Episode: Show 46 - Wrath of the Khans IV

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Show 46 - Wrath of the Khans IV
The death of Genghis Khan, the founder of the Mongol Empire, should have slowed the momentum of Mongol conquests, but instead it accelerated it. This time though, all of Europe is on the Mongol hit list.

Dan Carlin's Hardcore History
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The Mongol leader Genghis Khan displays an unmatched level of strategic genius while moving against both Northern China and the Eastern Islamic world. Both civilizations are left stunned and millions are slaughtered.

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Succession issues weaken the Mongol Empire as the grandchildren of Genghis Khan fight over their imperial inheritance. This doesn't stop them from dealing out pain, suffering, and ironically good governance while doing so.

Dan Carlin's Hardcore History > Show 45 - Wrath of the Khans III

The expansion of Genghis Khan's conquests continue, with locations as far apart as Europe and China feeling the bloody effects of Mongol warfare and retribution. Can anything halt the carnage?
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Automated Transcript (Why is this transcription so bad?)
they showed what you buy all of all places or ballpark estimate tom ford slash hardcore history for your free o'neill book download which are about to hear is par for a five part series on the amazing mongol conquests in the middle ages of eleven heard you earlier editions leading up to this episode you might wanna catch those first york hereabouts context in your mind hearing things out of order or you worry heard those episodes of them by all means continue so without further ado par four of wrath of the cops i'm getting them and abby excuse to reignite a war in rwanda a day with who wear out given him a deal that so clever and our gone while the river up ahead how to fuck you nice to have to tie a combat unit had come out how but i had one two and a more than that level and on a good rule wrong that diamond played really lose who beat me and really high and at the and at home that one stupid guy had watched while lisbon to jail it because what laurel we're not get rid of guy one head we could be the murders him about it but i'm in whose him of wisdom that from phil coleman pack it eats hardcore history in the year nineteen forty not that long after the german army under all the ultimate control models had learned the nazi regime had shockingly defeated was considered to be the greatest army in the world the french army in concord for us the french woman the most fascinating philosophical figures of the twentieth century for too little known for what she deserves by the way means more while wrote this about the german conquest of europe if it happened and if you had been a betting person in nineteen forty certainly within the odds on favorite to win one at that time consisted of the second world war she wrote to the school if germany thanks to hitler in his successors or to enslave the european nations and destroy most of the treasures of their past future historians would certainly pronounced that she had civilized europe and co whilst we're for into it is very angle that we've been taking the so the something him on this mongol conquest story says the very first episode this interesting way that many of these figures who carry we used to be called sort of flame drop ally and often get treated especially if their victorious as though they've done something positive for him all the charm outlook of mankind now we said the first program that that hasn't happened to the nazis yet thank goodness for that hard to imagine that right but that's because we were close to the event the way history tends to work is to leave no stone unturned and eventually sell more right in a something to fill the glaring vacuum of another thousands and thousands and millions of all to benard about nazi germany that one that says will deposit is they came out of you know what hitler did simone while can see that in nineteen forty in the future when she sees it based on how other figures who fall into a similar category with hitler had been treated in the past take for example the lead figure whose plane be the center roller story with and talking about until this time genghis khan there are plenty books out there today you can read that turned him into a positive force now the way these books often portrayed these people i compared to the idea of an historical arsonist with the term i used to describe the sword inflamed types these people who do immense amount of damage during a lifetime's but then our prime movers for historical forces that then later on historians can pick out the positive things will get having opened the trade routes look at how their conquest connected civilizations that had any contact before we could have a unified a bunch of separate territories into one in a political entity all these kinds of things are often touted as things that should help to balance out the obvious dramatic process that was involved in now getting to those outcomes what makes the person who just left the scene in the story we've been discussing so far any shoulders above most of these historical arsonists is what happened after we got it because in general the use people are so unique and so gifted and so special it takes a very unique talents for the whole thing the war when they leave it tends to fall apart and and it falls apart before they even to leave there are so disruptive in their time periods that often there is such a push back by bit of the powers that be the day when get to know make it to the next level let me take a look at how i'm off hitler and the fire that he started in europe ended he died in the ruins of it in the embers while it burned no symbolically speaking napoleon was defeated climactic league twice and got to watch now the aftereffects from and isolated island in the middle of nowhere the needy people like it to love the hon very similar to genghis khan the sense that is a in a nomadic step we're very gifted unites the tribes spreads the warden plane throw your vote when he dies the whole thing falls apart they needed these historical arsonists that like the great comet were victorious raptor was that i have to ever see themselves defeated and live through the ignominious that big a guy like alexander the great who dies it thirty two in all under mysterious circumstances on defeated vampire run and only the watch his ambitious generals caught up and divided like to i should jackal was around the carcass each one of them trying to get the largest piece for themselves the fact genghis khan was able to set things up and away did not only kept the fire that he had started as a historical arsonist morning after he left the scene but allowed the rebuilding process that would come afterwards to be handled by his descendants makes him stand out amongst all the great khan course of history it's sort of irony with each historical arsonist that in other compared in the sense to these figures there are lot like the role lightning plays in starting fires to burn down you know old rotting forest spence inexact the way we look at him in an earlier episode but the people who get to replant those forest what's the dead was all been burned away ross and the people of the historical arsonists no we're fighting go back to rebuild the forced that hitler burned down the allies bachelor plant bitch reason symbolically speaking of that napoleon impact his enemies genghis khan by the nature of a certain inherit genius but he added was able to win sure not only with the fire not die down upon his death when it came time to replant the force that he was busy you still burning down people that would be replanting it were mongols not their enemies and these he is if not unique the history of historical arsonist rare indeed it makes him stand out amongst a bunch of other great figures as perhaps greatest of the conquerors who ever lived his long term impact was assured and this is where most of those people fall flat mr create some wonderful questions here to be posed in what is scenario so we stop it i mean what the napoleon or hitler instead of losing at the end of their conflicts are victorious forth not victoria's what they managed to simply continue to exist as a political entity in when the war but the nazi stay in power in germany you get an armistice like the end of the first world war may be in the government doesn't fall what's the nazi regime like with hitler successor or about the person that comes after that does the regime of mellow over time does it become more like a respected member of the family of nations what does it just to generate and sort of slowly crumble without that special curries maddie figure so does the driving force of the center reduction of ours does it become wiser doesn't drop its most extreme elements of mean that the nazi party at three generations out for afterall figaro they still obsessed with jews or does it come something different that's the position that the mongol empire found itself in wants the great khan died and part of what makes genghis khan with me during his street idiots use the foresight to keep demonstrated in understanding the importance on the smooth transition of power from one generation to the next how many pro empires during his life and he seemed fall apart because the great leader and figure was able to create them did not do a good enough job in making sure that they were able to maintain it the great figure left the scene the great khan did not fall into that trap you believe the histories for his wives supposedly insisted that he take care of this before we got too old and a secret history the mongols don't pages to conversation that he has with his arms over who gets the top job when he's gone it's not automatic eight thousand gore the oldest son like it might in feudal europe the kind of get to agree upon edward least the great hall and what's come to instead of just designating a successor to get them together and have a conversation about who would you support who should have the job there's a story in anecdotal story work at one time the qana supposed to god and his sons together and given them an object lesson the importance of agreeing to support