Episode: Show 43 - Wrath of the Khans I


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Show 43 - Wrath of the Khans I
In one of the most violent outbursts in history a little-known tribe of Eurasian nomads breaks upon the great societies of the Old World like a human tsunami. It may have ushered in the modern era, but at what cost?

Dan Carlin's Hardcore History
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Dan Carlin's Hardcore History > Show 44 - Wrath of the Khans II

The Mongol leader Genghis Khan displays an unmatched level of strategic genius while moving against both Northern China and the Eastern Islamic world. Both civilizations are left stunned and millions are slaughtered.

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Murderous millennial preachers and prophets take over the German city of Munster after Martin Luther unleashes a Pandora's Box of religious anarchy with the Protestant Reformation.

Dan Carlin's Hardcore History > Show 45 - Wrath of the Khans III

The expansion of Genghis Khan's conquests continue, with locations as far apart as Europe and China feeling the bloody effects of Mongol warfare and retribution. Can anything halt the carnage?
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Automated Transcript (Why is this transcription so bad?)
they show is brought to you by all double or or ballpark estimate calm for slash hardcore history for your for your your book download and read them but um my being going on it's history at bay which will live get in the mail and while her beyond it's gone by offering her bullshit you how but i had one tried to voyage lead while but jonah and whom i probably at a time and place that let loose wheat and really what he down and hit and what you said we did beat the martyrdom of gardening and what we're about to jump from your former eats charcoal in houston i have a book idea for those of you got there or desperately searching for a winning book idea you were an author or or historian or on to somebody lookin' for you know when it she can exploit i got your book idea right here an sos m. promising you you're gonna make a lot of money with this idea i can guarantee you you will get attention inaudible due work sometimes you get your tension with the first book me make money off the second book whenever you let the coming in for any of it the reason given his id be used as it were close to me i wouldn't touch this with a ten foot pole makes me look sick just thinking about it that there are people out there who are stronger stomachs and i have if you're one of them here your idea the goal writer book about this little explored angle of the famous were war two story go write a book about the long term of positive effect see nothing is it made our modern world better today of nazi germany in the outside of the third reich and she gets it the other things that we had today that make our life better that never would happen if they're never been an awful fit right all right that block you will do more radio interviews about it to get more attention on the books are picture probably would have all these protesters outside the news coverage which then of course just advertise your book idea even more powerful with that and realize that if you have any trouble with it in a few people backlash or something for obvious reason is that just because you're a heady your time somebody's gonna write this book my daddy for couples centuries which case you can pay a terrible price of course for being really for being invasion alien in alaska way history works in the way he streamlining works pretty much guarantees that any gaping a vacuum in a popular story will eventually be examined you leave any piece of the story on tax for awhile and when every other wrangle about story's been examined to get somebody to look at that vacuuming got ham nobody treatable get on this side of nazi germany the reason you know that this is true because you can see it happening in every other area of history where does any interest at all revisionist history is a classic term often used by people were sneering at the idea they wished it never view of history it was invoked two hundred years ago state of view of history nobody ever change that because when you're messing with the way things really were are the way things really war though of course are in part determined by people's view point at the time we've always talked about on this program her from you by getting a little distance from events allow zhou to the common dispassionate observer in a more three dimensional in view of things with emotion leached out of the story he almost to the time that's an advantage to the time the lounge with dispassionate observer status but it comes at a cost to lose something in the story once the emotions are gone the main thing humans is any feelings of loss in terms of human life communist to cater joseph stalin so famously said one death is a tragedy a million deaths is a statistic what he's emphasizing with that statement is that to stop knowing these people you're talking about when to stop having a connection to these dead people and i don't matter anymore just becomes part of a long train of casualty lists that makes up human history nobody weeps for people who died five hundred years ago you go right back bob side of the third reich couple today and people who still feel the pain of the loss of loved ones and still relatively recent situation the holocaust and the many wars obviously there were four regional his part this giant were the second world war those people to pay picture book signings as they still are attached to the dead if you don't write that book it doesn't get written for five hundred years you're not in every me picketers outside by then those deaths are statistic on the story loses something because of the story loses the sense of evil and our range but today wouldn't let you say good things about how often would take us who cares about the good things look at the bad things he did it the reason maybe i feel so strongly about this is quite specifically raining to the situation back in college the professor who still at the universe you colorado or owes a history major is that what is the teacher who taught the 'em chinese history courses like taking a bunch of his courses i was gonna write a paper i thought he was the closest adviser really having a good feel for the subject because he was chinese the paper was on mongolia military tactics the tactics of the famous mall army probably the greatest army of all time you in the twelve hundreds but for the whole semester focusing on this paper you're really long research paper type thing all on strategies and tactics to stratagem sympathy respond what they did bob let me just the intense people on military tactics i turned into this professor call me next week we sat down and the paper with my great honor was a whole grain lower than i thought it should be and leafing through the paper or he's talking to me not really hearing we sank over and over each rating in red ink in various places on the paper what about the civilians or what the deaths were but the execution for an ink was over and over yours all about it and nasty thing is that the mongols did specifically in the story the nasty things to begin to the chinese people will use ancestors i asked him why this was something that lowered my grade because the paper you never need to do with that it was a for a tactic to strategies he said how can you divorced the military that made it all of that holocaust possible from a holocaust itself the city were writing a paper on the german bear market in the second world war would you leave out the holocaust my seat yes because it has nothing to do with the holocaust was about this angle of history together is about the other angle he said the bear market made the holocaust possible i remember leaving that meeting thinking he was too emotionally wrapped up in this whole thing because he was ethnically chinese me was feeling this pain and suffering left over from the terrible mongol conquest was the scene illustrate the emotion of some holes deaths in the twelve hundreds was still affecting my ethnically chinese history professor they came back to me when i was reading some of the stuff for the story of what talk about today rip your ear for vision is history with the subject as we are with most subjects everything's in flux right but we're in a particular swing of the pendulum i'm sure will correct itself over time on the subject we're historians and others or writing about this subject and minimizing the deaths completely considering that this is one of the greatest incidence of human cause mortality in the planet's history minimizing the deaths here would be like minimizing the deaths caused the nose and ripe result of the existence of the third reich in the nazis it be like saying yes yes yes lots of people died we all know that the major you focus you on the economics in central europe of all bubble about law or chinese history professor would say don't lose track of the holocaust and that's the army to you why puts me we're positioned to we're position because i'm a fan of these people are more talk about the mongols the same people what role does paper in college the major study fascinated with him forever an affinity for them problem is is the stuff i'm reading today as swallow so much to the other side of the classic image of the mongol mongol rapist to pillage jarriel from a hundred two hundred years ago that i almost don't recognize the people anymore i'm reading books that i turned to rush off worried if if the million deaths brasher ma senate hearing they're saying yes the mongol degree damage in certain places but that's dwarfed by their impact on globalization in trade and commerce and he would call it the classic tradeoff of empire the great line that was honored at the time of the roman empire about the roman empire were there person entering the lines of the romans create wasteland and call it peace just because you killed all the people and burn down all the houses doesn't mean the trade route one fantastically in that wasteland these are some of the classic empire trade offs and many of the greatest historical figures greatest in intercourse with her are people who get a lot of credit for the rich she admits based on stuff that happened that they never intended by products of their historical d. c. if you took away those buy products that was ready given to them by later historians their whole demure looks different take alexander the great is a perfect example here alexander the great is one of the most admired historical figures of all time there are many historians today to run against the grain trying to point out to thad is totally undeserved when you read about the things that some guy like alexander the great gets credit for it's all stuff that he never intended to have happen i mean you reach your history books and alexander takes is fantastic killer army kills on untold numbers of people conquers all these territories for himself basically his future glory lies macedonian nobles looped spoiled you name it achilles and glory and this has the byproduct effective spreading greek culture for example alexander's congress are noted for example for spreading helen is i'm judy east which then triggers the hellenistic age which is what the great in all ages of mankind and so therefore whenever alexander did it was terrible was part of his conquest is somewhat balanced out by this positive stopped by bringing in all sophocles is drama and the life like statues in our work to be stronger role and i guess but historians do that they are shooting an arrow in obtaining a bull's eye around afterwards they're acting as though that was somehow alexander's