead people including women in this crater this will once again filter back to the united states and just a shock people guys like mark twain war right some of the most scathing he says all literature he's ever written after this occurrence and then tell his family on the advice of his agent to keep it secret till after he's dead and maybe even longer than that because it will be here and a patriotic american during that time period will turn on him the read such a frank account that doesn't make the country looks so long for wonderful at a time period where americans didn't wanna hear anything other than that i mention some trials earlier where american officers will be brought up on charges that they acted in certain ways in the philippines and he's trials are interesting because they involve all lot of different things including investigations by the army and politics comes into it too for example the guy who's ahead of the army is being generally models interim was was the last major commander in the apache wars general miles doesn't like teddy roosevelt and teddy roosevelt that only general miles and teddy roosevelt thing stealing miles was to be president someday and general miles is one of these generals who's mad at the conduct of the war in the philippines in the same way that after vietnam the u. s. army felt like they didn't put into a situation where they you could not succeed without looking bad and that the image of the army was tarnished miles you gave these reports were each were the philippines and come back and said look this this whole thing is is wrong and on american and they were several other us dinner he said the same thing and basically they were trying to protect the reputation of the army who'd been put into a situation were no army would've gotten out there looking your smelling like a ropes guerrilla wars do not bring out the best in military forces other military commanders basically had said what we quarterly or would you expect the turn nasty conflicts in are you gonna do horrible things in order when when general would attack those filipinos until those nine hundred people in the crater teddy roosevelt felt compelled to send him a note congratulations show issue of the very strange kind of time that ever was living in the army was a worthy your institution roosevelt had become gradually his friend and the victory the same time it wasn't apparent victory be like congratulating them over the massacre wounded knee which also happen what are people that got a congressional medal soft about love and duty which was nothing more than a massacre it puts the american people in a terrible dilemma morally the army said that the filipinos were using women as soldiers which they often do it and that the children are being used as human shields none of that matter don't what people did convince themselves that this war was worth fighting for humanity sake by the time the u. s. quarrels the majority of the violence in the philippines sixteen thousand filipinos will be dead by u. s. army accounts which are the lowest accounts out there at least two hundred thousand civilians are dead from all causes disease starvation rebel activity in u. s. activity the filipino sometimes but that number is high as a million but they've got the wrong reasons for doing so remember in the spanish american war u. s. combat deaths were three hundred and seventy nine and there were only a few encounters with the spanish in that whole war by the time the filipino numbers are counted there's two thousand eight hundred eleven engagements in the u. s. lose four thousand two hundred thirty four to combat the house it's much worse than the rest of the spanish american war and what's interesting you read it the differing accounts the new left authors like howard's in the steward craig miller will talk about us racism and exploitation in this whole thing it's it's it's very much in in the frame of the nineteen sixties nineteen seventies revisionist historians like brian mccallister when will talk about listen yes it was nasty in all this but we won and we should pay more attention to the fact that this was a very successful counterinsurgency war and neo cons terrain like max bill will send the same thing not only did we win it but this is what it's like an yeah to be prepared to do the scan thanks i would just say to those latter two the wall i understand your point it kind of japan's all mortar victory conditions in your reason for going to warn the first place was it harder for americans were after a nice conflicts was national honor the fruits of imperialism in places like the philippines prove counterproductive in the same way that after the vietnam war nobody wanted to go into anything like that for a long time afterwards so long afterwards that their presence referring to it as the vietnam syndrome where the country was unwilling to act lest we have any more vietnam war is a similar thing happened after the war in the philippines this historian h. w. brennan's will quote many americans and i'm willing to go along with the annexing territory overseas as long as annexation was cheap and easy the war of resistance in the philippines demonstrated that it could be expensive and hard in doing so the war poisoned the well american public opinion for similar ventures elsewhere and call now all the u. s. wanted to conduct operations for strategic reasons that were similar to those the goddess in the earlier conflict they would do so more in the way that rich people like andrew carnegie had suggested earlier with more on the scene and using will later become known as dollar diplomacy and the support of friendly governments and foreign aid and puppet regimes sometimes and the period after this conflict we will send the marines to latin american countries but they will not stay long they will get out as soon as they feel that they can propping up government composed of the locals will win you maintain u. s. interests for office teddy roosevelt famous for using an african saying was talking about how u. s. foreign policy should be conducted any famously said that the u. s. should walk softly enter reappeared stay but seeing that big stick used in the philippines turn so many people off to the whole approach that when the big stick needed to be used to maintain u. s. interests in the future the new policy of america will be to employee the locals to carry their own big sticks and to use it the way we want them to use it teddy roosevelt himself seems to change when it comes to his attitude towards peace not war right away and he sort of foreign endeavors to pull later decided going in the philippines was a mistake they gives us an achilles heel but japan might be able to exploit which they did win the second war war came around and it's worth noting that this person who may need saw as a warmonger teddy roosevelt would not start any major wars during his presidency in fact he will and one between the russians and the japanese in nineteen oh five and the nobel peace prize for doing so although he still thinks of war in an almost childlike little boy peter pan way and he is concerned about the reputation of himself and his family as warriors as something glorious romantic and more in the war that perhaps does more than any other war in history to destroying demystify the romantic glorious sight of combat brakes on in nineteen fourteen roosevelt wants to gaul he slams the current u. s. president woodrow wilson for not getting the u. s. into the war when the u. s. finally gets into the war roosevelt wants to form his own reno modern day version of rough light years he's old arthritic and overweighted this point it doesn't matter he wants to go fight roosevelt's arms will fight in the first we're we're though to the immense pride of their parents when one is some reports killing his first german the former president at this point hosts him one another summer porches first combat way and they get another toast in another celebration back of the president's home up and then the news arrives about the president former president jiang disown clinton who takes to machine gun bullets to the brain in a real combat against the german pilot and i asked this will destroy the roosevelt who will never recover from this and will be said to be staring off into space sometimes using her childhood nickname for some clinton appointee we will actually put a piece of the plane that crashed in opera in the room were all of the heads of the big game that roosevelt and shot were and until the end of his life roosevelt would be scarred by this one wonders little bit if all the sudden he didn't begin to understand william tecumseh sherman's law in a sort of carmike justice way but the idea that wars glorious all moonshine well certainly in one respect the glory of the eighteen ninety eight conflict was not home shopping because one of teddy roosevelt's goals had been to catapult the united states and the knowledge ranks of great powers and then extremely short conflict with spain do just that in fact it did so in such a way as to create quite a bit of anxiety amongst several other members of that great power club even to the point of having a charm that we mentioned earlier become fashionable during this time period were some of these great powers were for the u. s. is the american parallel swirling sense of or why isn't it how or the sort that the tocqueville talked about in the early eighteen hundreds finally arriving you mean to express right nonetheless whether or not you thought that was a good or bad thing may have depended upon which side you were fighting on in both the first in the second world war is the question about whether or not the u. s. was an american peril born americans savior kind of became and i am the ball holder sort of thing oui i just received information from our or is it or bulldog calm about some new course offerings they had in addition to the one hundred thousand titles in book sure you know bob laudable having them by the way that you might wanna pick up teddy roosevelt's of the roffe ryder says autobiographical account of the very spanish cuban insurrection stories we've been talking on the spur run today but now audibles added a partnership with the great course is the leading media publisher for life long learning and personal enrichment in addition to you know what you've come to expect to know because we told you i'm for marble in the past or blair has more than three hundred and forty courses taught by the world litigation professors including nine thousand fascinating lectures at crosswise spectrum academic professional and popular interest aliens were we talking about well literature how about history that probably matters to a few of you will miss music 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