one candidate in the story says that he pulls out a narrow and from the summons and holds up and snaps it in front of them and then he takes up one dollar rose put them together and then attempts to snap the bottle of multiple arose of course can't he tells us on to this demonstrates how old if you could be picked off an isolated you can be snapped and destroyed individually but if you stay together like the bundle of arrows you'll be undefeated blonde breakable on vanquished eventually he and his sons collectively will agree to support what the brother's name dog and i modernize not the oldest and in fact may have been near the most lenient than the most tolerant of all the brothers there were a couple of real hard liners buckles on to what they got the job and genghis khan specifically if you believe the secret history didn't want them to get the job thought they'd be too harsh and to top off imagine an all fiddler course some other even he demanded alexander the great picking someone because they work as roth and how often no domineering as themselves again that's a sign of interesting personality all the dying gets the job the gray car and get the other brothers to agree to support him and in twelve twenty nine at the giant mongol get togethers dollars the cruel tie he is proclaimed calm they're up the empire is both divided in unify when this happens divided because genghis khan has a last will and we old gives territories to each of the salons now only step territory this is important because any place with the city or forms were settled communities deaths in puerile territory that doesn't put any single so i'm but the step itself that giant expanses we said like a place where the ocean had once been that now has all the water taken out of it the step is divided in each don't get to peace and enough to maintain it the tribes that live there under there are partial control asked them enough horses asked them the livestock and off enough water when grain what not to maintain it that branch of the family and this is important because what will happen is mongolia street goes on is the various branches of the family each connected to warn genghis khan psalms eventually become rivals you'll hear it in mongol history of the house of all ghadafi and how such identify in the house means the descendants of these grandchildren eventually it will be divided by whose house they return the sun is no maintain a very good relationship the all the songs we told them the law should die is about six months for the great condoms what his on his own mongolian bought two gets to be the one who leads the list piece of step territory is the farthest away from the mongol homeland also happens to be the one closest to your that's his domain each of the other brothers gets their own domain and the youngest brother gets the one closest to the mongol homeland and it becomes the youngest sons job which is mongol tradition to sort of look after the home and hearth and be the defender of ennobled mongols family at home in the capital of africa now what oh good night is an interesting character as we said not the year some long will the genghis khan was now here's the thing this is only by mongol standards the enemies of all the guy the civil society the robot and bought him a a terrible cold-blooded vicious killer why people are all the marbles or by mortal standards he was a bit about sensitive character he also book calms the first in the small law rulers the demonstrates something that will be a part of them on bold leadership throb the rest of the history the empire all the daihatsu problem with alcohol now we get ahold hardcore east russia wants about that so he'd newport history substance abuse and how much it might apply to roll the past in ways that didn't really come down to was through the historical sources the must've been a very big deal indeed because all the da is alcohol use does come down to us from the sources in fact his successors will struggle with this as well but this is not mongol problem i would emphasize this effect this is a prom throughout the ancient world medieval world just a bit to prom for our modern world barbarian societies tainted have slightly more trouble with the arm with the substance abuse in part because bill societies were more tolerant of for indulging in ways that say the romans and agree to the chinese frowned upon that the way our modern society would there's a famous story all by persian historian about all the dice drinking getting out of hand and what his brother's the woman's job that was so tough to beat you for sure what the mongol all the gossip chastising his brother who was the great columns you can see this is weird interesting relationship reese not like an absolute dictator chastising his brother saying you're drinking is out of hand on his brother tsang all right what should we do about that the other brother tsang we're going to give you our mind juror whose job it is to watch you would make sure you're not drinking too much and aga dyson okay all agree that the brother whose job was to enforce laws and to stay streets and you're going to be held to one in kabul liquor righetti and all the guys said okay persia stories to see pentagon around that ruling by getting himself and giant cop are you he stuck to the one cup and the ruling by the cop was enormous in any case this is the great concerts on and the chinese are really cheat on chinese adviser the genghis khan had first befriended who was now helping his son honoring interesting line dog and i that sword describes how his reign was going to be different in genghis khan's he said the empire your father created was worn on horseback but it will be governed on horseback this was a sign it the day is just simply conquering other people so for all deny was going to continue the conquest but he also had organized a conquest his father had left to him it was going to be a modest off that symbolize the mongols and this is another interesting part mongol history because the step people stayed powerful when they kept themselves from being a weakened by civilization i knew it seems step empire pushed at them harper step them harbor for this time become weekend by their contact with the flesh parts of china luxuries of in other places like the middle east the turkish empire that rose oui call the dark ages you know the timer on the eight hundred snoring hundred speed the the turks and written documents warning them not to get too connected to these settle society that we kenya bill take away all the stuff that in a major strong enough to win the empire to begin with but here is on a diet listening to the inner chinese tech advisor should tell him to educate the mongol nobility in these confucian chinese schools kind of a third of the governing chinese societies and sophisticated islamic societies we need to be educated need to know how to count needed no route read a good guy strengthens in really organizers were becomes the gowns system of courier service americans would compare to something like the pony express we set up the system or every three miles things away station with horses and for what not and you could send messengers and couriers from weigh station the way station away station sometimes up to two hundred miles a day to facilitate communications and royal messages to you could somehow we govern this giant empire the chinese adviser's help set up sophisticated systems of taxation we're now these chinese cities that fall under mongol controlled denise middle eastern cities with a regular taxes libya counting on a diet she loses the official capital of the mongol empire the territory around perot corwin which is the i'm traditional sort of step area that the step imperative for him it's sort of adopted as they are center of power in genghis khan account had the center of power but all that i put a wall or rama whole thing and organizes it as some of the central city and then he begins to turn his attention to on unfinished business perhaps unfinished business that his father had left him directions about suggesting that you can't just leave my work on don and tolerant and lenient and jovial as all the guy might have been by mongol standards that didn't mean he was going to be any use your own the people his father felt still deserved some attention from the mongols there was unfinished business nor did i was going to see to what under his reign that business was finished the scope of that unfinished business though was incredible it was everything by the reign of all there are a most historians believe the ideas of universal empire become firmly ingrained in the mongol mentality now historians don't know exactly when to date this and they differ some say it was already understood and establish concept in genghis khan's time others may be the majority assume the dialogue and ice time it had you weed it's way through the fabric of moral goal the world view and some mysteries acceded to have to this time that you can tell by the letters and notes in submission requests or demands and everything else that the mongol sand did they assume by right around this time period that they are divinely tasked with concrete whole world i mean this is alexander the great's delusions of granger taken to the level which includes the next generation and the next generation i mean with all that napoleon and hitler and alexander all these people had these belief in their own divine destiny but alexander believe is on the vine destiny did not include the destiny of his children in this children's children the case of the mongols this was a mission that was going to live on a generation after generation after generation it's been described many ways the best and most concise description of our founders and the cambridge history of china and here's how they describe it caught the sovereign to bestow arranging this column and subsequently bequeath to his successors was universally character in the orders of submission customarily sent to neighboring states before initiating hostilities the mongols claimed the right if not the duty to bring all the world and their dominion all nations outside their front years were considered members of the mongolian empire in the making and all required to accept mongolian sous remedy without question or hesitation because in mongolia nine is your