intention in the deserves credit for that achievement instead it's a by product of we did he never intended to them all and if you take away all those buy products from his achievement record he has a book like a very different character take julius caesar for second here's a guy the conquerors modern day for hands the known then as goal destroys the celtic domination of the region kills millions of people what's been called it genocide before does it for his own personal gain for mining for political power in rome for the rich class in rome and julius caesar is often credited for bringing it on modern day francine should allow the mediterranean cultural sphere of and i'm up to the integrated that era so to speak bringing culture and literacy all these things to that area if you would tomorrow fringe candidates and was it worth it that the aisle we're almost killed all bulls galling people's by bra chew into the cultural steel roof your roman life and i imagine any fraternity with the war guess he surely worth it to wash and long term how that happened porsche the person who is human history diego any of the people on the celtic side lead to die to make that possible calmly tell the deaths he is the introduction to mediterranean culture worth how many iranian deaths is the spread of helen is a more well if you don't know them as hundreds and hundreds of thousands of years ago the number gets really don't matter anymore we're still benefiting from the fact that helen is was sporadic and we do know any of those people at the da if you take away or exclude he's buy products of these historical conquerors couriers things like the spread of helen is for alexander these conquerors end up looking a lot more white people who came on the scene and inflicted on her worse to come out of killing and suffering on others for no good reason unless of course you consider conquest a good reason all by itself if the conquering question happen to meet a an ancestor of yours you might indeed considered a good thing it's interesting how countries will associate their own greatness would be the largest spread of their territory geographically speaking we're the greatest domination over other people's know you look at the map and high water mark of nations is when they encompass the most territory to have the most people under control and you win the most victories in battle whatever it is we still think of national greatness the way they thought of it in earlier times we just on his enamored with the over use of powers it sometimes takes to achieve that historians are just as susceptible by the way to looking at the bright side of conquest they will almost argue for the need sometimes for these people to appear on the scene these people in the minds of some historians over the ages and an agent of change there's a charmer used in economics but i think applies here creative destruction the best way to think of to describe creative destruction is concept is when you think about it of an old forest one with rotting and bug infested and choking the light from the ground and nothing can grow and to stagnate and dying in not going anywhere to waste the fire comes and burns all down the ashes regenerate the soil the clearing allows the song to reach the ground the space has been created allows new seedlings to pop up any create the conditions for new growth the regeneration the way historians have written history past certain individuals in that role of historical arsonist for good cause the world is stagnant all these cultures are literally in writing how's is that just can't seem to fall from rome waited alexander the great comes in with gasoline likes the whole region on fire and it creates the conditions for the next world as well julius caesar does the same thing all the sudden these people who never had any intention of starring in you were also would be better for all those to credit for that the generations past we forget the names of all the people that died to make that possible all the sudden these people who don't deserve may be a good label attached to them when you look at their motivations for what they did the game looking increasingly benign and great over the ages the figure that was struck a story with today falls into the same category to category of people that you have to call great man you in the classic sense great in quotation marks the great men of history it was a historian also a member of britain's parliament on a hundred years ago the name lord acton lord acton had a great line about these people he said great men are almost always bad may it the more he means by that pretty obvious let me ask a question to you this way would you be willing undershirt conditions to order the killing of an innocent woman or child or cold person if you said he would not be willing to do that you are already off the potential great person list at least in terms of world leaders even the most human mystic bomb world leaders when it comes to rome for so i'll look at the other guy jimmy carter president of mounted and so humanistic the teams are chengdu is job sometimes again you build habitat for humanity houses here's a guy who probably was responsible for last guest says an american president than any other president and they give in modern times in yet you're still certainly quite a few people who died because jimmy carter made a decision one way or the other i couldn't handle that and signed 'em off the great potential great person list some of these great people the alexander's the julie's seizures nice people had to be willing to kill millie and us how should mr retreat that has lord acton said great men are almost always bad man but what happens if they're the ones were historically necessarily to go around lighting the dead one of these decaying society is on fire so be to create the conditions for new age enter the seed of the story the seed of this story is one more exceptional human beings it's ever been born especially in terms of achievement certainly in terms of gifts as well he's not the beneficiary on some wonderful blocking terms of his birth he's not like alexander the great doesn't get best army in the world handed him instantly i mean have the plague all set he's boring into a clamor of poorer tribal pastoral nomads and given the name of one of his father's defeated enemies it's called hamilton but he was a mongol and the only history that exists for many who might know about the birth of this person all the secret history of the mongols when she came on his mother's room clutching a black blood clot the size of a knuckle bone that is symbolic of where the story's going to go and if you find yourself alone squeamish about description right there you best turn the story off right now because it gets whitey and deadly and tragic and if you're looking at it from a mongol side of things also get glorious yet the same time it's hard not to think about how many people might have survived this time period the child not been born somewhere between twenty and fifty million people windy exit this earth during this child's life time is a direct result of what this child doesn't decisions this child makes the touchy subject to because this time lucienne is the greatest figuring mongolian history he's revered as the founder of the nation he's been george washington he's on their mind what george washington had killed millions and millions of people of course americans have the the image of the moral high ground matter into it because our founding father come to the time that was so comparatively genteel it was called the enlightenment the war powdered wigs in a bow to each other more morris i'd defeated another side to more the general of the defeated side was handed to sort over to the victorious general who often handed back in the symbolic genteel gentlemanly way of conducting affairs americans didn't have a founding father who came from say the dark ages were the middle ages were the manners and customs of the time we're we're for mongolia so founding father comes from what the roughest times and ross's places you could ever imagine before all product of our environment this guy is exhibit a that that can literally transformer story this damage in is born in what in europe in the middle east is the middle ages born eleven sixty two or maybe eleven sixty seven the report is not exactly known he's born at a time where europe is living in the error of the knights and crusades and judging pushing going on at least he's born into an environment that is changed surprisingly little in more than a thousand years his past oral nomadic lifestyle he is shared amongst the wide range of people stretching of thousands of miles to the west where he spoke he's born in in this geographical feature on the eurasian land mass it's known as the step the step is like a motion with the water taken out of it my effect it's the size of two atlantic ocean to almost what side-by-side east west trudging from the plains of hungry all with the pacific ocean surrounding china on two sides and consisting of geographical and you know weather patterns that just are not conducive to the growth of big cities this era lends itself to assert lifestyle and the mongolia just one of many many people to exist with that lifestyle and you should think of it like the great american prairies with stretching on for five thousand miles sometime during grasslands sometime during savannah sometime during desert had climates there are some mountains here and there's a very big ones in some places the worst reverse your narrow lake or two but by large this is a harsh environment it's flat for the most part and weems with three when the weather changes moment by moment it has no one in italy july eight and weasel much water horse all times of course is the key feature so more aaron historians who argue over this point the shoe sleep somewhere between one thousand b. c. and four thousand b. c. e. these nomadic groups of people probably in what's now martin ukraine did something that will change history in major ways it will prove that human history is not always about humans they were domesticated force when the nomads of eurasia get their hands on the horse and integrated into their population an entire new era of world history begins one that has only ceased to be a reality on the geopolitical seen it in the last five hundred years they will create a relationship may be the best word because some people would call an alliance between humans and animals to real animal rights activist you might call the master slave relationship but somehow these people that had to walk in the region step in pre history all of us and ride this whole flat expanse of the ocean with the water taken out of it seems to lend itself to horses and pastoral nomadic societies or rama world tend to focus on a certain animal to base to society round there are people snow ms donkey nomads and some places other people's know ms campbell nomads these peoples of the racial step would be the horse nomads these horses became such a part of these people's cultures that they develop skills that allow them to stand apart from other writers in the world i just had my h. g. wells outcome recently the sci-fi author world amateur history hundred years ago and had this fascinating they were he was talking about how human beings in various environments develop skills and a mechanisms might be a good way to put to cope with anna varma to give them almost special abilities her role playing game you would call a special ability if somebody comes from a mountain culture you're gonna see things that that person can deal with amount culture that we flat lenders can't for example some of the changes will be physical the long capacity might be increased growing up you know when you'll