expansion was divinely sanctioned anyone refusing to submit was thereby thwarting the will of heaven and deserving of the harshest punishment and who that's another homeless point you'll often hear for most historians playing up the george washington side of genghis khan's character the idea that perhaps this is one of the rear times in history or you have an entire people for ingrained with the idea that they're divine mission to take over the entire world it's a fascinating concept and by all the guys rain it seems to be for really a part of his mental make up an influence is his plans because instead of doing what for example his father would've died in when he first came to power which was perhaps attack somebody called the guy decides to attack everybody now the reason on the dike and even consider this is because of the military machine that he inherits responder raeder d. s benson is a good job i think i'm describing how unusual the situation that the mongols find themselves in after the historical arsonist they created their empire leaves the scene normally that's the time when everything sort falls apart and there's no napoleon is no hitter when there's no julius caesar when the wily zander things can't stop the mongol casey when the other way completely here's what sunlight one encouraging this first became locked in a struggle with the asian governments on his borders to do their real modesty ambitions he seems to have no idea his successes would enable him to amass control over so vast a number of countries that by now comprised more than twenty one hundred million acres of asian territory once he achieved those results benson rights he actively consolidated the resources they represented and a particular importance for subsequent events impressed upon his son's that they should continue with aggressive efforts of their own to expand his successes to be even greater magnitude with this last instructions to use benson says that now gave the phenomenon that special features after his death instead of slowing down it began to accelerate end quote it was an old line from the movie jaws an advertising on it because we stay with me when jaws two came out in the line was just when you thought it was safe to go back in the water and that's kind o' would always comes to my mother would obey god takes over because all of the people are already felt paniccia vermont goals what that that was all they were going to get that it was a singular event an act of god the tsunami and just when they thought it was safe to go back in the water okay dire rides with the last will and testament from his father that tells him his job is to conquer the world and that that's a divine mission in and leaves him the greatest army may be in world history opted that point he uses his tools to do it the attacks northern china again which the mongols should never not been fighting but it'd been reduced to a very low level off conflict for some time watching this is attention was elsewhere he says more troops into the middle east which it never recovered from the initial mongol attack so what took a hundred and fifty thousand guys to conquer were initially now took thirty thousand or less mongols to keep you mean chaos and he besides based on that reconnaissance in force we told you that in the last episode and stupid i agreed mongol general they would take him sixteen to eighteen years of warfare to conquer the entire european continent he begins to make your wayne germans to do just that now the gene chinese campaign is the most important to the mongols as we told you in an earlier episode they never took a ride off the price of the prize was always china at this time to read to him and several chinese states genghis khan are really money to detain good sushi shot he attacked the gene in northern china and they were on their last leg then there was this jarring to relieve the core of the chinese people notice all or the southern some chinese the june in the sauna been enemies for a long time when genghis khan sort of let his attention the euro way from the g. in the song and they just are going at it again i mean instead of joining forces against another mongol blow the wish recommit is pretended that the tsunami was one time event and they just like the middle eastern government despite the european government ago about the normal quibbling why is i'm the famous what is scenarios historians always play with what i'm talking about the mongol conquest is what all these people had realized genghis khan was not the only time they were going to be attacked the mongols and actually sat down and plan for the second wave in honor of them did this it's hard to know how will they might've resisted the second wave to be paid any tension in doing that all was suddenly change chinese were trying to nibble away at some of the earlier a mongol conquest with the little territory he read the little territory there find multiple mongol calms bailing down on them from different directions now i wish i could give you a complete moron out of how that whole situation like that i wish i could quote so shiny sources that bring the this to like me tell you about the human cost a model for once again bypassing leisure for fighting areas along the times and devastating the countryside killing all the people you know that they ran into his way to pull military forces out of there fortification they were using advanced siege techniques to try to take down these amazing chinese cities of the perpetrator with the greatest defensive um fortifications of the time and the mongols often had even with their chinese and and parisian are tourists an engineer's they had disappear off and really in a batter down the city's before they could take them maybe the most interesting stuff that may have come out of this period is you begin to see large he'll use all of them are weapons mostly on the part of the chinese and maybe the gene and the people you saw these historians were lobbing shell said the mongols beyond and the chinese never did anything i'm a small scale so you have to imagine like lots of shells are lots of marjorie lots of gunpowder weapons may be again the evidence to use speculative a woman who got lots of expensive rare books to try to figure this out only to find them disagreeing mean to get the cambridge ancient history china disagrees with some of this other stuff on absolutely impatient for chinese sources to be translated the first to get more information the summer down a road that will calm nonetheless safe to say basically that the chinese are invaded the gene chinese retreated from at least two different maybe three different directions all deny commanding the main forces brother to lead a commanding a force to come see him from a completely different direction jeanne shy nice capital finally falls the emperor moves to smaller and smaller locations to try to escape the mongol wrath finally they get him trapped in the city and as he sees that there's no hope that he's not in no way this time he kills himself but not before turning the job over to a young relative of his who doesn't stir five year he either dies in the fighting or his knifed by some chinese official who doesn't want a form of the hands of the mongols or something that affect the young boy nonetheless jeanne shine is wiped out and some of ironically it's wiped out with the help of the southern song the chinese to the south of the gene empire because when the gene we're starting to realize they were doomed if they didn't figure our way out of business they contacted her old enemies to the south the song said i'll might be good time for alliance both of us have a mutual enemy in the making let's work together then at the same send a message came to the song them for the mongols offered the same sort of elias was only to answer that the g. your honor was led to more grab a little bit of their territory let's work together the song you shall lose the alliance with the mongols and you have the surrey interesting so the spectacle given how later history can go on the mongols and sonnenschein these troops fighting together outside these gina cities to knock the walls down in the song are gonna make or the most terrible mistakes probably in the entire history the middle ages once the gin empire goes away but deciding they were promised certainly territories by the mongols is pour this alliance and rather than say hey we clear on this i'm mean it is our territory they just send troops into it and seized not exactly the right way to keep the mongols azure friends and they precipitate the war with the mongols right after they helped get rid of the one group of people you might've allied we have to have any hope of dealing with the mongols now perhaps the most interesting thing that happens during this whole affair if you're looking at this from amman will sign of things is the only state strikes down all the guy while all this is going on number he wasn't the only mongols and told you that had this problem with alcohol what are these mongol start to have it loses a young age is in each hand really tied them to the alcohol but it's tempting to the start having one up here through the sources to be things like strokes temple were houses in twelve thirty two that sort of paralysis broke like symptoms had defaulted on high while he's on campaign against the gin shiny and nobody knows what to do it's too darned soon since changes died to think that you could easily just replace his chosen successor so everybody can i panicked right and that uncommon for two and a half years and now he seems to be on his deathbed now remember the mongols are basically a pagan people only have priests or ronald to die basically trying to figure out what's going on in a blaming the chinese evil spirits basically the priests decide that these evil spirits are protectors of china and they're mad that the mongols are invading and they began to try to figure ro what would it take to appease the eagle spirits so that they can cure the car on the methods that they used to do this is a little like trying to determine the course of action by use of the week she board or magic eight ball they ask a question anthony read the yen trails of an animal ready bart scapula of the sheet for something and if the question to answer positively when they have better figure was much people type answers you know it's unclear ask again later only asking him later you can go into the mongols own history secret history the mongols we go through this whole thing where are they decided that it's an abyss but take it or demon in and they ask over over again what if we give the gold and silver back to china will that be enough to make seeking his negative answers it'll finally they asked the question what if we sacrifice a member of the royal family and at that moment according to the secret history will get iwate stop no formerly unable to speak and asks for water well sounds like the magic eight ball or the week she bore gave you an answer and when they explained all to buy what they just don't they said well and as a member of the ruffin we have to sacrifice any woke up and talked all the guys both the symbol who's here right now in that moment his younger brother to leave unfortunate for him walked into the room if you are a pagan priests and maybe a pagan people looking for signs from haven't it will there you go now this is portrayed in the mongol secret history what's about to happen as a hero week sacrifice for the nation because basically when they tell to lily's youngest brother all the stuff he says yeah take me all sacrifice myself and long story short we get this long speech about how his duty to his brother his father would his brother to run the umpire usury had a good life in all the scanner stuff and they apparently gave him something to drink it's poisonous need acts now that's the secret history for show some historians by that other historians suggested maybe just totally died during the campaign somehow the nobles also no one really knows but the mongols a celebrated the sacrifice of genghis khan him to sign it ever since the recovery of the great khan organize health allows him to put into full practiced the last will and testament of his father genghis khan the great historical arsonist the great khan told his songs that they were to be the universal rulers in a divine mission to conquer rule the entire world and i'll get iowa's known opposition make that happen or least try by this time he's already wars we said with sunshine perhaps the greatest almost certainly the greatest civilization of its tone with an estimated population of more than fifty million human beings the leading up to civilization in terms of science literacy and forth occasion technology in you know and i mean these are people using gunpowder in the twelve hundreds you will prove to be the most difficult endeavour militarily speaking at the mongols ever undertaken and you will take decades to complete the job in fact neither on the dying nor this on cassie rees will make it to the end of story when the song from the fall when they do it will become the greatest achievement on the mongol military resume hey know whether step people in history even come close to conquering all of china they will become so old illegitimate in terms of the rulers of china that they would even become one of the legitimate chinese dynasties in the annals of the chinese history will be noted you want honesty that is ways away that with this time period was fascinating to me is you have this amazing chinese stay with all its power and glory in the models are taking it on that within the year for action on their total military force by jumping out no more know with what the mongol military numbers were a hundred years ago historians wildly inflated the size of mongol military forces because they couldn't imagine any other way for them to do with the king historians now the lore of the opinion that it is a sign of how incredible the mongol military was when every level from the individual soldiers ability to the greatness of the general in the leadership the organization of that no soldier read the veteran understanding of the troops that were heartened by battle i mean the mongols are able to do with him your fraction of the kind of numbers that historians thought they had a hundred years ago is mind boggling hand there's even a school of his stories and writer should think the current numbers are inflated the guy like he is benson will tell you that the mongols will conquer the entire middle east with like ten thousand fifteen thousand guys that's unbelievable um i can't leave act melissa to sign of how incredible the mongol military shias remember not only of the some chinese now war with the mongols but there's an independent molly moore mean most historians think around thirty thousand people operating in the middle east they've already running down the core reason you show us on a guy named joe neel ala deen it was killed by some turkish bandits and this mongol for settles down in a nice green lush valley with enough grass to feed the horses not that far away from baghdad which is the headquarters of the addison counterfeit the use of head of the islamic religion and the addison khalaf is sitting there literally shivering in their boots warmer in what the small army city not that far away is going to do at the moment attack would you do anything it's going to sit there and guard the flanks of the real important endeavored it's taking place around this time during this time period the twelve thirty five because in twelve thirty five on the di calls agreed comforts and this conference they decided to go on move against you were up with a major force this force is going to be raised by taking the whole disarm from everyone the army is put together a most historians believe it numbers about a hundred and fifty thousand men will happen is this army will pick up more men as it moves towards europe to no one knows if it starts out with a hundred fifty thousand men and picks up more corporate starts out with lesson by the time to reach usury is a hundred and fifty thousand in the last it not only has the oldest bones from all the stanley's it has most of genghis khan's royal family with it as well at least two future greek columns will be a part of the military force at least for a genghis khan's grandsons will be part of it and will be led by the great mongol general stupid i was going back to the area that fifteen year so years before this time period he learned that great cow for we reconnaissance wade through he's going back to this territory he's already scouted you will recall during super dines reconnaissance some fifteen years before this time period years old his twenty thousand men mongol force had absolutely demolished any military good to come up against if the eastern european people's and such a hard time with twenty thousand mongols what can happen when the rain in two hundred and fifty thousand of them well first people that got to find out which eastern europeans all they were other step nomadic porsche people's it existed to the east of the russian people people's like the ball drop arsenic to check turks and apparently it's these people would be so smashed by the mongols coming from east to west in three giant columns a generation after this time period travelers what purported ground still leader dick it's human bones that scattered along the fields as far as the eye could see like cattle dong now what i find interesting about this whole thing is how all the europeans begin to get word slowly through all this is starting up again on the old one that it's not safe to go back into the water or member this is before telegraph says a four wheel communication the way the europeans find out that this is happening again is through people fleeing the devastation you have to think of the rolling wave i know what use the tsunami metaphor before but it's perfect you have to imagine as the mongols run into these people's some of the survivors lead to the west and ron two people were not aware that the mongols are coming at the start screaming and yelling about what they just live through what's coming you better preparing and that's how they begin to find out one of the first pieces of information that the europeans get come from moslem emissaries who may have arrived as far away as scotland and england asking for help nor member the muslims and christians at this time are engaged in your crusading warfare how bad do things have to be the muslims to come as far away is england and say listen we should think about working together once again the europeans misinterpret the situation into puppet ten chill opportunity they see the mongols once again as perhaps a force that can wipe out their islamic enemies and it's going to be a cause all kinds of discomfort to these eastern no matter course people that are raping and pillaging along the borders with the russians and once again they're terribly terribly mistaken perhaps the first concrete evidence about what's happening comes from a hungarian dominican friar name julian it's sort of a serendipitous event too because juli anne's not looking for mongols julie was looking for hungarians other on the aliens he's of the pinion as many hungarians during this time period were there people had originally come from the eastern steps he was right about that and he went east to find his causes people that they call the old hungarians and as he went east he found the old hung jury ants people who lived right next to you people they called the torturers and this is where he got pre much firsthand information but that harder for massing for big attack on your he runs into russian rulers who show him the document document written in character is that they can decipher but it's a language that they don't know in other words they've seen the kind of writing before they can read it but the kind of writing usable language that they don't know how they finally get translated and it's a letter from the great western carson one of the grandsons of genghis khan to the ruler of hungary and it's come down to history's 'cause julian brought it back and here's what sets the letter by the way is firm bob to one of the grandsons and genghis khan and the conning charge of the westernmost area in the mongol empire any rights on behalf of the great column on the back and this is a letter to king bello the fourth of hungary where is taking under his protection and bond jeff lean kip shack turks also called the kingman and here's what the letter to king bella says quote by anaconda representative of the heavenly king one doom he is