watch environment ready to give the scher president guide people up the mountains in the himalayas they're also going out cultural knowledge is transmitted by their mountain people about the best ways to survive in the mound where you can find food the do's and don'ts you're also going at training years of experience in mum's fishy grow there those factors applied to these people on the racial step to push start writing their horses at age three who ride them constantly who develop a relationship it is hard for us today to understand no these places were more caught offer more before bears the modern world we all have the same car relationships with animals that they had in most of the world history another something is that people perform under years ago would be able to relate more to people of thousands of years ago they're able to really tell us now because they still have certain connections to animals that we didn't we take transportation for second you want to travel overland two hundred years ago from one city to another fastest speed jurgen him be able to go is the speed of a horse that's the same speed they would've been your top speed of thousand years before that time and a thousand years before that you get an idea of how one machine is dynamic was and how long something like a horse was actually cutting edge technology the mongols lived five hundred years after the han's glued five hundred years after the zhang noon who lived hundreds of years after the skippy it all these people had societies it seemed virtually the same minor differences you're there especially since they had a tendency to raid their neighbors and as their neighbors changed the stock they stole from their neighbors change so they might have a more updated wardrobe is instead of new stealing from the chinese in two hundred b. c. e. they were now stealing from the chinese in five hundred as c. the stuff you steal looks more modern your look more modern too but the lifestyle was relatively unchanged ten legions mongols were living very much like muscatine trying to more live in more than a thousand years before pastoral nomad lifestyle was a tried and true like stella didn't have to change very much after all he did been in existence a heck of a lot longer than the lifestyle of its sedentary rivals both lived in cities and practice agriculture were historically speaking up the new kid on the block the way to engine lived but in ancient lifestyle the creech people with special abilities can you see these kinds of special abilities anytime you find any new societies tribal groups of people who live sort of more close to the earth you think of the native americans are the tribes in africa all these people the contract in hand which would call special abilities because they are the apaches just there billy hired to relieve the track of your ability to find these are all great in damages in the heat no matic tribal peoples needed all full as they were constantly robin like sandpaper against their civil society neighbors or gains their tribal neighbors these tribes on the step often fought with one another more they fall in your mouth what if our society like china and byzantium at rome and in the middle eastern societies in persia they were fighting society they're sort of like our own sense they're constantly in a developing new technologies constantly be enough for the military science building off of experience for the past in a few books in learning having huge organization with images over the tribal peoples to compensate for this to tribal peoples use their native ability this alliance with the horse was really one half of what may be step people so formidable on the battlefield the other half the equation it was necessary to turn this into the weapon system that most famous small world history with a bow these are your region step nomads are for starters most famously anyway all the tribe you can name for world history from the eurasian stamps base their whole military on writers wielding bouts people who were so good at it they used must think of an army composed of nothing but trick writer shrum some circuit somewhere those are the only kind of people who come close to your average step for starters abilities on horseback and i just track writers' us to imagine trick riders who were also export archer remarks and the same time i mean the step no man was able to famously shoot birds are the sky you flight think about how hard that is for a moment as a matter of fact we're told that the mongol specifically although imagine the tribal peoples of the stamp also i had the same situation happening we're told that the mongols were trained to be not to let their hero fly until that precise moment in the horses galloping know she won all four of the hopes were simultaneously off the ground thereby to not have your pain jostled i guess and the relationship between mongolian horse again i would assume this is a typical step thing for mines an observer from most of all society more like a close relationship between say a shepherd dog in the sheep herder these horses were told a mystery richard gere perot says they would comment whistle which is something right out of a lone ranger movie when you think about it he also says that they would follow up their own around like a dog this is really handy if your mom gold trooper traveling with todd is a dexter we announce which is what they do three five seven twenty sometimes extra forces with each trooper be a dashing for those horses and keep track of it it's really hard to move the army if they follow you naturally how hope was that it should also be pointed out that the women in the mongol society indian like women another step society were far from it al plus one the many folk were wide in fact the step is the regional your ground zero for with the legend of the amazon's comes from there were tribal societies of the step for example the summations when we men who fought in their ranks supposedly weren't allowed to get married until they had killed the flow in battle you're some incentive for you so the mongol women were told could shoot almost as well as the man is not as what was the man riders will host a minute after all they were in the saddle virtually just as often and it was they who trained the toddlers of the mongol try both boys and girls how to shoot in rapid so if you we're in any of the mongols who stumbled on a mongol encampment and the many folk happen to be away it wasn't as much of an advantage to just be facing the women as it might normally be i should also point out that this mongol ball like a ball flax mishkin you know weightlifting machine was a hundred and sixty pound poll the model supposedly could shoot twelve of these arrows a minute and hannah hundred fifty arrows in their quiver we're told that the opening needs all battles they sometimes expanded their whole ammunition long would it be a relatively quickly i'm retired could you pull a hundred and sixty pound ball back before your arms we do it anymore you have to imagine these people as in a muscular sense ripped from their urbina the strength of their hands all of their arms into their neck and shoulder muscles and they're back these are seeing you we strong people who shoot all the time it's like using a weightlifting mushy the battle they fought like a swarm of bees they would give you nothing to really lash out at if they were pursued in battle the often just ran away shooting the pursuers as they didn't they provided no solid object that pursuers could get their hands on they couldn't catch them because usually of course the shore sharpshooter lead on the t. we just hire yourself out if he chased them you would get away from the protection of your formation you would likely fall into an ambush and that was one of the for for tactics of all these nomadic or searchers their favored by the way stratagem and everybody knew about it before the reader late any still felt for time and time again it must play on some battlefield human emotion isn't the call the faint white the feigned flight is exactly what sounds a bit of fake or out the mongols especially and a unit that was designed it almost like a great unit of actors they were to go up there an almost suicidal lead in a fight with the enemy army they turn around a certain commands the u. terror the records makes its l. a. b. work at taught to do a good job of making in the enemy think that they were scared running away in the money money would pursue them he's manga die they were called beaten into an ambush until the invention of gunpowder no society will ever get that really good way of handling these or search of the battle for the best way of handling the mystify her some just like them find some tried that's you an enemy of the one you're fighting get them to help or leave them into terrain that's not the stabbing of the key get these people are other element there a little light a budget deadline teens eleven underwater civilization and a really powerful in the water pretty good about the water the weekend as a matter of fact all of the step conquerors they would sometimes conquer the society says settle down your kind of become agricultural list unsettled people themselves and they will quickly lose all their deal battlefield energy generation urdu later on the senate or have step no matter for starters anymore to the blood on the step the chubby recurring problem one that later step civilizations would figure out you have to keep sending people back to the stepper they lose their special abilities as dangerous as the score charters were about on the battlefield be really only presented terrible dangers when they would unifying to be confederation us and each individual tribes would call us under powerful influential leader and they went from being a nuisance to being an existential threat this happened many times in history now don't get it would be shown new two men to with only the turks on the tiller did in with the han's but the greatest of all these you know fires in all history happen to be that mongol boyd we introduced a little while ago ten legit that's possible is name doesn't ring a bell which is understandable because once he finds the strike is going to be given a new name any more familiar name tim asian was up to be genghis khan genghis khan is simply put all of the most stunning really impressive figures in all history yeah the judge him almost completely on what he did because they're so little actually know about the guy he's one of the great mysteries of history when you think about it nobody is lord is he was is it a little known as he is he comes from a time really the high middle ages were you would expect to it we still would he look like me think about things from this error and how much is known within their chinese short byzantine or european it he's a greater bigger than any of them historians don't even know what he looked like the only yuri was born the trauma how we die they don't worry spirit he's a very mysterious figure would have anything chromium don't rightly that you could legitimately say he said everything is from all later writing and somebody said and the city oral tradition we write it down whatever there are no proclamations that you can specifically saying genghis khan said these words you know in mongolian exactly like that an insertion tantalizing clues that he might've had red hair for example that was a persian history and said he was surprised at his grandson qubilah who'll be famous figure his own right didn't inherit his red hair leave that worn off the issue want also supposedly he can we're called perhaps i should the eyes of the pact some people have chosen to believe that this means his eyes were green i choose to believe it means that they were like a catch