given power over the earth to raise up those who submit to me and they cast alamos to resist i wonder why o. king of hungry when i've now send envoys to you won thirty occasions you said none of them back to me your used in your turn your own envoys or whether i am aware that you were wealthy and powerful monarch that you have under u. many soldiers that you have the sole rule over great kingdom hence it is difficult for you to submit to me have your own volition and yet it would be better for you and healthier or were you disappointed willingly i have learned moreover that you keep that humans my slaves under your protection as a white ordered that you do not keep them with you any longer do not have me as an enemy on their return for it is easier for them to escape them for you since they are without houses and move about in their tents and so perhaps may be able to escape but as for you who dwell in houses and have four persons and cities how will you would save my grasp and quo writer diaz benson assumes i'm believes that by this time the major russian rulers had already received a very similar notes from bought to themselves the response of the rulers of all these independent russian principalities what amounted to waste winter were dying hours from a mongol rollers was incredibly brave almost to a man that they told the mongols to go jump in alike they seem to have forgotten completely what was like fifteen years ago to face mongol arms and pour an extremely brave face for example the mongols for showed up and what the first principalities too feel their wrath of the winter rough twelve thirty seven it should be noted almost everyone in history is trying to avoid fighting in russia in the winter no hitler why is perhaps defeated because he couldn't napoleon did everything in his power to get on with military operation before the russian or hate them on hold waiting until the russian leader came before they started operations because i'm a winner twelve thirty seven wants to lake started freezing in the river's current freezing in the marshes froze over it turned all of these natural barriers against in danger in a highway it's for people like the mongol it made them better and when the attack took place like rioting in north they came to the people and came up to the gate and delivered their ultimatum ten percent of all your wealth hostages slaves and join the mongol empire and the rulers of arise and told the mongols when we are all dead then everything will be yours and you can almost feel the mongols thinking to themselves no problem an historian richard a gabriel describes what happened was quote the models for storm the town of riots in like most russian fortified places protected only by woody palisades which crumbled quickly ended the pounding the mongol artillery after bombardment only five days three days before christmas mongol horsemen entered the city gabriel says and turned into a slaughterhouse men are hunted through the rain snow and the alleys of the town and impaled upon sticks to read aloud the tragic end of their lives priests and monks who would shut themselves up in their churches in monasteries were exterminated like she has with women who would something to worry with them the slaughter of riots and aybar rights was over when does the chronicler reported dead no wise remained open to weep for the day and another chronicler wrote the work when someone else now quote some were impaled already a ulcers blunders of wood driven ended their fingernails priest well roasted alive and not isn't made news ravaged in the churches in front of their relatives and they're all even if there's some hyperbole there in jobs bree well with the reports of mongol conduct in the middle east and in east asia remarkably consistent all these people talking about what was like if you didn't surrender to the mongols once they broke into your city but to be honest it's not a mongol thing it tends to be human thing and is not unusual for cities to receive this kind of treatment or for our history from all sorts of people ek the romans get into the city you crumb own during the civil war and the people that they were doing that same so pissed off too their own countrymen the mongols because of their military superiority just had the opportunity to do this more often than most the city of rights and had no way to comprehend the fact that when they told the mongols to basically try to take the city but the mongols will put up hundreds maybe thou was in some siege engines and begin to batter the city into submission in awaited no western or any european nation had seen the like of so's the roman empire fell this was the capability off some woman came to china coming to europe in medieval iraq and operating with sophistication and abilities the people in that region didn't even know existed and i'm on old dude twisted sort of thing sir report to the musings human fact in the stone throwing machines to throw chunks of human fact that they set alight before throwing into the city and the stuff would burn up now like accelerant the human fat landed on a thatched roof that roof was gonna burn one of the russian chroniclers describes would like to be inside one of the city's when the mongols opened fire with dish dome from the engines quote the tartars early in the morning on sunday of shrub attired in the month of february on the eighth day that beast of the holy mortar fjord are on the first hour of the day charged upon the city from all sides and began to hammer the city with lambs in the center of the city airport great stones from far away by god's will they were like wayne inside the city animal to two people died in the city and all were trembling and very frightened that harbors broke through the wall of the golden gate and breaking into the city all around the injured it like demons and there they had taken the new city by dinnertime and set on fire and there they kill the king in his brother and most of the berenson people and all come on goals were incredibly clever to some would say sneaky in the way that they handle things of the could try to avoid the sieges of the good there are reports of them carrying crosses with them prominently because they had learned that sometimes christian forces would mistake people carrying crosses were friendly instead of in the outside the city of law the mirror which it shut their gates against them the world up carrying a hostage who turned out to be the son of the great king they told the people of law and you don't recognize shirking and basically said open up the door or the team gets it and they had no choice they just had to let the captured hostage be killed by the mongol scuffle with a gun and do didn't save the town of vladimir as a matter of fact the chroniclers report that the people in vladimir sat there and watch the mongols erect all the scaffolding and the siege engines and the chronicler say the people then saw the city would be taken quote and they began to weep great teachers and co so once they saw the scale on the artillery to the mongols for putting up these people were under no illusions they knew that sometime in the next twenty four to seventy two hours the world and i perhaps the greatest of the russian cities to fall whiskey yet of the holy city and perhaps the only city in russia protected by a stone wall indeed the safety of the study was taken and many chroniclers report that all the citizens were put to death and the air we are round water than the crown jewel of russian cities was devastated and corpse field so many years later don't play no car pini arrived in the area of kiev and say that the survivors of that massacre treated him as though he had risen from the dead they still seem to stone the world court when they were journeying through that land we came across town was skulls and bones of dead men lying about on the ground chianti rights had been a very large and thickly populated town but now would've been reduced almost nothing for there are present scarce two hundred houses they are in the inhabitants are kept in complete slavery and co now it's worth pausing for a minute and just understanding the time line here for second because with the compression of time that happens when you look back over the ages it appears as though the small hole conquest of russia happening in the blink of an odd in fact is happening very quickly by the standards of warfare in the middle ages but it's really taking about three years and are times when the mongols can't find all the famous time of the year when the russian rains common turn all of the countryside into a morass of sticky my decision to cancel the german advance to secular war the mongol don't have much more like ism affecting try taken off the rod in north and they simply can't deal with the mind so there are times a mongol simply have to retreat to dry here reason waded out it takes a full three years to complete the subdue the russians but they do completely subdued them as a matter of fact they do so on the way that is so power went out so devastating that they will control russia for hundreds of years after the stock that has never happened before or since many many people had to be put in their graves to wipe out russian resistance so completely now one of the reasons though that seems to be happening so fast is the almost complete lack of response on the part of the western europeans if you told somebody to danny that you had three years to prepare for a threat you would think you could get a lot worked on in preparation the mater preparation of the europeans were able to put forward was and is small as a matter of fact you could almost make the case that he was anti preparation because instead of realizing what was happening to their neighbors to the east the russians preparing for it the europeans were often taking advantage of what was happening to the russians will the baltic states the swedes the polls the germans were all snatching up pieces of russian territory they could get their hands on the worldly available because the russians were so preoccupied with the mongols so far from uniting against the common follow the europeans were proving exactly what mongolia tell legends had told the great khan they were like bon should of feuding principalities but whatever very hard time working together there are people believe