in broad daylight so like the eyes of sore on again leave which one it's not that unusual doll to have them be the case is modified green eyes and read a year you can still find that occasionally in the mongolian population of tibet it was a wonderful ethnic the residual see in this mixing of different peoples on the step you'll see the different features that you would expect to find one person i mean the turks were famous for having a strain of people's unwed blond hair and green eyes in the turkish creatures which reminds me of the things national geographic photo of an afghan girl with middle eastern features and hair color berwick those bright blue green eyes she's a wonderful example some of that wonderful genetic mixing the it happen on the step or you could have people from three or four major different racial groups in the same tried together and mixes of all of them genghis khan may very well have been an asian featured man of unusual physical proportions he supposed to be made also ahead wait a year in green are mixed warsaw ron's depending on the loose with innumerable economic historian issue now no physical features aside what makes genghis khan so impressive is that he's almost like watching a human version of the piece of metal you know be done and over over hardened into his final form he grows up in an almost perfect laboratory experiment else survival of the fittest imply he's not handed an empire a perfect are like a guy like alexander the great detained became genghis khan works for everything by the time he you know flies all the tribes this guy has lived her life the easy it defies all the odds that he was even locked forget that he managed to you bring himself up to such an exalted level his life as related in the secret history of the mongols and take it with a grain of salt is one adventure after another would make a great movie it's not without its some dark side go bias to cities of the betrayal of the mongol call on the eventual mano connie here's a guy who's assassinating his brother older brother with the help of his younger brother when they're still chants shot him full arrows because he stole fish for mom what the final straw the older brother been floor yourself over the two of them for a while so merge in an asian her brother sneak up the older brother richie sitting there in the grass the older brother perceive that they're there and basically says you know you sure you have to do this if you do spare my younger brother widget and the nation from two sides the mother freaks out recalled and destroyers it's almost as though she knows her son's destiny genghis khan is going to be what the best examples history provides of what these people you could call it a creative destroyer the impetus of that creative destruction dynamic we talked about earlier if the world is a tinderbox at this point genghis khan's gimmick come through and white in all he was busy jeez greatest historical arsonist and those who say that the climate was ripe for a good rejuvenating fire will point out that the conditions of life on the step and grown to become intolerable everybody was being captured women were being raped there was no law more raids were constant everyone was fighting with everyone else life was miserable can you do so often been kidnapped twice in his life everybody in the story seems to spend some time in the custody of their enemies the women often came back pregnant i mean the whole thing was intolerable now there are two schools of historical on us one is dead this was an unusual time and a lawn mower had broken down because the power of one unifying tried to disintegrated the other school historical ford is that any time when there was any longer war to stop those of the exceptions to the rule and that normally it's like the wild west out there in the wood genghis khan's early life consisted of was pretty normal regardless of which school was collect the admirer is a genghis khan hopefully out that he was bringing law in order to reach him every time he conquered another war these tribes absorbed into a confederation he was bringing the benefits of vampire jurors can cost a lot of people but two of law and order and peace and commerce justice when you know we put central authority in place make no mistake about about this guy was a disciplinarian in the mongols were ruthless after destroying the fighting ability of one tribe in battle he forced every male to walk past the wagon anyone who walks to the higher than the linchpin of the wagon and had come off in his rise to power genghis khan destroyed whole tribes ironically one of these tribes we're ingenious column kills every male above the age of the child well actually lindy its name to the mongols on the mongols first peering europe and in the middle east they will be called to tart sort parker ers that's the name of it tried to genghis khan but the head office in chablis during his rise to power it's an example of what happened to many other tribes his defenders will point out the creation of nation states is not always no violence free you were make an omelet to get a break a few eggs and part of creating the kind of climate we give them the law and order and justice and commerce all those things sent a partial security is breaking the power of all these independent tribes and especially there are ruling aristocratic nobles who don't want anything to do with cow telling the genghis khan this is all part of creating the empire more than age the program nation state amongst these nomadic peoples and the chinese are becoming aware at this time of genghis khan because the chinese are always trying to stay abreast of what's going on in the jury's power struggles on the step chinese foreign policy for like three thousand years is all concerned with how do you keep all of these nomadic dangerous horse peoples on our borders for combining into a powerful dangers confederation use barbarians to fight barbarians same strategy the byzantine three using you know on the other side of the state keep the tribes dividing keep them fighting each other play one off against the other and anybody who looks to be garnering it too much power authority in a fine some adversary that also resent city use them to cut them down to size when the chargers are being your problem they were supposedly the histories an estimated three hundred and fifty thousand members of the charter cried when they're becoming a problem the chinese enlisting this cons help supposedly to help break their power they will continually interfering stamp the fairest and genghis khan's rise to power begins to concern ma'am and if they hadn't been aware of how significant he was becoming by twelve ballistics genghis khan himself made it obvious he added declared while the seminal moment inching his current wife occurs at a mongol assembly was a cruel tie it happens in the bank of earl weaver but the giant affair with huge tent and people coming from all over mostly mongols to proclaim the genghis khan of the ruler rome although dwelling felt tax is the way was put in all these past real momentum system the step now forget for a moment there are times of tribes to the west that have no idea the existence of the mongols who have direct contact with places like russia and you have no idea that this assembly is going on and never heard of genghis khan return they are without knowing it now subject to his dominion him with his representatives eventually find them and point out that they are or choices are to study it or die any sort of wavering on this makes them rebels ignorance of the new law is no excuse and many tribes will essentially have their doom pronounced on them for not knowing that this twelve oh six get together on the bank of river they are rom existence was put into the hands of the sovereign they've never heard of nonetheless many of the great tribes of the eurasian step look how borne by the sun understood what was going on was going on it is this was the proclamation of the new step confederacy being formed the war schneider mayor of all the civil society to board the step the only time the strobl people became dangerous to your ring entire way of life is when the combined it all the sudden this leader this ten legions changes colony whichever one argues about what that means on the other historians on that and take sides many think universal ruler oceanic ruler there are other interpretations his name was damage in his title sort of question does come on and now genghis khan at least in his own lolling in deep ruled everyone who dwelt in felt tenths if you had a different opinion you're going to have to fight him off for it now the actual get together we're he's proclaimed your emperor basically is important for locker reasons one up right there in many issues proclamation is that basically begin the process of breaking down old tribal barriers returning it the traditional culture of the step into something that's more organized and more like as i said a modern nation state without buildings in cities in any of that and nomadic pastoral version but the structured society turning from tribal the something perhaps more fuel might be a good way to put ended changing the leadership of all these tribes from people who got that way through their birth to people who genghis khan we use it in a deserted it still an entire society devoted to genghis khan but now the people that are most devoted to genghis khan or most competent of serving his interest on the one to get promoted your bloodline doesn't matter anymore changes by the way was the descendant of integrate mongol low bill would be once upon a time that grew up because of the poisoning of his father when he was nearly nine in circumstances on there were anything but we're oil those bomb years of privation had taught him in the importance of good people in all levels of this is one other thing is the truthfully said the man apart he has an amazing night for talent when he spotted he grabs at me put it to tease you susan you doesn't care to come from an enemy or from some into shot his horse out from under him or whatever if he thinks you can help to him he can bring you in the second to make a mistake the second you screw up the second you turn against an enemy lopped off one second but genghis khan tended to foster amazing loyalty amongst the people to be brought into his circle the old trickle down to the very lowest levels of mongol society to whenever city sir sat on the mongols will go through the city and find people and any questions to what they can do can you read to you right you can you make weapons what can you do anybody who's got a nice bill to be useful to them on voltage gravel the truth of it is is that he was sorely opposite of what happened when the coming year would came over him cambodians noise to killing field to make her mid they were going in anybody read reading glasses or seem to have any education or or skills of lamar world was executed because those people were contaminated my maternity you need to be wiped out the mongols at the iraqi if you could be useful to them in all those skills were useful you might survive the sacking of the city those that didn't get pulled out of the crowd for having useful abilities were the ones who were massacred one of the reasons the mongols did better than any other step confederation and they were many over time was there incorporation of people who had skills above and beyond which are typical nomad hat then again you'll feel for mongol society this time it's worth a quarter something from the secret history of the mongols this apparently was a book that was only to be shown to members of the mongol will family to give them information about their heritage some are barely got out because of course we have translations of the today and much of it is a very heroic story about the rise of genghis khan and in the early mongols is rather genealogy that's debatable on how useful that is for history for nervy yuba would ease and debatable us how this document written only a generation after genghis khan's life reflexive mongol called jury values you get an idea what was important of them how they thought some of the course use of symbolism in these sorts of writings but some of it is very clear as to the mentality was now all during his twelve oh six coral tight it's all genghis khan laying down laws and rewarding vassal to ben good to them all back but a few years before this he's proclaimed calm of the mongols and the secret history a sort of ron down at the post better made to him when he's made great come on listen to this and get an idea for the culture role aspect of the mongols during this time period in the step people as well quote and then they moved the whole camp to the shores of lake in the corral do mountains all don cook arkansas should becky conferred with each other there and then said to damage in that we want you to be con damaging if you'll be our car that will search through the spoils for the beautiful women in virgins for the great palace tents for the young virgins and lovely as women for the finest gilding isn't mayors will gather all these and bring them to you we go off to hunt for wild game will go first to drive them together for you to kill will drive the wild animals of the step together so that their bellies are attaching will drive the wild game of the mountains together to the base stand away to lag if we disobeyed your command during battle take away our possessions our children and wives leave this behind in the dust coming off our heads where we stand and letting them fall to the ground if we disobeyed the council in peacetime take away our tents in our goods our wives and our children leave us behind when you moved abandoned in the desert without a protector having given their word having taken this oath they proclaimed sandwich in common boom on wall and gave him the name changes come and co i often read read that passage what i'm thinking about the mongols too were mine myself that no matter how much seen vote today to talk about the higher minded motives of genghis khan and his mongols if you're reading this stuff they wrote the cells from their own value system during that period you can't ignore the desire for linked and by way it's not a mongol thing it's not a tribal peoples bring it to everybody that i mean first of all but in any of the germanic tribes eluding till the cows come home right but you could just cover it up a little bit with the veneer of civilization and doesn't look so much like alexander the great julius caesar almost beat the looting doesn't look like napoleon saluting him when he spreads on republican values across the european comedy sure zag areas the wind stream of goods and people flowing from the conquered territory back to paris or from the conquered territory back to rome for the conquered territory back to pellet macedonia or from the conquered character respect to werner virginia's come on in the mongol leadership happens to be camping today and was imparted this story that's hard to bomb gather round but is almost completely ignored today by many of these historians of water pour previous as some one hundred percent positive thing is that this is a story that has a lot to do with rape a lot to do with rape as a matter of fact d. n. a. tests have shown up the more people in my listening audience right now or probably direct descendants of genghis khan direct descendants father decided then of any other person in the world in history before that time one in five hundred asian males are direct descendants fifteen to sixteen million people on the world right descend into genghis khan it's also pretty good bet that many of you and female ancestors they were not very willingly this mixing of dna that nature would direct descendant of genghis khan these are pretty good chance of that was in voluntarily you have to be careful when you read something like the secret history the mongols because i will put the weight of originally written with awaits translated were just a cultural bombed difference in understanding the secret history will call people who wore obviously rape victims while i was and it looks at them a lot more legitimate it may be more like a hair room where they have fifty seven b. i. hundred wives at least they're all watch right gotta get past that will get free sample was wonderful story wonderful and horrible way and that's indicative of this whole thing that happens to genghis khan as his consolidating his power on the stand he's busy wiping out a tribe of mostly turks the church were perhaps the most dominant ethnic group of step nomadic peoples although there try probably had mongols and to the people call the nine men an i'm undecided awarded to guess genghis khan their ruler recon as a mother and this mother makes a statement that record in the secret history but how the mongols to spank now they were filthy which by the way may have been very true because apparently they had this prohibition against washing clothes so mr rings think it would've offended the mongol got water should wear these clothes continuously switches were on and off of them and obviously not wash them if that's true well they probably didn't stink bomb she said this openly according to the secret history she said that the most beautiful and you were mongol girls that they would wash their hands would only be fit to milk their animals and in the secret history after genghis khan defeat this tribe in battle killed their conduct execute their population when the seeker history they gathered them all with the foot of the all-time mountain range and they disposed of them this mother of the khan who made the statement about the mongols smell was brought before changes come on this is on the secret history polluted or two last week genghis khan demanded that you're b. c. and they gangs mother be brought before him spoke to her sang it was you who said the mall goal stink and their clothing is filthy if we can only make the most beautiful girls wash their hands they only be fit to milk art house in our sheep then why are you here and genghis khan took her as one of his wives and co now this kind of meshes with a quotation that was probably not said by genghis khan but that he's famous for saying you know what the greatest pleasures of life comes in by conquering your enemy sleeping with the watch their wives and children all's calm things and it's a well-known statement that probably was never honor by the colony but that's exactly what that incident recorded in the mongols all history of themselves seemed to indicate some pleasure knowing taking revenge as a woman who is the mother of the colony of the jane this is just to old he's been wiped out your entire people she hates mongols the smell them and everything in our own he's making her his wife that's torturing senate certainly rape and so when the the mongol the stork records talk about wives realize that that's not always a voluntary relationship again it should be pointed out that this is no different than most other conqueror sterling in ancient times in the dark ages are medieval times romans and stuff like this all the time the point is is dead 'cause the mongols or perhaps the greatest conquering nation in history frederic rieders series of conquest ever elmore the most successful the rage matter more because they were more of them wasn't a higher percentage of rapists in the mongol army just more success cochran other people hence more actual people probably rape is part of the mongol conquest than probably any other period you can think of simply because of the vast scale of it all lot of dna get spread around during this period and has to be considered at least for the female carriers of the dna two of the tragedy of itself was a tragic jury for the step people this whole rising genghis khan whole peoples were wiped out that's the destruction part the benefits dole did genghis khan brought to the stepper the creative power in the creative destruction twelve oh six a discreet world high assembly to the old he unveils almost historians and so do some like david morgan who doubt the whole thing buddy supposedly unveils his code of laws his famous ya sa and this is a set of rules designed to create that ordering justice and personal security on the step it's been missing the penalties for many of violations of this new law code or draconian it will conjure head off for any number of things one thing that the people like the europeans know it when they fought the mongols was this unbelievable level of obedience well he was really one strike a new route which was special dispensation from the connor more the special dispensation slows you denying chances needed five chances are before you know you get the final warning most people got no chances you scrub wants to pick at string up at the guy in front of your writings were strapped a bomb your heads off tended to foster a high level of obedience and the draconian nature of these laws of the fact that they were rigorously enforced created the step that was probably a better place to live in terms of peace and security in you're just us in any more had known for very long time the cost was very great benefits perhaps worth it you'd have to ask a staff person living at the time anomalous what genghis khan now had created the step confederation another step confederation had been sought by the people central asia for some time to catch up into the fact it was around was considered to be very good thing it was one thing from the viewpoint of a central asian to see a new central asian nomadic confederacy form but another thing entirely look at that same development for more the sedentary civilizations aboard the step your place like china you've just seen in years centuries more than the millennia of foreign policy attempting to prevent just this from happening failing genghis khan is your worst nightmare any proves it soon after he's managed to quell the disharmony of the step one shoe deal with the disharmony of the staff what you create this confederation of nomad tribes what you do with it this becomes a place for storing started diversion their view of what genghis khan's motivations were worried what do you now that he created this unbridled power we ended up doing was turning his attention to the various chinese states question of watergate is a disagreement historians fight over the standard view is that china was on his radar because china was we're all the good lou waters and that this confederation of your asian nomads require the current to deliver the stop for a came to you promised benefits of episode of the trickle down way of those benefits reaching the average mongol all booty taken along to the current come on with and distribute the booby to various son nobles and leaders that he thought deserted who would then distribute it to their followers and all the way down the line some historians believe that the rose water pressure all times to keep the small stuff coming up and at the moral of these very poor people like the mongols got their hands on the morrow they wanted korea that dynamic we've had to keep the conquest come easy to keep the flow of good heading to work for the mongol for camp this week remember we said heading to rome heading to pellet adding to it an arrest adding to in other times of the great khan i've seen a victory for historians say that drought conditions and climactic problems on the step may force these people into you know rubbing up against their neighbors and waited provoked and