the case before that the mongols benefited to rob their entire conquest all over the world for the fragmentation there follows an know where was this more true than in europe the models will finish up the situation in russia and will begin to move towards europe in late twelve forty really twelve forty one central europe as narrow the people in your pool at the best idea of what's about to keep them on the hungarians under king balog the fourth the reason why is because all of these refugees that we told you always seem to to flee in from the mongol tsunami the most part fled the balla they were killed and contracts palacios the russian call them and they went to king bella pleading please save us you have no idea what these people are like we will convert to christianity anything it just promised it to help these are the same people by the way the team bought two when he sent his note to dallas to do have our slaves that humans don't make an enemy of us on their return the king bella realized that the conversion of some two hundred thousand or more cumin stir christianity would look very nice to the pope and saddled acumen amongst his own people and in addition this was helpful because bitumen were about the best people you're gonna have on your side if you were european nation about face the mongols for two reasons one they had just face the mongols no one knew better which were likely to have to deal with the people who would just dealt with the same threat the other reason was that the germans were also step people also horse archers they gave you the capability of fight the mongols little bit more on their own charms and there were a lot of foam the problem was he's been using a fireman heated up in the mongols headed toward hungry everybody just went imp act crazy and started looking at that humans as board the problem people began to panic and have the mongols were great so when the state would send all sorts of in a messenger shot to stirrup descent and problems they had every kind of bruce you can imagine the more the ones they used in russia supposedly what they got their hands on our way we'll see you all for my dead body anywhere round counterfeiting will proclamations and passed around all these towns telling the townspeople here not to flee the face of the mongols or to come back to their towns at the abandoned for their own safety the money came back the mongols culpable the other thing the mongols would do is come to an area and forced the locals to harvest the grain that was close to being ready to harvest the news with a harvested to bring the children and then they would be applied the next season's grain lot historians blame a lot of the death of the mongols caught in russia with your disrupting a pub in next year's harvest so it's hard to discern how many of the people who died were actually killed by mongol swords and arose and how many died as a result of their ability to sort of circumvent the traditional enough harvest cycle you get a sense of the growing hysteria in terms of fi you're on the part of the people around him yeah the mongol sites in an incident that occurred as soon after kane ballot takes these cumin seed is protection because you for a fight the passes over the car begins mongol for an easy time getting through and there's a little encounter between mobile forces under reinforces the hungarians capture want the soldiers but the soldier turns out to not be an ethnic mon gold piece acumen the conscript wattles people that the mongols essentially say you have two choices you can join our forces and fight in our meal you can be killed well obviously chose to fight as a mongol any stragglers in for intelligence purposes the problem is is that the people hungry become aware that the person captured who supposedly from this people in this mythical people they know very little about not a mongol easy cumin now they have two hundred thousand schumann's in their midst being protected by their king and they're freaking out the c. b. forms of their people being burned the storehouses alluded to the citizens being snatched up into slavery or murdered in the fields they've come to the conclusion that this is sort of acumen and your contract turk plot these aren't mongols each of the same step people than bringing in pillaging and doing banditry on their border forever or anything thirteen bella is protecting them you get real sense of the feeling hysteria when you read some of the primer resources is one of the ticket or from a guy named roger of rawhide who was someone who actually lived through these events are you getting a real firsthand account of this and he describes the people were hiding outside the various royal palaces demanding that the king of the cumin to check turks a guy named culleton be turned over to the mob for little somali justice the only thing interchange and as primaries schorsch account to make it more clearer is when they talk about the caning mean king valois to miss a bella after that seem to ideas would be mean and talking about the king of hungry versus when they're talking with the king of the king's peers raj raj account with the crowd was screaming outside the palace which is king of acumen to be protected by hungry so maintain whoa all of the people clamored against him kill him kill him he is the water was brought on the destruction of hungary and for this they spoke to kimbell arbor brooch fully our team should fight webber has brought in the kid jack's for misfortune of others clamored king bella should fight with those were taking our property king belov hearings reproach is more and more sent a man to keep you tell him abiquiu men's saying he should not the late in coming before him and co but king could come on and on the two men is was a little scared all of a sudden this protection and he thought he put himself under under king belgium very precarious he didn't think he would make it to king bellows castle ally so we told him he was becoming less protection was forthcoming roger river rod continue as co but to john bull heard the repeated showering of the people and the ringing jury even though he was free of guilt replied taking balog the less he would appoint some man who would be empowered to lead him to king belov and protect him from the hands of the crowd they would in no way is go before him when the messenger brought this back to king ballad the clamor amongst the crowd resumed tell him killing elmo and then all of a sudden roger rough ride rights some armed hungarians in germans broke into the palace where he was intending to make him go before the king bello by force but put on his people drawing their bows and arrows refused to admit the was present them all the people push the un took the captive instantly cut off all their heads and threw them out the windows of the palace into the crowd and cool this incident needless to say completely poisoned this new alliance and once the cuban people found out about the fate of their canada heroism there are new hung jury in allied is when did the desert themselves and began reading in killing and murdering and stealing everything you could think of amongst the towns and villages of hungry doing exactly to the population there what the models were planning to do what the hungarians assume that she was really doing anyway turning what had been the vicious hysterical rumor into fact and making things that much easier for the looming mong goal enemy would ari broken through the fortifications and the car baking mountains and we're coming in early twelfth we wanted the storm blake's and it breaks in central europe and it focuses on hungry theory of the mongol spies in intelligence service the sign says the main threat in central europe now the main threat probably should they be on richard probably be the holy roman empire led by the great emperor frederick the broad mrs frederic is too busy till all running war with the pope to worry about the mongols doesn't raise forces doesn't fight the mongol just in the budget angry letters to the hungarian team telling him he's illusory needs to fight harder why is the handling this problem is when all of your gown meanwhile the pope would also like to do something is too busy dealing with fredericks of the two of them that can even stop their core long enough to deal with your darth vader sir protrude the east so it's left the hungarians to try to do with the mongols streamed through the passage of the court eighteen mountains blowing apart the fortifications that the hungarian to put all these passes to stop them and calm down into the hungarian plane from at least four maybe five different passes at the same time now if you look at the map of europe which you'll see is there's an opening day or somebody wants to come down from poland with an army they could smash the small will force behind it cut it off the great opportunity unfortunately the europeans it's not an opportunity to the mongols only likes you but i was mixed any good he sent some thirty thousand men it's believed under a guy named height you were bite you and they smash into poland to protect the flight of the main army maybe a hundred and twenty thousand guy is moving in hungary now to be fair i need to point out the one i'm about to tell you is disputed because nobody know hers the chronicles if you read them are so concerned with trying to make it look like the peoples put up a good fight that you can't really tell what hyperbole in which the truth you also don't know which is stories to believe 'cause they all differ there's enough uncertainty about this that the day to the battle for even for sure the number certainly are i tend to fall back on military historians when in doubt gallic retreating abreu perhaps on chooses the middle ground on receiving to thirty thousand guys decide to attack poland to protect the mongol flight these people began raining pillaging destroying burning in the poland them what they do is they draw the attention of people up there so that they can't go down and deal with the mongols and i really separate the european armies to the dickhead converge on the main threat the guy named henry the pious he's the duke of so easy to me and adjuster ray is perhaps as many as forty thousand guys begins moving into poland to confront the mongols there's another army of bohemia is some people like