disagreements and eventually warfare step societies always sort of rubbed up against civil societies and sandpaper like way there are culture and values were so different often involving things like reading in slave taking often times it was hard to avoid conflicts breaking out his book russia's step frontier author michael scott okonski as a whole chapter called the sociology of the ferrante or worldwide peace was impossible about these sandpaper like relations between step nomads and civil societies in the same way that native american tribe sometimes found it impossible to stay in peace while rubbing up against the european colonists and settlers in thing was true on the step step people's going back to pre history at a very similar relationship with the civil societies to with the native americans and so the trade and raided our policy were sometimes they were trading sometimes they were reading and sometimes they were going balls of the same time some of the rubbish nurses to aliens who like to downplay the negativity around the mongol conquest will suggest that the mongols were simply responding to what we would call to the retaliatory trade policies on the part of the chinese someone thought the step people's always needed the chinese in the civil society stuff more than the civil society need to step nomad trade offerings as a sometimes biamby polite to chinese and byzantine to the middle easterners would would this bruise to the step people on some lisa stirrings of suggest that the reason right there the modern countries micah ward on the mongols are sometimes portrayed as as retaliating towards bad naked in trading practices heavy handed trading practices and oftentimes portrayed these days is fighting a sort of a defensive war the romans some were said to have conquered the world in a defensive war or if it is absent minded and as inner city untrained among some historical thinking to put the mongols and similar category agreed the world it would trade dispute now the chinese had traditionally divided step barbarians into two types they called cocked an uncle to the pope barbarians were the ones that are already absorbed some of the chinese culture it made it easier to deal with it softened them somewhat they became more tractebel and we could negotiate with them it also help in some ways to eliminate some of the more rough edges bomb what might have been savaged barbarians coming for shore up from the middle the worst of the step after couple generations next to china would mellow of it compiled a big chinese even the young cooked barbarians were the ones who were farther into the interior of the staff who had less direct contact with the chinese states and you were considered to be more barbaric and more dangerous the whole goal which was one of those new societies appeared was to coax them as soon as you could the mongols forms confederation you get an entire step society led by a group of in chinese terms on coke barbarians they were streaming dangers and the first to the chinese states to find this out firsthand as a place that i will miss pronounce the name of what is called a she shot it was one of three or feebly some historians for chinese states that warning system to this time it's a little bit confusing suffice it to say in the period which i'm a strong their borders encompass eight huge area the curious were the chinese dynasties are weaker those air we shrink and are ripped off sort of thirteen pieces leaving a certain center court it's still chinese with other areas belonging to dynasties that may be comprised of foreigners in this period it's a place called song in china in the south that is still truly chinese from top to bottom in the north the traditional area round manchuria bit even around modern day beijing syria is so vulnerable to attack by step nomads but it's often under their control and some history seven name i'm propose dynasties are called conquest dynasties and it it was like the great wall which is so famous are put up any serious because this is a completely vulnerable spot of china and many times of fallen under foreign domination in this period it under the domination of the people call the church and originally from manchuria and a group of stepan force nomads they house to the people call the teton we're almost mongol only mine called pro rome on call in the west there was another with chinese state called she shot now this was a sort of a boat is to tibet noon weaker chinese mix of a place but it was the weakest of the three current big chinese kingdoms this is where genghis khan decided to attack first for the first time in his life genghis khan is now going to be commanding his army against a very different kind of force or the armies of the civil societies he's been fighting for decades we've been fighting against all their past the world nomads of the step who fight with troops very similar would tactics very similar to his own genghis khan small army is not some brand new thing on the scene no matter how much we military frames of history like to pretend that it is it was maybe one generation better than the teton army which was one generation better than the army they came before they mean it was part of the normal evolution of step military tactics you kind of cheap then the real thing that made them on goals so effective if you blame it on having the superior army the main thing that made the mongols so great militarily was leadership and it starts off with genghis khan who was probably the greatest military strategist who ever lived remember tactics are battlefield command strategy is what happens on the larger level you know while you're maneuvering to get to the battlefield might be way to put it to be a great strategist by genghis khan was and to have a nomadic step army know as the mongols war and to work disposal is to put the perfect weapon into the hands of the manos and you see he's like a great source men and all the weapons you can hand in hand of the sword the mongol army was probably the most strategically mobile army until the invention of the internal combustion engine nothing moved like a stamp farming in the mongols were the best step for me whatever into the field first of all you never supply train most of the time every now and then they would but most of the time especially in this period when genghis khan was leading them mongols having no slowly twain of wagons and civilians and support you know elements to slow them down the entire army is mounted and moves of the speed of all wars each mongol soldier is self sufficient now oftentimes the army would drive herding animals waited years have usually mongol boys too young for battle in control of the flocks of sheep and other animals but to the army fed but even if the army didn't have these animals trailing along with it a full speed they need it the mongol society built around the horse as it was and that these horses at the mall gold for writing carry everything they needed to live now the mongols didn't just have a new on each count henri men had at least three ring mouse with him you have to imagine his army goes on campaigning picks up a lot of dust this is a big army were animals outnumber people to five six seven one but she could live off those animals because they were the same animals the mongols often lived off of when they were to recant months of all the horses were all female when you get malcolm mare's milk was a staple of the mongol diet they can even create their famous alcoholic beverage out of it they also had no problem at all i'm borrowing a little blood from their horses as needed on this isn't the usual stuff tactic the poor little slice in the horse's neck put a cop underneath the stream of blood that comes out mix that with milk or water and bring it on them and you're good to go the small goal armies could move so quickly at the saddle societies couldn't deal with them they would hear out of nowhere is a matter of fact a lot is truly believe that the reason that chroniclers in the civil society so we spot these mongol armies were huge is because they would see them everywhere and never think that it could be the same elements being seen over over over again just to really fast from one place to another they assumed it was another unit entirely by the teacher was that said the role of a good strategist is to win the battle before you're even arrives on the battlefield bitter superior maneuvering and whatnot the mongol army was built for maneuvering in genghis khan was the greatest rad just in my opinion who ever lived that's a marriage made in heaven or to happen to be what the chinese state c. repairing made in hell one other aspect of genghis khan's leadership nice to me mention though as well his ability to spot on their great leaders and to incorporate them into his forces and we touched on this little earlier good one no matter how great a leader genghis khan was a one man at the top of the pyramid the mongol army is still well lead every level because genghis khan makes it a point to grab any gifted people he sees and impressed and his forces he would find enemies one guy who turned out to be more his greatest generals all time was actually a person who supposedly shot his horse out the cons horse out from under him the way was brought to the colony admitted it which the secret history says genghis khan said most people would admit to that badger to the big if the general bulging disk on puts him in command of some of his forces this was the great jeb a known as the terror i'll just because of that incident with the horse no more genghis khan's generals are getting stupid die jedi assume that i'd probably both belong on the top ten greatest generals of all time list themselves so imagine if you yourself along on that list is genghis khan and out two maybe three of his honor wings belong on the list too but amazingly well led army and all through the ranks genghis khan was promoting people based on their ability to lead only as a departure from normal practice on the steps where one's relationships and alliances and family in all that so stop determined don't you are moving up through the ranks one can think of the system like the british system in the seventeen and eighteen hundreds where it or you could buy committed you would move up because of the reports of your parents or your family why not that was normal practice among step try to genghis khan turned this into the system of merit and the benefits we're all through the army's leadership and yet the equivalent of censure ranges are just out of the very low level he was training the next group of great commanders with his imperial guard and his generals were some of the best of government and there are parallels again i'm sorry to bring up alexander so often but these world conqueror sometimes have some intriguing similarities alexander the great was maybe the greatest tactical general ball popped up and yet around him was a corps general staff of people who were unbelievably gifted today have the remainder don't history is that the r. t. and these commanders were sold all got stubborn alexander died as a p. tender rage of thirty two or three three they split is empire robbed each one taking in nice giant hogan ruling that is canes guys with such a gus mean to start whole dynasties like ptolemy the ptolemaic dynasty tell me was one of alexander subcommander the salute the dynasty salute this was one of alexander's a good guys like antagonist senator sam mean it's a huge group of amazingly good commanders so often in history literary history buffs like yours truly become engrossed with the weapons and all armory formations and whatnot of these armies forgetting that these are just tools and weapons in the hands of men and sometimes you can win against the other guy was completely inferior weapons based on your ability to both use them plan for an outcome there's a mongol saying that sort of sums it up an army of donkey is led by a lion a defeated army of lions led by a donkey the importance of leadership cannot be overstated one genghis khan's army is for show up on the scene in this western chinese state the colony himself riots fromm gobi desert utilizing his most famous tactic which is a standard tactic amongst regionals nor is between direct approach what's happening in a friendly word they think you're gonna come from gold to great lengths to come from and direction he's not expecting this case the western shiny state run by people call the tango what's this she shop but that the gobi desert could not be crossed by armies human beings they would die and leave their skeletons somewhere in the vast wasteland genghis khan that not only it's through the gobi desert with his army just fine bar rhymes for my direction on expected against this chinese state ready to fight and the connoisseur rival from you know the gobi desert area was a sign of how serious this was gonna be for this western chinese state any dealt with mongols before in fact the mongols and read it into their territory in twelve oh five and twelve oh seven inch cuomo nine mongol for coming on his readers to steal when they were coming out a conqueror and this was different this was an existential threat you know before genghis khan as we said you get these nuisances raids which will kill people and take away slaves and burned towns to steal stuff but it doesn't threaten the integrity of the state genghis khan el is your conquered his western state incorporated that's a whole different thing that's exactly what the chinese foreign policy advisers were always worry would happen if all these tribes were consolidated and were single powerful leader in twelve on on the collar rise schmidt gobi desert ready to take down at the western shiny state if she shop some battles are fought between the different kinds of army to me now the mongols have to deal with discipline to chinese infantry in infantry blocks and it's a whole different kind of situation now it's no problem on the tactical battle field the problem comes when these chinese retreat to their cities i'm on goals at the same problem virtually every notches step nomad that every barbarian army anybody's ever run into hats they have a problem with walls and fortifications these chinese cities are all protected by defense is on the mongols really have very little ability to conducts sieges they will actually just don't want some of the city's losing lots more people than they used to in the process this war in western china but calms the testing ground for the mongols they get a chance to see on a much smaller scale what can be like if you decide to take on the other to be the chinese states because this is a smaller version of the same thing the mongols try their hand at siege warfare and fail miserably what they do is they take lots of prisoners from these territories and begin to do something that they will use drop their conquest they take the civilian population and they make them into cannon fodder in this case they have is a very dangerous idea to dam up the yellow river and then on leash the water onto why the city's appear besieging don't have siege weapons but they can use the river they don't want to get this damn buildings all because it's extraordinarily danger so they make all the civilians had been captured do it halfway through the process the dam bursts now it has a good and bad effect a bad effect is that the mongols get flooded all they're conducting the siege and you know the waters up to their horses shoulder for something and victor hardly can dock operations anymore they got some ideas that tells the people in western china that this is eventually losing battle we should give up now why you still k. the deal is reached where the state gets to continue to exist as western shiny state doesn't go away but they give the mongols incredible amount of stuff but perhaps more importantly in terms of the strategic vision of things genghis khan and solidified you're one of his flanks fine reducing his western chinese state to a form of battleship be eliminated the chance for it to stab him in the back of the took his armies elsewhere and it looked like he had upon to do just that in the year twelve ten he calls a conference of all this commanders brings them back to mongolia on tells everyone that they have to attend or else says quote want or were made in his own locality instead of coming to me to receive my instructions will have the fate of the stolen dropped in water he will simply disappear into court this meeting in the great khan telephoning he disbelief things like siege courthouse i need to build scaling ladders may need to each of them have their own little contingent of troops whose job it is too the besiege walls why would you wanna do that or because the great wall more off no money in gold everything you could ever won the world was sitting right over you know your body the oriented was sold ripe for conquest that it had already been conquered over and over again my armies similar to his own northern china now known as the gene dynasty and whose leader was called the golden cock but who's called golden con rather than the golan emperor because he really was a con playing the part of an emperor now the couple generations ago the city church in tribesmen who operated similar to mongols north of china in in the main surely an area they came down a generation so i'm going to feed it on another step people for even more like the mongols and the church and more people called touchdowns now the church and the cheat on and the native chinese we're all living precariously together in this northern shiny state the gene dynasty genghis had been receiving information in intelligence for years telling him that the gene were white for the taking that they had degenerated that your leadership had gone shopping is gone native which is what one always seem to happen to be step peoples they would take over the civil society in a generation to which we said earlier there were no longer producing or searchers and they had turned into all of this case they call it synthesized step now matt that didn't you know that jean dynasty china wasn't extremely formidable the gina just defeated the soul in a conflict us on the southern chinese basically proving that they're the top of these chinese states in terms of power modern historians estimate of the gene can put an army is six hundred thousand men into the field hundred and twenty thousand of which are about to be or starters that's more for starters in the gym or me the entire size of the entire mongol army at this point the gene had more than fifty million people in its territory is an unlimited resources i mean those six hundred thousand soldiers died in june could replace them instantly practically tom's of money tones of history in literacy in learning in mercantilism craftsman and everything else they were very intimidating because of that resources that they could bring to bear the mongols though porno slouches in the intimidation field either now they couldn't bring all these resources to bear they were scary because of that they were scary because they were scary whether this was a deliberate attempt a semester rinsing by genghis khan to create if ro ships sort of reputation so the u. intimidated others into you know bowing before you and giving up without even fighting and it worked in many cases many cities are thought to of surrender perhaps hold people's are thought to have surrendered simply based on the mongols hideous reputation their reputation not unlike for example the ancient syrians we story is also think may have done this deliberately his way to sort of in again and psychological engineer comment but when i'm on an old refining western china it quickly became apparent that if you surrender to the mongols right away sometimes even if he did you're in a kill every man woman and child in the city that didn't surrender and they did it in an interesting way chroniclers from oppose the mongols would suggest the mongols tortured people but historians don't think the mongols did torture people they think that they were absolutely clinical about the way that they killed people if you recall the secret history of the mongols talking about them disposing of the exact words of the one i'm in on the line and continue to exist in history such an interesting you just try certain trying to pump but basically the models had worked out almost mechanized wait to execute large population to people they headed down to a science they would literally do it in a short period of time that they would do we use in battle axes to cut people's heads off minnesota system work according to our were now mongol scholar j. j. saunders hope chavis was adapted psychological war for the most terrific kind he deliberately set out to create a reputation for for world is terror in the expectation and often realized afraid the whole nations into surrendering with our resistance there something indescribable a revolting he writes in the cold savagely with which the mongols carried out the massacres the inhabitants of the doomed town were obliged to assemble one applying outside the walls in each mongol trooper armed with a battle axe was told to kill so many people ten or twenty or fifty as proof that orders again barbara we obeyed the killers were sometimes required to cut off in your firm each victim collect the ears in sacks and bring them to their officers to be counted a few days after the massacre troops were sent back into the ruined city to search for any poor riches to might've been hiding in holzer sellers these were dragged out and slain some modern critics is suggested several reasons for this bloody policy that the nomad spirit in haiti walled cities on taking possession of them were seized with a kind of frenzy of destruction or that the killings were intended to prevent revolts in the rear at the mongol army passed on for the changes in his successors being convinced that they're divine mission to concord world treated resistance as an unforgivable crime against god in the car on what is more probable he writes the terror was erected into the system of government to sprayed feeling pen and a more lies they ran in these before shotgun and fired against them in the pool so the genie or intimidating because of their numbers of size resources the mongols were intimidating because they were bad asses and they deliberately spread word of this to potential friends and foes alike now it should be going out in their defense that the mongols really we are getting tougher on anybody that they ran into captured on the knee were on their own people all of the reasons the mongol army and if this goes back to leadership to this is a function of leadership of the reason come on go on to some credible on the battlefield it's extraordinary level of discipline among state troopers something many step armies are not known for this discipline was enforced with absolutely draconian sanctions the first information about how rigorous mongol discipline on the battlefield the money comes from something that might best be described as a european spy mission on the mongols the guy named john or giovanni of plano car pini you sent by the pope east to sew them go find the headquarters of these mongols he has no idea where this is you just to go in sort of don't ask people along where you'll get your information descend into the next on the map we just keep going hastily runs into a big tent son very auspicious footing mongols but in the twelve forties which is a generation of the genghis khan the