richard again in brooklyn maybe fifty thousand guys if that's true and the hookup with henry but the biggest are new york seen since the romans were active in a thousand years before the mongols noticed this a german it's not going to happen in the intercept henry's forces before he could hook up with the bohemian is in a place called like nuts encounter with courage the crucial because battles april nine twelve forty one and henry the duke of silesia yep runs into the mongol force boring his path not allowing him to hook up with double the it is tell the way this battle goes is controversy all the polish chroniclers try so hard to rescue a polish marshal on her try to make it sound like in almost beat the mongols and it had the battle won several times a week the polish chroniclers righted they had the battle won and then some molly bolt screaming out a loophole leash way around yelling over and over again in the polish language ryan ryan that everybody started panicking the polish chroniclers have henry did you personally zia saying calamity befalls us as everything collapses around him but until that time the polish chroniclers have him winning military history cannot really accepting of that they believe that the armies of europe at migrants were smashed on early easily smashed but they don't even slow kite you won the mongols down and about that seems to follow a very traditional course the europeans lined up in the store an ad hoc approach and often thought the best way to explain in the naming of henri donna's is by comparing an amateur sports team to a professional sports team in the sport to require subtype teamwork like football war european football which we call saw clinton and state either one of these should be a good comparison because people will say to me all the time how we george united against the mongols i say why the hypothetical about a european item mongols tangled all the time the night never gave the mongols any trouble knights were fantastic individual warriors very skilled in the use of their weapons practiced all the time me living out of fighting but they did so as individuals the mongol did so was a team it would be used only disarmed you don't have a football game did anyone gas and great football players who never met each other never played together and the morning of the battle the show was that the u. football field and they shake hands as a nice to me to be fine on the same team today in some cultures never seen him play before me timidly decide the courthouse you don't encounter with the other team in the other team shows up under the dallas cowboys and then not only have played together forever know which of every well but the coach has been commending them forever he knows them all their capabilities very well and employees that they design in that the practice news all the time the mayor signals and signs that allow them to communicate to each other on the human call on bolz always has things the europeans we're simply overwhelmed that sounds like if you wanna leave the historians in the main that the europeans would attack in ways each wave would be subsequently defeated maybe they blew the mongol center power grid effect a model for faking the whole thing like step troops have done since your ancient greece and ancient syria were there right away screaming in terror but they're not really running away under leading the pursuers into which welcomed by the time the pursuers of blown up our horses have no more energy and are tired the ambushes lane to the archers appeal from all sides begin shooting down the horses peace my job pots and smoke makers raul over the battlefield the chroniclers tell us and the europeans just crumble the mongols she also many of them in the pursuit that they fill up nine large bags each bag takes a whole wagon to move with one ear or off each corpse that they cannot this is how they count the dead make sure that they don't double counted ticket dealer off the truby during the bag and later on they can count the dead that way the calm sort of henry duke russell easier will find his body identify at home it's not easy he has no head when she does this apparently he had sixty homes on his feet she can identify him that way the europeans that survive rush into the forest and try to hide their they encountered a bohemian army that henry was trying to hook up with who instantly figures out that they don't face the mongols and feels a bit fine years forced the barricade around the edges on and just sit there and i'm hoping to conducted defense and the europeans or stay on it you must've been a little bit of cultural superiority going on here because you can you can all audibly feel the error c'mon of europe the tempore night rushes to the king of france to let him know that won the lost and two there's no significant army unit to protect your funds force all the way to the atlantic the famous cried for this period began in the matthew paris sums up the european attitude toward the mongols after this battle i sang quote where had such a pupil wayne hidden in a cool but how could there be something this devastating the know anything about them but the thirty thousand men the kite you used to smash henry duke is so easy as forces it like nuts is the flanking force the main force will fight a battle only a couple of days later against the king of hungary and that's the battle that will smash the largest army in europe still has in the field to protect them from the greatest threat from step no man since attila and his horns during that time of impure real world peratis little bit of irony in the fact that the hungarians sometimes consider themselves to be the descendants of the tillis people and now they were the ones charged with fighting off advance of one of the middle ages version of it to law and to his credit i think king bellow of hungry did a pretty decent job especially when you consider but he was fighting the people that as we said in early reticent we're all such advanced sophistication it was like they were coming down from a higher league they were used to fighting the chinese i just had to find a bunch of europeans whose military sophistication was nowhere near as eminent as what they were used to dealing with now the problem became bella has is that the information about what happened like it is reached his army in their demoralized not just that there are troops between bellow would probably choose to have not had in his army all if he had a choice people that don't like him but he's got to grab every minicomputers hands on their desperate to rub against an enormous follow and he's got perhaps if you please select richard leakey romania two hundred thousand men which would make this one of the largest armies ever raised in the middle ages in europe and they're forced to live with each other to deal with this common fall but they don't like it and in the backseat armies ability to fight well bella takes this forced out to meet the mongols on the mongol see this forced and turn around and ron now what i can only imagine what the european attitude of mainly newson sugar were conduct in all this for that it certainly must've made them assume that size of their four schmooze daunting to these barbarians and a move for the mongols as the mongols moved away for nine days for your call an earlier at the so we do on this it's very much like the way the mongols handled the nobility of russia in twelve twenty want to call the river retreating in front of their forces for days and allowing the european armies to get tired and frustrated and our war on their food sources and supplies to bid on in the mongols go over stone bridge which will play a key role in this story that's about to happen an organ is there are minimal far side of her whirring and so swollen river and the army of the hungarians will see them there and stop on the other side now a confrontation over who gets to control this bridge will happen in the chroniclers haven't going back and forth the sometimes the mongols get to says have a breach in on one side and under renewed retake it is there's a lot of that little skirmishing going on but the main thing to understand as far as people can understand about this battle this law that's in dispute is that the hungarian king establishes a camp on the forsythe the river and he in circles it with wagons and all sorts of fortifications to protected from any source surprise attack by the mongols he does so in a fashion then clusters in all too closely together and the fantastic leadership of the mongols notices this in the chroniclers going out the baht to the shore issues man at the hungarians have made a mistake here's what botulism post to uphold his commanders about the hungarians and their camp all clustered together too closely quote good fortune ought to be with us comrades even though this is a great multitude of the nation nonetheless because their plans to build wisely managed they cannot escape from our hands just look at them how they shot themselves up as such a tight enclosure like a herd of animals in the core there's one thing the mongols understood was herds of animals remember what we see trained their army war with these giant haunts the curry over miles and miles and miles of territory were they would take a whole army in slowly close ring around the butcher frightened and scared animals and it taught them how to hunt man as well now the way this battle shapes up the russian interesting element with putting out one has to do with this blade japan who gets to control it because of one point the hungarians are controlling force on the bridge and the middle of the night all the sudden troops on the far side of the bridge or say old with what can only be described as her to lily including things could explode now this is nothing like anything the europeans who have seen perhaps the first time they've encountered real gunpowder the mongols are shelling them here's the way historian richard a gabriel describes it cool just before daylight bought to attack the bridgehead held by the hungarian detachment of the east side of the river the defenders baumann cells under fire from the thirteenth century equivalent of an artillery preparatory bombardment the mongols brought up seven siege engines probably bliss does and bombarded the bridge had with firebombs and other