pope said his guide to the mongol column is an envoy any supposedly secretly supposed to spy on mongol military capabilities and whatnot because by this time the mongols our economic and there was an europeans militarily significant way to the word totally unknown would know whatever you know gone is seen an always been the other way around seoul john replied no carping he writes this piece for the pope that has since made in the history is either the first or one of the first accounts ever given by european about what it's like on the step with the mongols he talks about what the sanctions are first growing up in the mongol army virtually says that he just finished talking about mongol organization by the way it which is decimal which is almost uppermost midst of peoples were sometimes the mongols be printed with adrian as they've been vetted ten troopers were one unit hundred troopers were another unit a thousand trooper shorn of the unit so doctor no kirby just tell you that many follows up with us call it when they're in battle if one or two or three or even more out of a group of ten run away at all are put to death and the whole group of ten please the rest of the group of a hundred raul put to death to be not free to no word unless they retreat in a body also take flight are put to death ike why is it one or two or more go forward boldly to the fight then the rest of the tenor put to death if they do not follow and it if one or more of the tenor captured their companions are put to death if they do not rescue them pinnacle now as i said this is a function of leadership here these are the leaders meeting shoe were that the troops are held accountable the beer praised him for molded when they do well but that system of merit the column introduced but also the screw ups are absolutely not permit it the real possibility of you being a mongol trooper you getting your head cut off not only kept your mind on your work but also made sure that boldness was rewarded support on the battlefield and acting in one year old initiative not supporting your your fellow union members that was punishable by death and i just death for you get forever but you'll get the whole unit killed if you screw up that's all level of control and discipline that almost no other or me during this time period possessed and it provided an enormous advantage on the battlefield the story about things coming to head between the mongols and jian china's supposedly happens when a new emperor comes to the throne in northern china in his envoy goes to genghis khan to get him to kowtow before the new emperor now the genghis khan is dealing with the supremely maybe the most literate society in the world to begin to see his name in the chinese records in this case the scores from records were done later or by people who certainly would've had access to contemporary accounts and they described the incident touches off this conflict this way court the g. in emperor sent the principal or a eulogy enter received attributed gene is owl emperor meaning genghis khan received the prince but declined to offer the full ritual ceremony inbreeding there upon the yau yu ji return to the court and saw troops in order to attacking his car on the emperor jowls all he died at this time it was succeeded as jeanne emperor by u. n. g. hussein news of his ascension to genghis khan by handed an ambassador to rome jeong issued a couch out on accepting the message one genghis learn the identity of the new gene emperor he made offensive remarks about him aced the south spat mounted his horse and rode off to the north in equal now remember this new importing shiner was someone who the carnage met he was the same meal and he would been sent by the last emperor to negotiate with genghis khan to begin with the car apparently took the measure of the man was not impressed to say the least now but kabul oath rationales are used by the collar and to justify this war on one hand he turns it into a war of vengeance tell them on goals that pasture millie asians by the church in on their people you were inexcusable cited couple of relatives of his father and grandfather that they were i didn't directly responsible for having killed and says that it's time to avenge their blood in addition several sources say that he had a communion with god the mongols war at least jenkins was some hampshire monastic might be a good way to talk about worshipping at the gods of the step in the open sky for example some of the more christian than restoring christians or buddhists by dom the great khan either went to a mountaintop a corner one source ring to it tend to stay for four days explaining we know to the god or gods in and he was in the fall for this he had asked for it just was brought on hammock and then after four days what the sources say emerges from his tent and tells us people called heaven as promised me victory now we must prepare ourselves to take vengeance on the alcantara on in court so as far as genghis khan's motivations for doing what he's doing you can take you back maybe we lee was vengeance as he suggested one for two cases we shouldn't underestimate the blood feud aspect to it was common in tribal cultures the mongols are far from the only people who felt that way to that might even more important than the modern people in different culture a suspect it might've been religious in nature no way you're on the mongols history based on genghis khan's be used to get very religious heaven is going to promise the mongols world conquest maybe it starts now maybe the emergence from this tender coming down off the mahmud moses like bombed is the beginning of this divine mission were guy says go conquer the world injuring dozens i'm just following water they could be for the obvious reason looped booty stop mani slaves the sudden motivations first at people's from time immemorial why should it be needed for now in fact some historians suggest that this confederation is newly formed confederation genghis khan's would break up if they weren't on continually reinforced with stop the one motivation you can describe the big genghis khan very easily based on the evidence is any sort positive the laudable reason for doing this some are historians us this morning so far pendulum white to the others on the coin that they brush off you know what what the cost of genghis khan's inadvertent byproduct achievements were alexander was entranced bread allen is in months the shooting an arrow and enables iran after which genghis khan wasn't fighting with northern shine up free high minded reasons we recognize is beneficial to bank maybe the mongolian people would see this beneficial 'cause one of his reasons might've been to make his people better off well we don't ascribe good motivations to other world conquerors it their goal was to make their own people better off hitler's conquests in europe are not okay 'cause he was trying to make germany better off although maybe some germans might think so i think to be a very small crowd but this war that the khan is about to get into which in china will most certainly cost more human lives than any war until the twentieth century certainly if you add up the war which angina followed by the war with sony shotgun blast to china's left there's no question about it nobody knows by the way from the people died in the conflict it's about to happen they did the senses before the cons invasion and they did the senses afterwards and tens of millions of people are just gone now some of these people laughed there's no question about that the question is how many you didn't most of the people they just disappeared the guinness book of world records used to say the fifty million people were killed on the war surgeon has come and nobody knows how many people died at this point on the step step populations are that he this is war with the most populous nation states in the world and the people millions of them are going to suffer the fate genghis khan predicted for anyone who didn't accept his invitation to the import mongol meeting they're gonna suffer the fate of the stone dropped in water they are simply to disappear whoa audible is the enormous we'll provider spoken on you entertainment night you know what that means right it's everything from audio books to spoken word magazine articles to clip from old radio programs in interviews and speeches in well i wisconsin new category where bright or will find new offerings for you they come to you in and download all digital form right in on in years the stuff into which ran petri queried computer you listen to moneyweek a list of them petri basically one hundred thousand titles to choose from and told every shot or you can think of all couples got that covered i have our recommendation for you david if you like the ghost of the austrian part series we did aw especially episode that was the end with a goner dahmer on the readings coming down the berlin you will love if you haven't already read or heard the last battle classic history of the battle for berlin by cornelius ryan now he really is the classic history least you're in the west of the battle of berlin because you'd be hard to improve upon at least in my opinion ryan has the ability in this book to capture the mood in the mood is like and execution by guillotine happening to the city of berlin but the blade is falling in slow motion any captures the sort of tension you find yourself tents in reading the book which is exactly how you should feel if you want to nice of connection the way the people the bulk of feeling i should also add the audio book version i consider to be actually better than the book because the narrator a guy named simon fancy is wonderful winnie catchers that saves a movie that the author does and together they so that amplify it gets really well done version of the book go on alone a copy of the lost about all the classic history the battle for berlin if you like that sort of stuff of course if you listen or korea street i can only assume that you do go to our ballpark estimate come forward slash hardcore history for your free on the above them and in the next episode the series genghis khan is about to introduce his brand-new travel confederacy to bon jovi major world societies that have no idea even exists he will not be a pleasant introduction as the historical arsonist that is genghis khan and to use his effort to creative destruction is a mystery to look at it he will not just burn at the chinese empire is down that he's currently attacking but he will start fires that spread as far away as places like russia in europe anatolian golf some middle eastern societies and burn them beyond recognition the next dozen years of human history be some of the most tumultuous ever experienced by people on the regime continent it's a fate that almost certainly would not have happened dad child born supposedly with the blood clot the size of a knuckle ball on it not been born with the world look like without genghis khan depends on which his story and you can sold one thing's for sure there are a lot of people who didn't make it out of his time period would like to change to find out the mongols conqueror much of the world in the next edition of the wrath of khan and whew if you then to show you this sir is worth a dollar can better would let it happen about the shelf it's all we ask the shop online amazon dot com he you consider doing so through the amazon search window condom condom calm your shopping experience will be the same as always the amazon mcginty and then a little kid back for sending in their goddamn carlin that calm for information on how to donate to the shelf don't forget you can buy yen instantly download past episodes of classic hardcore history 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