noise makers the object of the bombardment was to focus the attention of the enemy commander rum the point of attack and in this case it succeeded very well the defenders stupa five by the noise and death from the artillery were suddenly attacked by squadrons of montego cavalry will quickly overwhelmed them the artillery fire shifted to lonnie range and i'm on a low calorie crossed the bridge undercover work something akin to her whirlwind or life although surprised by the attack them gary commanders rally their troops and sally forth from their camp to engage them all legal force pouring across the bridge a bitter battle and shoot in which the hungarians held their own and forced the mongols to give ground suddenly it became alarmingly apparent that the engagement was only a mongol holding attack and co suba dime bought two in the middle of the night and and troops crossed the river at least in one direction maybe in two directions in the north and south get across it and by the time the hungarians have all their attention focused on this attempt across the bridge of the artillery was making noise getting everyone's attention scaring the horses the mongols for around them all round that surrounded the hungarian camp they were launching fire where rose into the wagons and the chaos was debilitating all the sudden so often happens in battle when one side is confused in a degree choose to refer to the god of the year or who dominated battles po box where the word phobia comes from any info bulls got ahold of human beings in a situation like this you might go d. s. benson corpse in medieval chronicler about what happened next the court by the time it was noon and behold the entire army of the charter of multitude have surrounded the whole camp of the hungarians as though we were kind of corral and with eager boas and began shooting arrows all around all other circling about the camp hastened to put firebomb with the hungarian saw themselves in close by the enemy units from all sides their senses latham they were able to think neither disengaging their forces north commencing an all out struggle they were so badly confused that they look for any way to break out like sheep in the stable from the biting the walls of the enemy circle around and ceaselessly shot their missiles and arrows and cool the husbands who continues with the chroniclers account for and the multitudes of hungry and destitute of all safe council were unable to see what should be done so when all hope of life was about gone up death scenes rob the camp in the eyes of all the king in the prince abandon the standards and turn themselves to the protection of flight but when the tartar saw that the army of the hungarians was about to seek flight some of the enemy made way for them and permitted them to go through and the court we've seen this before what appears to be in opening one that might be a short term opportunity seen by some of the troops and they want power of the soon to close range other see it and realized that they must move while they have a chance may throw their armor often they drop their weapons and they run for it before the ring closes completely eventually the panic takes over and everybody runs for this opening before the mongols can completely surrounded the forces in close them but don't realize is is that the mongols learned very well for mouthing don't we have herding animals in these great hans an elder abuse the panic of the animals in a way to their advantage of one of the panicked qualities the details have was if you left little opening in the rain all the animals would seek that human beings to two the opening was a trap and as the army of the hungarians fled three that one opening the bond do themselves here's the way the chronicler thomas of spa lotto who was a religious figure at the time was a contemporary of all these events and almost certainly spoke to survive hours of this battle the court that i've been giving concerning the course of this battle so for all from him up and here's how he describes it walt they were pursued by them from the other side not rationally but step by step and not allowed to turn this way or that way there was to be found along the roads vast wealth gold is over i'm vessels purple fabrics in quantities of arms but the unheard of cruelties of the charter is not caring for plunder and little value when all the pressures loot they concern themselves solely with the pursuit of man when they saw how exhausted they were from the strain of their movements neither able to hold a weapon in their hands nor the move your feet any further when flight then they began from there to strike with their lenses and the slaughter with their swords sparing no one but savagely butchering them all they fell down to the right to the left mike believes in winter the fall and bodies of those unfortunate would be found all along the road blood flowing like interracial river they're unhappy country ready to buy the bloodshed ever fall when children far and wide then the multitude of tragedy when the sword of the charter should not get devoured were driven into was certain marsh thus denied any other path out the prodding tortures charged upon them and agreed as part of the hungarians will swallow it and vanished into the water in the mind and co historian richard a gabriel among others believe that as many as fifty thousand of the men fighting fucking melon the hungarians may have been killed either at the battle or during the long relentless murderers push you to buy the mongols some hungarian stories put that number is somewhat lower resisted the numbers are in dispute but to be very clear idea of how devastating this was for the greatest army standing between the mongols and the conquest of the rest of europe so died the flower of the nobility of hungry in europe's best hope to forestall the moral goal conquest of the entire european continent so the dime bought two pair nor did i thought it would be sixteen to eighteen years to conquer all the way to the atlantic after the battle of the sire rivers of those called that look to be rather pessimistic production because after the battle mongol scouts would be seen in austria even on the edge of italy the king of hungry would escape get to the adriatic sea not slow down for one second your ship and taken across the sea italy all of europe crumble nothing like this to the scene in a thousand years europe was praying for a miracle and all of a sudden how long after the battle of the sire river they don't want we're ride the decree carmel the guy had died the death of the greek own changed everything whew our goal is the internet's leading provider spoken or you entertainment of course that includes all kinds of different things the obvious thing that comes to mind first or your books there are magazines periodicals old radio and television shows skits famous speech issue name it or was cut more than a hundred thousand titles to choose from already that's growing every day and every genre you can think of all our balls got that covered to become or to get is a book that i think is only recently come on all because i look all the time and not seen this week on and tomahawk it's a fantastic memoir from the first world war that we spoke about in the park as we did in the first world war by a guy named currency on or world war one german soldier to call the storm of steel and what makes destroy almost he also differ from so many were worn memoirs is there was something about young years experience that he found invigorating idea she could say your ear was one of those people that are like the majority people the rohrbough tougher for war he didn't talk about how it was this worthless endeavor in this week's to human life your honor saw something that was profoundly perhaps positive for the human experience in combat a very strange and unusual one of you that's been echoed by a certain percentage of people that is seen the kind of hard core combat the younger scene his views were embraced by the nazis after the first world war but younger wanting no part of that he was a very interesting character and his war memoirs unlike any i've ever read from that conflict it's not an extremely long book it's not that tough over read but he turns out to be perhaps the most interesting war memoir i've ever read yeah check it out it's called storm of steel his name is risky honor he plays an interesting role in german history anyway after this time internet to be very interesting individual after the war you can go to laudable pod cast on calm for josh hardcore history for your free on new book out wow in the next and last episode of wrath of the ca his the death of the great khan albie god will turn out to be one of the most important turning point in world history his death will not only kill the impetus of the mongol tsunami that was sweeping west in a way that likelihood of carried all the way to the atlantic but his death will open up a leadership crisis in the mongol world empire wanted opens up a chasm of disagreement amongst the descendants of genghis khan to completely destroy is the great historical arsonist help his descendants would stay together on breakable likable and go there first in fact the chasm will develop between the various houses set apart by genghis khan's different sounds now this doesn't mean that there will be a lot of death and destruction and several empires the fall by the wayside as this whole process takes place it also doesn't mean that the fires that the historic larson is started all those years ago will continue to burn for centuries in some places the russians for example will stay about the last amber's until ivan the terrible time at least the story's going to go until the year twelve sixty why then it's clear to see that the bundle of arrows is unraveling the next car on will be the first person shows and to rule genghis khan's empire it was not picked by the great come on himself and that will make a huge difference all that more in part by the full wrath of the culprits the shop online amazon dot com indeed you consider doing so through the amazon search window condom condom comp your shopping experience will be the same as always the amazon monkey indiana benelux it back for sending in there thanks again for all your book to show donations they're the reason we're still here